R”S–R°SЃRїRѕSЂR° RI RЎRЁRђ RїRµSЂRµRgR°R»R° RЈRyeSЂR°S—RЅS– RyeR°SЂS‚RёRЅSѓ, RїSЂRёSЃRISЏS‡RµRЅSѓ R¶RµSЂS‚RIR°Rј R“RѕR»RѕRgRѕRјRѕSЂSѓ. R¤RћRўRћ

RЈRyeSЂR°S—RЅSЃSЊRyeR° RIS–R»SЊRЅR° R°RyeR°RgRµRјS–SЏ RЅR°SѓRye Sѓ RЎRЁRђ RїRµSЂRµRgR°R»R° RЈRyeSЂR°S—RЅS– RyeR°SЂS‚RёRЅSѓ S…SѓRgRѕR¶RЅRёRyeR° R’S–RyeS‚RѕSЂR° R¦RёRјR±R°R»R° V«R S–Rye 1933V».

RЎRЁRђ SѓSЂRѕS‡RёSЃS‚Rѕ RїRѕRIRµSЂRЅSѓR»Rё RЈRyeSЂR°S—RЅS– RyeR°SЂS‚RёRЅSѓ, RIRёRyeSЂR°RgRµRЅSѓ RЅR°S†RёSЃS‚R°RјRё RїS–Rg S‡R°SЃ R”SЂSѓRiRѕS— SЃRIS–S‚RѕRIRѕS—. R¤RћRўRћ

R¤R‘R  RЎRЁRђ RїRµSЂRµRgR°R»Rѕ RЈRyeSЂR°S—RЅS– RyeR°SЂS‚RёRЅSѓ S…SѓRgRѕR¶RЅRёRyeR° RџvЂ™S”SЂR° R›SѓS— R“SѓRgSЂRѕ V«R—R°RyeRѕS…R°RЅR° RїR°SЂR°V», SЏRyeR° RїS–Rg S‡R°SЃ R”SЂSѓRiRѕS— SЃRIS–S‚RѕRIRѕS— RIS–R№RЅRё R±SѓR»R° RIRёRyeSЂR°RgRµRЅR° RЅR°S†RёSЃS‚R°RјRё R· RљRёS—RISЃSЊRyeRѕRiRѕ RЅR°S†S–RѕRЅR°R»SЊRЅRѕRiRѕ RјSѓR·RµSЋ RGR°RЅRµRЅRyeS–RI S‚R° R·RiRѕRgRѕRј RѕRїRёRЅRёR»R°SЃSЏ R·R° RѕRyeRµR°RЅRѕRј.

R‘SѓSЂSЏRyeRѕRIRёR№ SЃSѓRї S‚R° RїRёSЂS–Ri R· RјSЏSЃR° vЂ“ RIS‡RµRЅS– SЂRѕR·S€RёS„SЂSѓRIR°R»Rё RyeSѓR»S–RЅR°SЂRЅS– SЂRµS†RµRїS‚Rё R· RyeR»RёRЅRѕRїRёSЃRЅRёS… S‚R°R±R»RёS‡RѕRye

R’R°RIRёR»RѕRЅSЃSЊRyeRёRј SЂRµS†RµRїS‚R°Rј RїRѕRЅR°Rg 3800 SЂRѕRyeS–RI. RЎSѓS‡R°SЃRЅS– RyeSѓS…R°SЂS– RЅS–SЏRye RЅRµ RјRѕR¶SѓS‚SЊ SЂRѕR·RyeSЂRёS‚Rё SЃRµRyeSЂRµS‚ RїSЂRёRiRѕS‚SѓRIR°RЅRЅSЏ SЃS‚SЂR°RI, SЏRyeS– RyeRѕSЂRёSЃS‚SѓRIR°R»RёSЃSЏ SѓSЃRїS–S…RѕRј Sѓ R¶RёS‚RµR»S–RI SЃS‚R°SЂRѕRgR°RIRЅSЊRѕRiRѕ R’R°RIRёR»RѕRЅR°. R† S†Rµ RїSЂRё S‚RѕRјSѓ, S‰Rѕ RISЃS– S–RЅRiSЂRµRgS–S”RЅS‚Rё S—Rј RIS–RgRѕRјS–.

RЈRyeSЂR°S—RЅSЃSЊRyeRёR№ S–SЃS‚RѕSЂRёRye Sѓ RџRѕR»SЊS‰S– RѕS‚SЂRёRјR°RI R»RёSЃS‚R° R· RїRѕRiSЂRѕR·R°RјRё

R†R· RЎRЁRђ R±SѓR»Rѕ RЅR°RgS–SЃR»R°RЅRѕ R»RёSЃS‚ S–R· RїRѕRiSЂRѕR·R°RјRё RiRѕR»RѕRIS– RЈRyeSЂR°S—RЅSЃSЊRyeRѕRiRѕ S‚RѕRIR°SЂRёSЃS‚RIR° RI R›SЋR±R»S–RЅS– R“SЂRёRiRѕSЂS–SЋ RљSѓRїSЂS–SЏRЅRѕRIRёS‡Sѓ. RџSЂRѕRyeSѓSЂR°S‚SѓSЂR° SЂRѕR·S€SѓRyeSѓS” RIS–RgRїSЂR°RIRЅRёRyeR°.

R—RЅRёRyeR»R° RyeR°SЂS‚RёRЅR°, RЅR° SЏRyeS–R№ R·RѕR±SЂR°R¶RµRЅRёR№ R†RIR°RЅ R“SЂRѕR·RЅRёR№, RїRѕRIRµSЂRЅSѓR»R°SЃSЏ RI RЈRyeSЂR°S—RЅSѓ

R’SЃRµSЃRIS–S‚RЅSЊRѕ RIS–RgRѕRјR° RyeR°SЂS‚RёRЅR° SѓRyeSЂR°S—RЅSЃSЊRyeRѕRiRѕ S…SѓRgRѕR¶RЅRёRyeR°, SЏRyeSѓ RgRѕRIRiRёR№ S‡R°SЃ RIRIR°R¶R°R»Rё R·RЅRёS‰RµRЅRѕSЋ, RїRѕRIRµSЂRЅSѓR»R°SЃSЏ RI RЈRyeSЂR°S—RЅSѓ.

In Memomiam. RџRѕRјRµSЂR»R° R·RЅR°RјRµRЅRёS‚R° RїRёSЃR°RЅRyeR°SЂRyeR° SѓRyeSЂR°S—RЅSЃSЊRyeRѕS— RgS–R°SЃRїRѕSЂRё RўR°RЅSЏ RћSЃR°RgS†R°

RћRgRЅR° R· RїSЂRѕRIS–RgRЅRёS… RјR°R№SЃS‚SЂRёRЅSЊ RїRёSЃR°RЅRyeRё SѓRyeSЂR°S—RЅSЃSЊRyeRѕS— RgS–R°SЃRїRѕSЂRё, R¶RёS‚RµR»SЊRyeR° RЎRЁRђ RђS‚R°RЅR°SЃS–SЏ (RўR°RЅSЏ) RћSЃR°RgS†R° RїRѕRјRµSЂR»R° 29 RiSЂSѓRgRЅSЏ

RџSЂRµRјvЂ™S”SЂR° S„S–R»SЊRјSѓ vЂњR¦S–RЅR° RїSЂR°RIRgRёvЂќ Sѓ RЎRЁRђ: R°RЅS€R»R°Ri S– RIRgSЏS‡RЅS– RiR»SЏRgR°S‡S–. R’R†R”R•Rћ

RџRѕRIRЅR° R·R°R»R°, SЃR»RѕRIR° RїRѕRgSЏRyeRё SЃS†RµRЅR°SЂRёSЃS‚S†S– RIS–Rg RiR»SЏRgR°S‡S–RI, S‚SЂRёRIR°R»Rµ RѕR±RiRѕRIRѕSЂRµRЅRЅSЏ RїS–SЃR»SЏ RїRѕRyeR°R·Sѓ vЂ“ S‚R°Rye Sѓ RїRµSЂRµRgRјS–SЃS‚S– R’R°S€RёRЅRiS‚RѕRЅR° 15 RiSЂSѓRgRЅSЏ RїSЂRѕR№S€R»R° RїSЂRµRјvЂ™S”SЂR° S„S–R»SЊRјSѓ "R¦S–RЅR° RїSЂR°RIRgRё". RЎS‚SЂS–S‡RyeSѓ SЃRїS–R»SЊRЅRѕRiRѕ SѓRyeSЂR°S—RЅRѕ-RїRѕR»SЊSЃSЊRyeRѕ-R±SЂRёS‚R°RЅSЃSЊRyeRѕRiRѕ RIRёSЂRѕR±RЅRёS†S‚RIR° RїRѕRyeR°R·R°R»Rё Sѓ SЂR°RјRyeR°S… S„RµSЃS‚RёRIR°R»SЋ S„S–R»SЊRјS–RI R„RISЂRѕRїRµR№SЃSЊRyeRѕRiRѕ RЎRѕSЋR·Sѓ. RЎRµSЂRµRg 46 SЃS‚SЂS–S‡RѕRye Sѓ RїSЂRѕRiSЂR°RјS– S„RµSЃS‚RёRIR°R»SЋ S†RµR№ S„S–R»SЊRј vЂ“ RЅR°R№RїRѕRїSѓR»SЏSЂRЅS–S€RёR№.

RћS„S–S†S–R№RЅRѕSЋ SЂS–R·RgRISЏRЅRѕSЋ SЏR»RёRЅRyeRѕRIRѕSЋ RїSЂRёRyeSЂR°SЃRѕSЋ R‘S–R»RѕRiRѕ RgRѕRјSѓ SЃS‚R°RI RiRµR»S–RyeRѕRїS‚RµSЂ RЎS–RyeRѕSЂSЃSЊRyeRѕRiRѕ

RђSЃRѕS†S–R°S†S–SЏ S–SЃS‚RѕSЂS–S— R‘S–R»RѕRiRѕ RgRѕRјSѓ RѕR±SЂR°R»R° RiRµR»S–RyeRѕRїS‚RµSЂ RЎS–RyeRѕSЂSЃSЊRyeRѕRiRѕ Rќ-34 RI SЏRyeRѕSЃS‚S– RѕS„S–S†S–R№RЅRѕS— SЂS–R·RgRISЏRЅRѕS— SЏR»RёRЅRyeRѕRIRѕS— RїSЂRёRyeSЂR°SЃRё S†SЊRѕRiRѕ SЂRѕRyeSѓ. RђSЃRѕS†S–R°S†S–SЏ S‰RѕSЂS–S‡RЅRѕ RѕR±RёSЂR°S” S‚RµRјSѓ RgR»SЏ RgRёR·R°R№RЅSѓ RѕS„S–S†S–R№RЅRѕS— RїSЂRёRyeSЂR°SЃRё RїSЂRµR·RёRgRµRЅS‚SЃSЊRyeRѕS— SЏR»RёRЅRyeRё.

RЈ RGS–SЂRѕSЃS–RјS– R·RЅRѕSЃSЏS‚SЊ RgRIS– R±SѓRgS–RIR»S–, SЏRyeS– RїRµSЂRµR¶RёR»Rё R°S‚RѕRјRЅRµ R±RѕRјR±R°SЂRgSѓRIR°RЅRЅSЏ 1945 SЂRѕRyeSѓ. R¤RћRўRћ

R’R»R°RgR° RGS–SЂRѕSЃS–RјRё RїR»R°RЅSѓS” R·RЅRµSЃS‚Rё RgRIS– R±SѓRgS–RIR»S–, SЏRyeS– RIS†S–R»S–R»Rё RїS–SЃR»SЏ R°RјRµSЂRёRyeR°RЅSЃSЊRyeRѕS— R°S‚R°RyeRё R°S‚RѕRјRЅRѕS— R±RѕRјR±Rё V«RњR°R»SЋRyeV» Sѓ 1945 SЂRѕS†S–.

RЎRµRЅR°S‚ RЎRЁRђ RѕRgRЅRѕRiRѕR»RѕSЃRЅRѕ RIRёR·RЅR°RI RiRµRЅRѕS†RёRg RIS–SЂRјRµRЅ, SЂRѕR·S–R·R»RёRIS€Rё RўSѓSЂRµS‡S‡RёRЅSѓ

RЎRµRЅR°S‚ RЎRЁRђ 12 RiSЂSѓRgRЅSЏ RѕRgRЅRѕRiRѕR»RѕSЃRЅRѕ SѓS…RIR°R»RёRI S–SЃS‚RѕSЂRёS‡RЅSѓ SЂRµR·RѕR»SЋS†S–SЋ, SЏRyeR° RIRёR·RЅR°S” RiRµRЅRѕS†RёRgRѕRј RјR°SЃRѕRIS– RIR±RёRISЃS‚RIR° RIS–SЂRјRµRЅ SЃS‚RѕR»S–S‚S‚SЏ S‚RѕRјSѓ. R¦RµR№ RyeSЂRѕRye SЂRѕR·R»SЋS‚RёRI RўSѓSЂRµS‡S‡RёRЅSѓ S– R·R°RIRgR°RI SѓRgR°SЂSѓ RїRѕ RIR¶Rµ R№ S‚R°Rye RїSЂRѕR±R»RµRјRЅRёRј RIS–RgRЅRѕSЃRёRЅR°Rј RјS–R¶ RђRЅRyeR°SЂRѕSЋ S‚R° R’R°S€RёRЅRiS‚RѕRЅRѕRј.

RЈ RќSЊSЋ-R™RѕSЂRyeSѓ RIS–RgR±SѓR»R°SЃSЏ RїSЂRµRјvЂ™S”SЂR° S„S–R»SЊRјSѓ RїSЂRѕ R„RIRiRµRЅR° RњR°R»R°RЅSЋRyeR°

RЈ RќR°SѓRyeRѕRIRѕRјSѓ S‚RѕRIR°SЂRёSЃS‚RIS– S–Rј. RЁRµRIS‡RµRЅRyeR° RI RђRјRµSЂRёS†S– RIS–RgR±SѓR»R°SЃSЏ RїSЂRµRјvЂ™S”SЂR° RgRѕRyeSѓRјRµRЅS‚R°R»SЊRЅRѕRiRѕ S„S–R»SЊRјSѓ V«RќSЊSЋ-R™RѕSЂRye. RњR°R»R°RЅSЋRyeV» SѓRyeSЂR°S—RЅSЃSЊRyeRѕRiRѕ SЂRµR¶RёSЃRµSЂR° S– RјSѓR·RёRyeR°RЅS‚R° RћR»RµRyeSЃR°RЅRgSЂR° R¤SЂR°R·Rµ-R¤SЂR°R·RµRЅRyeR°.

RђRЅRgSЂRµR° RGR°R»SѓRїR°, R°RIS‚RѕSЂRyeR° SЃS†RµRЅR°SЂS–SЋ S„S–R»SЊRјSѓ V«R¦S–RЅR° RїSЂR°RIRgRёV»: V«S†Rµ S–SЃS‚RѕSЂS–SЏ, SЏRyeSѓ SЂRѕR·RїRѕRIS–RI RјRµRЅS– RgS–RgSѓSЃSЊV»

RЎS†RµRЅR°SЂS–R№ RgRѕ S„S–R»SЊRјSѓ V«R¦S–RЅR° RїSЂR°RIRgRёV», SЏRyeRёR№ R·RЅSЏR»R° RїRѕR»SЊSЃSЊRyeR° SЂRµR¶RёSЃRµSЂRyeR° RђT‘RЅS”S€RyeR° R“RѕR»R»R°RЅRg, RЅR°RїRёSЃR°R»R° RђRЅRgSЂRµR° RGR°R»SѓRїR° vЂ“ R°RјRµSЂRёRyeR°RЅSЃSЊRyeR° R¶SѓSЂRЅR°R»S–SЃS‚RyeR° SѓRyeSЂR°S—RЅSЃSЊRyeRѕRiRѕ RїRѕS…RѕRgR¶RµRЅRЅSЏ. R’RѕRЅR° RgSЂSѓRyeSѓS”S‚SЊSЃSЏ RI V«The AtlanticV», V«TIMEV», V«ForbesV». R’RїRµSЂS€Rµ RїSЂRѕ R“RѕR»RѕRgRѕRјRѕSЂ RђRЅRgSЂRµR° RїRѕS‡SѓR»R° RI RgRёS‚RёRЅSЃS‚RIS– RIS–Rg SЃRIRѕRiRѕ RgS–RgSѓSЃSЏ, SЏRyeRёR№ R№RѕRiRѕ RїRµSЂRµR¶RёRI. Rђ RI SЃS‚SѓRgRµRЅS‚SЃSЊRyeS– SЂRѕRyeRё RIRѕRЅR° S‡RёS‚R°R»R° RїSЂRѕ R¶RёS‚S‚SЏ SЂRµRїRѕSЂS‚RµSЂR° V«New York TimesV» R’RѕR»S‚RµSЂR° R”SЋSЂR°RЅS‚S– RI RњRѕSЃRyeRIS–. RЎR°RјRµ S‚RѕRgS– RIRѕRЅR° RgS–R·RЅR°R»R°SЃSЏ RїSЂRѕ R“R°SЂRµS‚R° R”R¶RѕRЅSЃR°, RїSЂRёRiR°RgR°R»R° S–SЃS‚RѕSЂS–SЋ SЃRIRѕS”S— SЂRѕRgRёRЅRё S– RIRёSЂS–S€RёR»R°: V«RЇ S‚RѕS‡RЅRѕ RЅR°RїRёS€Sѓ SЃS†RµRЅR°SЂS–R№ RgRѕ S„S–R»SЊRјSѓ, SЏRyeRёR№ SЂRѕR·RїRѕRIS–RgR°S‚RёRјRµ RїSЂRѕ S†RµV».

RђSЂS…RµRѕR»RѕRiRё R·RЅR°R№S€R»Rё RЅR° SЃRµRјRё S”RiRёRїRµS‚SЃSЊRyeRёS… RјSѓRјS–SЏS… RЅRµRIRёRgRёRјS– S‚R°S‚SѓSЋRIR°RЅRЅSЏ

RђSЂS…RµRѕR»RѕRiRё S–R· RЎRµRЅS‚-R›SѓS—SЃSЊRyeRѕRiRѕ SѓRЅS–RIRµSЂSЃRёS‚RµS‚Sѓ (S€S‚R°S‚ RњS–SЃSЃSѓSЂS–) R·R° RgRѕRїRѕRјRѕRiRѕSЋ S–RЅS„SЂR°S‡RµSЂRIRѕRЅRѕRiRѕ SЃRyeR°RЅRµSЂR° RIRёSЏRIRёR»Rё RЅR° SЃRµRјRё S”RiRёRїRµS‚SЃSЊRyeRёS… RјSѓRјS–SЏS… R¶S–RЅRѕRye RЅRµRIRёRgRёRјS– S‚R°S‚SѓSЋRIR°RЅRЅSЏ.

RџS–SЃR»SЏ SЃRyeR°RЅRgR°R»Sѓ Amazon R·RЅSЏRI R· RїSЂRѕRgR°R¶Sѓ S–RiSЂR°S€RyeRё S–R· R·RѕR±SЂR°R¶RµRЅRЅSЏRј RyeRѕRЅS†S‚R°R±RѕSЂSѓ RћSЃRIRµRЅS†RёRј

RђRјRµSЂRёRyeR°RЅSЃSЊRyeRёR№ RiS–RiR°RЅS‚ S–RЅS‚RµSЂRЅRµS‚-S‚RѕSЂRiS–RIR»S– Amazon RїS–SЃR»SЏ RyeSЂRёS‚RёRyeRё RїRѕR»SЊSЃSЊRyeRѕRiRѕ RјSѓR·RµSЋ RїSЂRёR±SЂR°RI R· RїSЂRѕRgR°R¶Sѓ SЂS–R·RgRISЏRЅS– RїSЂRёRyeSЂR°SЃRё S–R· R·RѕR±SЂR°R¶RµRЅRЅSЏRј RЅR°S†RёSЃS‚SЃSЊRyeRѕRiRѕ RyeRѕRЅS†S‚R°R±RѕSЂSѓ RћSЃRIRµRЅS†RёRј (RђSѓS€RIS–S†).

RЈ RЎRЁRђ RIRёRїSѓSЃS‚RёR»Rё S„RµR№RyeRѕRIRёR№ SЂRѕR»RёRye R· RїSЂRѕRјRѕRIRѕSЋ RќS–RyeSЃRѕRЅR° RїS–SЃR»SЏ R·R°RiRёR±RµR»S– RђSЂRјSЃS‚SЂRѕRЅRiR° RЅR° RњS–SЃSЏS†S–

RќR° RњS–R¶RЅR°SЂRѕRgRЅRѕRјSѓ RyeS–RЅRѕS„RµSЃS‚RёRIR°R»S– RI RђRјSЃS‚RµSЂRgR°RјS– R±SѓR»R° RїSЂRµRgSЃS‚R°RIR»RµRЅR° S–RЅSЃS‚R°R»SЏS†S–SЏ V«RЈ SЂR°R·S– RїSЂRёR·RµRјR»RµRЅRЅSЏ RЅR° RњS–SЃSЏS†SЊV». RЈ RЅS–R№ RyeRѕR»RёS€RЅS–R№ RїSЂRµR·RёRgRµRЅS‚ RЎRЁRђ R S–S‡R°SЂRg RќS–RyeSЃRѕRЅ, SЏRyeRёR№ RїRѕRјRµSЂ RI 1994 SЂRѕS†S–, RIRёRiRѕR»RѕS€SѓS” RїSЂRѕRјRѕRISѓ RїS–SЃR»SЏ RїSЂRѕRIR°R»Sѓ RјS–SЃS–S— V«RђRїRѕR»R»RѕRЅ-11V» RI 1969-RјSѓ.