RЎRїRµS†RїSЂRѕRµRyeS‚
R“RѕR»RѕRyeRѕSЃS‚

R‘SЂR°S‚Rё RЁRµRїS‚RёS†SЊRyeS– S– S”RISЂRµR№SЃSЊRyeRёR№ RЅR°SЂRѕRg. R§R°SЃS‚RёRЅR° R†R†

RћRgRЅRёRј S–R· RIR°RiRѕRјRёS… RµRїS–R·RѕRgS–RI Sѓ R¶RёS‚S‚S”RїRёSЃS– RњRёS‚SЂRѕRїRѕR»RёS‚R° RђRЅRgSЂRµSЏ RЁRµRїS‚RёS†SЊRyeRѕRiRѕ, SЏRye S– RI R¶RёS‚S‚S”RїRёSЃS– R№RѕRiRѕ RјRѕR»RѕRgS€RѕRiRѕ R±SЂR°S‚R° R±R». SЃRIS‰RјS‡. RљR»RёRјRµRЅS‚S–SЏ vЂ” RџSЂR°RIRµRgRЅRёRyeR° RќR°SЂRѕRgS–RI RЎRIS–S‚Sѓ, S” S—S…RЅSЏ SѓS‡R°SЃS‚SЊ Sѓ RїRѕSЂSЏS‚SѓRЅRyeSѓ RiR°R»RёS†SЊRyeRёS… S”RISЂRµS—RI Sѓ S‡R°SЃRё R“RѕR»RѕRyeRѕSЃS‚Sѓ. R‘S–R»SЊS€S–SЃS‚SЊ S–RЅS„RѕSЂRјR°S†S–S— S‡RµSЂRїR°S”RјRѕ R·S– SЃRїRѕRiR°RgS–RI RѕS‡RµRIRёRgS†S–RI, RџRѕSЂSЏS‚SѓRЅRѕRye S”RISЂRµS—RI vЂ” SЃRїS–R»SЊRЅR° SЃRїSЂR°RIR° R±SЂR°S‚S–RI, SЏRye S– RgS–SЏR»SЊRЅS–SЃS‚SЊ, SЃRїSЂSЏRјRѕRIR°RЅR° RЅR° RїRѕRiR°S€RµRЅRЅSЏ R°RЅS‚RёSЃRµRјS–S‚SЃSЊRyeRёS… RЅR°SЃS‚SЂRѕS—RI Sѓ S‚RѕRgS–S€RЅSЊRѕRјSѓ SЃSѓSЃRїS–R»SЊSЃS‚RIS–, S…RѕS‡R° R±S–R»SЊS€S–SЃS‚SЊ RgRѕRyeSѓRјRµRЅS‚S–RI RїS–RgRїRёSЃR°RЅR° SЃR°RјRёRј RњRёS‚SЂRѕRїRѕR»RёS‚RѕRј. RџR°SЂR°RgRѕRyeSЃ Sѓ S‚RѕRјSѓ, S‰Rѕ Rѕ. RљR»RёRјRµRЅS‚S–R№ RЁRµRїS‚RёS†SЊRyeRёR№ R±SѓRI RIRёR·RЅR°RЅRёR№ V«RџSЂR°RIRµRgRЅRёRyeRѕRј RЅR°SЂRѕRgS–RI SЃRIS–S‚SѓV» R·R° RїRѕSЂSЏS‚SѓRЅRѕRye S”RISЂRµS—RI Sѓ S‡R°SЃRё R“RѕR»RѕRyeRѕSЃS‚Sѓ, RЅR°S‚RѕRјS–SЃS‚SЊ R·R°SЃR»SѓRiR°Rј RњRёS‚SЂRѕRїRѕR»RёS‚R° RђRЅRgSЂRµSЏ Sѓ S‚R°RyeRѕRјSѓ RIRёR·RЅR°RЅRЅS– R±SѓR»Rѕ RIS–RgRјRѕRIR»RµRЅRѕ.

R‘SЂR°S‚Rё RЁRµRїS‚RёS†SЊRyeS– S– S”RISЂRµR№SЃSЊRyeRёR№ RЅR°SЂRѕRg. R§R°SЃS‚RёRЅR° R†

RћRgRЅRёRј S–R· RIR°RiRѕRјRёS… RµRїS–R·RѕRgS–RI Sѓ R¶RёS‚S‚S”RїRёSЃS– RњRёS‚SЂRѕRїRѕR»RёS‚R° RђRЅRgSЂRµSЏ RЁRµRїS‚RёS†SЊRyeRѕRiRѕ, SЏRye S– RI R¶RёS‚S‚S”RїRёSЃS– R№RѕRiRѕ RјRѕR»RѕRgS€RѕRiRѕ R±SЂR°S‚R° R±R». SЃRIS‰RјS‡. RљR»RёRјRµRЅS‚S–SЏ vЂ” RџSЂR°RIRµRgRЅRёRyeR° RќR°SЂRѕRgS–RI RЎRIS–S‚Sѓ, S” S—S…RЅSЏ SѓS‡R°SЃS‚SЊ Sѓ RїRѕSЂSЏS‚SѓRЅRyeSѓ RiR°R»RёS†SЊRyeRёS… S”RISЂRµS—RI Sѓ S‡R°SЃRё R“RѕR»RѕRyeRѕSЃS‚Sѓ. R‘S–R»SЊS€S–SЃS‚SЊ S–RЅS„RѕSЂRјR°S†S–S— S‡RµSЂRїR°S”RјRѕ R·S– SЃRїRѕRiR°RgS–RI RѕS‡RµRIRёRgS†S–RI, RџRѕSЂSЏS‚SѓRЅRѕRye S”RISЂRµS—RI vЂ” SЃRїS–R»SЊRЅR° SЃRїSЂR°RIR° R±SЂR°S‚S–RI, SЏRye S– RgS–SЏR»SЊRЅS–SЃS‚SЊ, SЃRїSЂSЏRјRѕRIR°RЅR° RЅR° RїRѕRiR°S€RµRЅRЅSЏ R°RЅS‚RёSЃRµRјS–S‚SЃSЊRyeRёS… RЅR°SЃS‚SЂRѕS—RI Sѓ S‚RѕRgS–S€RЅSЊRѕRјSѓ SЃSѓSЃRїS–R»SЊSЃS‚RIS–, S…RѕS‡R° R±S–R»SЊS€S–SЃS‚SЊ RgRѕRyeSѓRјRµRЅS‚S–RI RїS–RgRїRёSЃR°RЅR° SЃR°RјRёRј RњRёS‚SЂRѕRїRѕR»RёS‚RѕRј. RџR°SЂR°RgRѕRyeSЃ Sѓ S‚RѕRјSѓ, S‰Rѕ Rѕ. RљR»RёRјRµRЅS‚S–R№ RЁRµRїS‚RёS†SЊRyeRёR№ R±SѓRI RIRёR·RЅR°RЅRёR№ V«RџSЂR°RIRµRgRЅRёRyeRѕRј RЅR°SЂRѕRgS–RI SЃRIS–S‚SѓV» R·R° RїRѕSЂSЏS‚SѓRЅRѕRye S”RISЂRµS—RI Sѓ S‡R°SЃRё R“RѕR»RѕRyeRѕSЃS‚Sѓ, RЅR°S‚RѕRјS–SЃS‚SЊ R·R°SЃR»SѓRiR°Rј RњRёS‚SЂRѕRїRѕR»RёS‚R° RђRЅRgSЂRµSЏ Sѓ S‚R°RyeRѕRјSѓ RIRёR·RЅR°RЅRЅS– R±SѓR»Rѕ RIS–RgRјRѕRIR»RµRЅRѕ.

RњRµS‚SЂRѕ vЂњR”RѕSЂRѕRiRѕR¶RёS‡S–vЂќ S‡Rё vЂњR‘R°R±RёRЅ RЇSЂvЂќ: S–RЅS‚RµR»RµRyeS‚SѓR°R»Rё RїSЂRѕ S–RgRµSЋ RїRµSЂRµR№RјRµRЅSѓRIR°RЅRЅSЏ SЃS‚R°RЅS†S–S—

RЈ R·RIvЂ™SЏR·RyeSѓ R· R°RyeS‚RёRIRЅRёRј RiSЂRѕRјR°RgSЃSЊRyeRёRј RѕR±RiRѕRIRѕSЂRµRЅRЅSЏRј S–RЅS–S†S–R°S‚RёRIRё S‰RѕRgRѕ RїRµSЂRµR№RјRµRЅSѓRIR°RЅRЅSЏ SЃS‚R°RЅS†S–S— vЂњR”RѕSЂRѕRiRѕR¶RёS‡S–vЂќ RљRёS—RISЃSЊRyeRѕRiRѕ RјRµS‚SЂRѕRїRѕR»S–S‚RµRЅSѓ RЅR° vЂњR‘R°R±RёRЅ RЇSЂvЂќ SЃRїS–RISЂRѕR±S–S‚RЅRёRyeRё R¦RµRЅS‚SЂSѓ RgRѕSЃR»S–RgR¶RµRЅSЊ S–SЃS‚RѕSЂS–S— S‚R° RyeSѓR»SЊS‚SѓSЂRё SЃS…S–RgRЅRѕS”RISЂRѕRїRµR№SЃSЊRyeRѕRiRѕ S”RISЂRµR№SЃS‚RIR° R·RIRµSЂRЅSѓR»RёSЃSЏ RgRѕ R°RIS‚RѕSЂRёS‚RµS‚RЅRёS… SѓRyeSЂR°S—RЅSЃSЊRyeRёS… RјRёS‚S†S–RI, S–SЃS‚RѕSЂRёRyeS–RI, R¶SѓSЂRЅR°R»S–SЃS‚S–RI S‚R° RiSЂRѕRјR°RgSЃSЊRyeRёS… RgS–SЏS‡S–RI S–R· RїSЂRѕS…R°RЅRЅSЏRј RIRёSЃR»RѕRIRёS‚Rё SЃRIRѕS” SЃS‚R°RIR»RµRЅRЅSЏ RgRѕ S†S–S”S— S–RgRµS—.
R’S–RgRµRѕ

1941-44: R•RyeSЃRyeSѓSЂSЃS–SЏ RIRёSЃS‚R°RIRyeRѕSЋ "R“RѕR»RѕRyeRѕSЃS‚ RIS–Rg RyeSѓR»SЊ"

RњS–SЃS†SЏ (RЅRµ)RїR°RјvЂ™SЏS‚S– RїSЂRѕ SЂRѕR·SЃS‚SЂS–R»SЏRЅRёS… S”RISЂRµS—RI R‘RµSЂRµSЃS‚RµS‡RyeR°

V«RќR°RјRё SЂRѕR·S‡RёRЅSЏS‚SЊ, R° RIR°RјRё R·R°RјS–SЃSЏS‚SЊV», vЂ“ RїSЂRѕRјRѕRIRёRI SЃS‚R°SЂRёR№ S”RISЂRµR№ RЅRµRIS–RgRѕRјRѕ RgRѕ RyeRѕRiRѕ, RyeSЂRѕRyeSѓSЋS‡Rё SЂR°R·RѕRј R· S–RЅS€RёRјRё R±RµSЂRµSЃS‚SЋRyeR°RјRё SЋRgRµR№SЃSЊRyeRѕS— RIS–SЂRё RgRѕ T‘RµS‚S‚Rѕ RїRѕRIR· S…R°S‚Sѓ RЅR° RјS–SЃSЊRyeRѕRјSѓ SЂRѕR·RgRѕSЂS–R¶R¶S–.

R®SЂS–R№ R SѓRgRЅRёS†SЊRyeRёR№: R“RѕR»RѕRyeRѕSЃS‚ S– RјS–RЅRgRѕR±SЂRёRIR°. vЂњR–RёRIRёR№ S‰RёS‚vЂќ R· S€RµSЃS‚Rё RјS–R»SЊR№RѕRЅS–RI RјRµSЂS‚RIRёS…

RњRµRјRѕSЂS–R°R» R“RѕR»RѕRyeRѕSЃS‚Sѓ vЂњRЇRg-R’R°S€RµRј" SЃRѕSЂRѕRјSЏR·R»RёRIRѕ RIRёR±R°S‡R°RISЃSЏ R·R° SЃRIRѕS— R·R°RiSЂR°RIR°RЅRЅSЏ R· R’RѕR»RѕRgRёRјRёSЂRѕRј RџSѓS‚S–RЅRёRј. R™RѕRiRѕ RyeRµSЂS–RIRЅRёRyeRё R·SЂRѕR·SѓRјS–R»Rё, S‰Rѕ SЂRµRїSѓS‚R°S†S–SЏ SѓSЃS‚R°RЅRѕRIRё, S‰Rѕ RїRѕRyeR»RёRyeR°RЅR° R·R±RµSЂS–RiR°S‚Rё RїR°RјvЂ™SЏS‚SЊ RїSЂRѕ S€S–SЃS‚SЊ RјS–R»SЊR№RѕRЅS–RI R¶RµSЂS‚RI RЅR°S†RёSЃS‚SЃSЊRyeRёS… R·R»RѕS‡RёRЅS–RI, RIRёRiR»SЏRgR°S” RїS–RgRјRѕS‡RµRЅRѕSЋ.

R†RIR°RЅ RњR°S‚RyeRѕRISЃSЊRyeRёR№: RЇRye RјRёS‚SЂRѕRїRѕR»RёS‚ RЁRµRїS‚RёS†SЊRyeRёR№ RЅRµ RIS–S‚R°RI RIRѕR¶RgSЏ RЅS–RјRµS†SЊRyeRѕRiRѕ RЅR°SЂRѕRgSѓ Sѓ 1941-RјSѓ

R’ RyeRѕRЅS‚RµRyeSЃS‚S– RgRёSЃRyeSѓSЃS–R№ SЏRyeS– RIRµRgSѓS‚SЊSЃSЏ RЅRёRЅS– RI RЈRyeSЂR°S—RЅS– RЅR°RIRyeRѕR»Rѕ RїRѕSЃS‚R°S‚S– RњRёS‚SЂRѕRїRѕR»RёS‚R° RђRЅRgSЂRµSЏ RЁRµRїS‚RёS†SЊRyeRѕRiRѕ, RїSѓR±R»S–RyeSѓSЋ SЂSѓRyeRѕRїRёSЃ R·RIRµSЂRЅRµRЅRЅSЏ RgRѕ SѓRyeSЂR°S—RЅS†S–RI, RїS–RgRїRёSЃR°RЅRµ RЅRёRј RЅR° RїRѕS‡R°S‚RyeSѓ R»RёRїRЅSЏ 1941 SЂRѕRyeSѓ RїS–SЃR»SЏ R·R°R№RЅSЏS‚S‚SЏ R›SЊRIRѕRIR° RЅS–RјRµS†SЊRyeRѕSЋ R°SЂRјS–S”SЋ.

RњR°SЂRiR°SЂRёS‚R° RЇRyeRѕRIR»S”RIR° (RћSЂRјRѕS†R°RgR·Rµ): R„RISЂRµR№SЃSЊRyeRѕ-SѓRyeSЂR°S—RЅSЃSЊRyeRµ RїRёS‚R°RЅRЅSЏ: RџSЂR°RIRµRgRЅRёRyeRё RЅR°SЂRѕRgS–RI RЎRIS–S‚Sѓ

RЇRye SѓRyeSЂR°S—RЅSЃSЊRyeS– RgS–S‚Rё S‚R° RїS–RgR»S–S‚RyeRё SЂSЏS‚SѓRIR°R»Rё S”RISЂRµS—RI Sѓ RЅR°R№SЃS‚SЂR°S€RЅS–S€S– SЂRѕRyeRё.

R™RѕSЃRёS„ R—S–SЃRµR»SЊSЃ: R©Rѕ RIS–RgR±SѓRIR°S”S‚SЊSЃSЏ RgRѕRIRyeRѕR»R° R‘R°R±RёRЅRѕRiRѕ RЇSЂSѓ SЃSЊRѕRiRѕRgRЅS–?

RњR°R№R¶Rµ RgRIR° SЂRѕRyeRё RјRёRЅSѓR»Rѕ RIS–RgS‚RѕRgS–, SЏRye RЈRyeSЂR°S—RЅR°, SЏRye RgRµSЂR¶R°RIR° S– RiSЂRѕRјR°RgSЏRЅSЃSЊRyeRµ SЃSѓSЃRїS–R»SЊSЃS‚RIRѕ, RIS–RgR·RЅR°S‡RёR»R° S‚SЂR°SѓSЂRЅSѓ RgR°S‚Sѓ vЂ“ 75 SЂRѕRyeS–RI S–R· RgRЅSЏ RїRѕS‡R°S‚RyeSѓ S‚SЂR°RiRµRgS–S— R‘R°R±RёRЅRѕRiRѕ RЇSЂSѓ. RЇRyeRѕSЋ RјRё R±R°S‡RёRјRѕ SЃRёS‚SѓR°S†S–SЋ S‡RµSЂRµR· RgRIR° SЂRѕRyeRё? RЈ SЃRїSЂR°RIS– SѓRIS–S‡RЅRµRЅRЅSЏ RїR°RјSЏS‚S– R¶RµSЂS‚RI R‘R°R±RёRЅRѕRiRѕ RЇSЂSѓ RIRёRgS–R»RёR»RѕSЃSЏ S‚SЂRё RѕSЃRЅRѕRIRЅRёS… RїSЂRѕRµRyeS‚Rё.

RџSЂRѕ S‰Rѕ SЂRѕR·RїRѕRIS–RgR°S‚RёRјRµ RњRµRјRѕSЂS–R°R»SЊRЅRёR№ S†RµRЅS‚SЂ R“RѕR»RѕRyeRѕSЃS‚Sѓ V«R‘R°R±RёRЅ RЇSЂV»?

R’S–Rg S‡R°SЃS–RI R“RѕR»RѕRyeRѕSЃS‚Sѓ RI SѓSЃSЊRѕRјSѓ SЃRIS–S‚S– R»SѓRЅR°SЋS‚SЊ RїRѕR»S–S‚RёS‡RЅS– S‚R° RјRѕSЂR°R»SЊRЅS– SЃSѓRјRЅS–RIRё S‰RѕRgRѕ R№RѕRiRѕ RјRµRјRѕSЂS–R°R»S–R·R°S†S–S—. R‘R°RiR°S‚Rѕ RїRѕR»S–S‚RёS‡RЅRёS…, RiSЂRѕRјR°RgSЃSЊRyeRёS… S‚R° SЂRµR»S–RiS–R№RЅRёS… R»S–RgRµSЂS–RI R·R°SЏRIR»SЏR»Rё, S‰Rѕ R“RѕR»RѕRyeRѕSЃS‚ RїRѕS‚SЂRµR±SѓS” RIRёRIS‡RµRЅRЅSЏ S‚R° RIS€R°RЅSѓRIR°RЅRЅSЏ RїR°RјvЂ™SЏS‚S– R¶RµSЂS‚RI, R°R»Rµ RЅRµ S‚R°Rye S–RЅS‚RµRЅSЃRёRIRЅRѕ S– RјR°SЃS€S‚R°R±RЅRѕ.

RЈRyeSЂR°S—RЅR°, R„RISЂRѕRїR° S– RїR°RјvЂ™SЏS‚SЊ RїSЂRѕ R“RѕR»RѕRyeRѕSЃS‚

R†RgRµS‚SЊSЃSЏ RЅRµ S‚S–R»SЊRyeRё RїSЂRѕ RIS–RgRЅRѕRIR»RµRЅRЅSЏ S‡RµSЃS‚S– RЈRyeSЂR°S—RЅRё RїRµSЂRµRg R»RёS†RµRј SЂRѕSЃS–R№SЃSЊRyeRѕRiRѕ RїR°RїR»SЋR¶RµRЅRЅSЏ. RЈRyeSЂR°S—RЅSЃSЊRyeR° RїRѕR»S–S‚RёRyeR° R„RЎ S‚R° S–SЃS‚RѕSЂRёS‡RЅR° SЃRIS–RgRѕRјS–SЃS‚SЊ R„RISЂRѕRїRё RјR°SЋS‚SЊ RЅRµ RјRµRЅS€Sѓ RїRѕS‚SЂRµR±Sѓ RI R·vЂ™SЏSЃSѓRIR°RЅRЅS– RїSЂR°RIRgRё RїSЂRѕ R“RѕR»RѕRyeRѕSЃS‚ RI RЈRyeSЂR°S—RЅS–, RЅS–R¶ SЃR°RјS– SѓRyeSЂR°S—RЅS†S–.

R‘R°R±RёRЅ RЇSЂ. R”RѕSЂRѕRiR° SЃRјRµSЂS‚S–

RќR°R·SѓSЃS‚SЂS–S‡ R±S–RiR»Rё SЏRyeS–SЃSЊ R»SЋRgRё: "RЁRIRёRgS€Rµ! RЁRIRёRgS€Rµ! R•S€RµR»RѕRЅRё S‡RµRyeR°SЋS‚SЊ!" RџRѕS‚S–Rј RїRѕRIR· RЅR°S‚RѕRIRї RїSЂRѕS—S…R°R»Rё RIR°RЅS‚R°R¶S–RIRyeRё. R’R°RЅS‚R°R¶S–RIRyeRё R±SѓR»Rё RЅR°RїRѕRIRЅRµRЅS– SЏRyeRёRјRёSЃSЊ SЂRµS‡R°RјRё. RќR° SЂRµS‡R°S… SЃRёRgS–R»Rё RЅS–RјS†S–, RiSЂR°R»Rё RЅR° RiSѓR±RЅRёS… RiR°SЂRјRѕS€RyeR°S…, RIRµSЃRµR»Rѕ SЂRµRiRѕS‚R°R»Rё. "R¦Rµ RЅR°SЃ RgRµS‰Rѕ R·R°SЃRїRѕRyeRѕS—R»Rѕ: S…S–R±R° RјRѕR¶RЅR° S‚R°Rye SЂRµRiRѕS‚R°S‚Rё, RyeRѕR»Rё S‚R°Rј RIR±RёRIR°SЋS‚SЊ R»SЋRgRµR№?"

RџSЂRѕ SЏRyeRёR№ V«R°RЅS‚RёSЃRµRјS–S‚RёR·RјV» RїRёS€SѓS‚SЊ RyeRѕRЅRiSЂRµSЃRјRµRЅRё RЎRЁRђ? R—R°SЏRIR° R’R°R°Rg RЈRyeSЂR°S—RЅRё

23 RyeRIS–S‚RЅSЏ RiSЂSѓRїR° RyeRѕRЅRiSЂRµSЃRјRµRЅS–RI, SЃRµSЂRµRg SЏRyeRёS… RїSЂRµRgSЃS‚R°RIRЅRёRyeRё RѕR±RѕS… RїSЂRѕRIS–RgRЅRёS… RїR°SЂS‚S–R№, R·RIRµSЂRЅSѓR»RёSЃSЏ RgRѕ R”RµSЂR¶RgRµRїR°SЂS‚R°RјRµRЅS‚Sѓ RЎRЁRђ R· RїSЂRѕS…R°RЅRЅSЏRј RїSЂRѕ RgRёRїR»RѕRјR°S‚RёS‡RЅRёR№ S‚RёSЃRye RЅR° RЈRyeSЂR°S—RЅSѓ S‚R° RџRѕR»SЊS‰Sѓ S‡RµSЂRµR· V«S„S–RЅR°RЅSЃRѕRIR°RЅRёR№ RgRµSЂR¶R°RIRѕSЋV» R°RЅS‚RёSЃRµRјS–S‚RёR·Rј.
RџSЂRѕ RїSЂRѕRµRyeS‚

R”RµS‚R°R»SЊRЅS–S€Rµ RїSЂRѕ RїSЂRѕRµRyeS‚R—RiRѕSЂRЅSѓS‚Rё