R”S–R°SЃRїRѕSЂR° RI RЎRЁRђ RїRµSЂRµRgR°R»R° RЈRyeSЂR°S—RЅS– RyeR°SЂS‚RёRЅSѓ, RїSЂRёSЃRISЏS‡RµRЅSѓ R¶RµSЂS‚RIR°Rј R“RѕR»RѕRgRѕRјRѕSЂSѓ. R¤RћRўRћ

RЈRyeSЂR°S—RЅSЃSЊRyeR° RIS–R»SЊRЅR° R°RyeR°RgRµRјS–SЏ RЅR°SѓRye Sѓ RЎRЁRђ RїRµSЂRµRgR°R»R° RЈRyeSЂR°S—RЅS– RyeR°SЂS‚RёRЅSѓ S…SѓRgRѕR¶RЅRёRyeR° R’S–RyeS‚RѕSЂR° R¦RёRјR±R°R»R° V«R S–Rye 1933V».

RЈ R‘SѓSЂSѓRЅRgS– R·RЅR°R№S€R»Rё RјR°SЃRѕRIS– RїRѕS…RѕRIR°RЅRЅSЏ R· RѕSЃS‚R°RЅRyeR°RјRё S€RµSЃS‚Rё S‚RёSЃSЏS‡ RѕSЃS–R±

R’ R‘SѓSЂSѓRЅRgS– R·RЅR°R№S€R»Rё RЅRѕRIS– RјR°SЃRѕRIS– RїRѕS…RѕRIR°RЅRЅSЏ, RgRµ RIRёSЏRIR»RµRЅS– RѕSЃS‚R°RЅRyeRё R±S–R»SЊS€Rµ S€RµSЃS‚Rё S‚RёSЃSЏS‡ RѕSЃS–R±, SѓR±RёS‚RёS… RїS–Rg S‡R°SЃ RµS‚RЅS–S‡RЅRёS… S‡RёSЃS‚RѕRye RїSЂRѕS‚Rё RЅR°SЂRѕRgRЅRѕSЃS‚S– S…SѓS‚Sѓ RI 1972 SЂRѕS†S–.

RџR°SЂR»R°RјRµRЅS‚ RЎRёSЂS–S— RIRёR·RЅR°RI RiRµRЅRѕS†RёRg RIS–SЂRјRµRЅ RI RћSЃRјR°RЅSЃSЊRyeS–R№ S–RјRїRµSЂS–S—

RЎRёSЂS–R№SЃSЊRyeRёR№ RїR°SЂR»R°RјRµRЅS‚ RѕRgRЅRѕRiRѕR»RѕSЃRЅRѕ RїSЂRѕRiRѕR»RѕSЃSѓRIR°RI R·R° RIRёR·RЅR°RЅRЅSЏ RјR°SЃRѕRIRѕRiRѕ RIR±RёRISЃS‚RIR° RIS–SЂRјRµRЅ Sѓ RћSЃRјR°RЅSЃSЊRyeS–R№ S–RјRїRµSЂS–S— RЅR° RїRѕS‡R°S‚RyeSѓ RGRG SЃS‚RѕR»S–S‚S‚SЏ RiRµRЅRѕS†RёRgRѕRј.

RЈ RљRёS”RIS– RїSЂRµR·RµRЅS‚SѓRIR°R»Rё RIRёRgR°RЅRЅSЏ V«RњRµRјRѕSЂS–R°R»SЊRЅR° R±S–R±R»S–RѕS‚RµRyeR° R”R¶RµR№RјSЃR° RњRµR№SЃR° RI RќR°RЈRљRњRђ: RїSѓS‚S–RIRЅRёRyeV»

RЈ RќR°SѓRyeRѕRIS–R№ R±S–R±R»S–RѕS‚RµS†S– RќR°S†S–RѕRЅR°R»SЊRЅRѕRiRѕ SѓRЅS–RIRµSЂSЃRёS‚RµS‚Sѓ V«RљRёS”RIRѕ-RњRѕRiRёR»SЏRЅSЃSЊRyeR° R°RyeR°RgRµRјS–SЏV» RїSЂRµR·RµRЅS‚SѓRIR°R»Rё RЅR°SѓRyeRѕRIRѕ-RgRѕRIS–RgRyeRѕRIRµ RIRёRgR°RЅRЅSЏ V«RњRµRјRѕSЂS–R°R»SЊRЅR° R±S–R±R»S–RѕS‚RµRyeR° R”R¶RµR№RјSЃR° RњRµR№SЃR° RI RќR°RЈRљRњRђ: RїSѓS‚S–RIRЅRёRyeV». RЈ RїSѓS‚S–RIRЅRёRyeSѓ RїSЂRµRgSЃS‚R°RIR»RµRЅRѕ RѕRїRёSЃ RyeRЅRёR¶RyeRѕRIRѕS— S‚R° R°SЂS…S–RIRЅRѕS— RyeRѕR»RµRyeS†S–S— RIS–RgRѕRјRѕRiRѕ R°RјRµSЂRёRyeR°RЅSЃSЊRyeRѕRiRѕ RgRѕSЃR»S–RgRЅRёRyeR° S–SЃS‚RѕSЂS–S— RЈRyeSЂR°S—RЅRё, RIRёRgR°S‚RЅRѕRiRѕ RiSЂRѕRјR°RgSЃSЊRyeRѕRiRѕ RgS–SЏS‡R° R”R¶RµR№RјSЃR° RњRµR№SЃR°.

RџSЂRёSЃS‚R°R№RyeRѕ R·R°RyeR»RёRyeR°RI RїR°SЂR»R°RјRµRЅS‚ R§RµS…S–S— RIRёR·RЅR°S‚Rё R“RѕR»RѕRgRѕRјRѕSЂ RiRµRЅRѕS†RёRgRѕRј

RњS–RЅS–SЃS‚SЂ R·R°RyeRѕSЂRgRѕRЅRЅRёS… SЃRїSЂR°RI RЈRyeSЂR°S—RЅRё R’R°RgRёRј RџSЂRёSЃS‚R°R№RyeRѕ Sѓ S…RѕRgS– R·SѓSЃS‚SЂS–S‡S– R· RiRѕR»RѕRIRѕSЋ S‡RµSЃSЊRyeRѕS— RџR°R»R°S‚Rё RgRµRїSѓS‚R°S‚S–RI R R°RgRµRyeRѕRј R’RѕRЅRgSЂR°S‡RµRyeRѕRј R·RIRµSЂRЅSѓRISЃSЏ RgRѕ RїR°SЂR»R°RјRµRЅS‚Sѓ R§RµS…S–S— S–R· R·R°RyeR»RёRyeRѕRј RIRёR·RЅR°S‚Rё R“RѕR»RѕRgRѕRјRѕSЂ R°RyeS‚RѕRј RiRµRЅRѕS†RёRgSѓ SѓRyeSЂR°S—RЅSЃSЊRyeRѕRiRѕ RЅR°SЂRѕRgSѓ.

RЈ RњSѓR·RµR№ R“RѕR»RѕRgRѕRјRѕSЂSѓ RїRµSЂRµRgR°R»Rё SѓRЅS–RyeR°R»SЊRЅS– RјRµRgRёS‡RЅS– RgRѕRyeSѓRјRµRЅS‚Rё RїSЂRѕ RiRѕR»RѕRg 1946-1947 SЂRѕRyeS–RI.R¤RћRўRћ

21 RiSЂSѓRgRЅSЏ 2019 SЂRѕRyeSѓ RћR»RµRi RљR°R»RёRЅSЏRye, R»S–RyeR°SЂ R SѓR±R°RЅSЃSЊRyeRѕS— R°RјR±SѓR»R°S‚RѕSЂS–S— R·R°RiR°R»SЊRЅRѕS— RїSЂR°RyeS‚RёRyeRё SЃS–RјRµR№RЅRѕS— RјRµRgRёS†RёRЅRё R‘R°S…RјR°S†SЊRyeRѕRiRѕ SЂR°R№RѕRЅSѓ R§RµSЂRЅS–RiS–RISЃSЊRyeRѕS— RѕR±R»R°SЃS‚S–, RїRµSЂRµRgR°RI RgRѕ RњSѓR·RµSЋ R“RѕR»RѕRgRѕRјRѕSЂSѓ SѓRЅS–RyeR°R»SЊRЅS– S‚R° S–SЃS‚RѕSЂRёS‡RЅRѕ RIR°R¶R»RёRIS– RјRµRgRёS‡RЅS– RgRѕRyeSѓRјRµRЅS‚Rё.

RџSЂRµRјvЂ™S”SЂR° S„S–R»SЊRјSѓ vЂњR¦S–RЅR° RїSЂR°RIRgRёvЂќ Sѓ RЎRЁRђ: R°RЅS€R»R°Ri S– RIRgSЏS‡RЅS– RiR»SЏRgR°S‡S–. R’R†R”R•Rћ

RџRѕRIRЅR° R·R°R»R°, SЃR»RѕRIR° RїRѕRgSЏRyeRё SЃS†RµRЅR°SЂRёSЃS‚S†S– RIS–Rg RiR»SЏRgR°S‡S–RI, S‚SЂRёRIR°R»Rµ RѕR±RiRѕRIRѕSЂRµRЅRЅSЏ RїS–SЃR»SЏ RїRѕRyeR°R·Sѓ vЂ“ S‚R°Rye Sѓ RїRµSЂRµRgRјS–SЃS‚S– R’R°S€RёRЅRiS‚RѕRЅR° 15 RiSЂSѓRgRЅSЏ RїSЂRѕR№S€R»R° RїSЂRµRјvЂ™S”SЂR° S„S–R»SЊRјSѓ "R¦S–RЅR° RїSЂR°RIRgRё". RЎS‚SЂS–S‡RyeSѓ SЃRїS–R»SЊRЅRѕRiRѕ SѓRyeSЂR°S—RЅRѕ-RїRѕR»SЊSЃSЊRyeRѕ-R±SЂRёS‚R°RЅSЃSЊRyeRѕRiRѕ RIRёSЂRѕR±RЅRёS†S‚RIR° RїRѕRyeR°R·R°R»Rё Sѓ SЂR°RјRyeR°S… S„RµSЃS‚RёRIR°R»SЋ S„S–R»SЊRјS–RI R„RISЂRѕRїRµR№SЃSЊRyeRѕRiRѕ RЎRѕSЋR·Sѓ. RЎRµSЂRµRg 46 SЃS‚SЂS–S‡RѕRye Sѓ RїSЂRѕRiSЂR°RјS– S„RµSЃS‚RёRIR°R»SЋ S†RµR№ S„S–R»SЊRј vЂ“ RЅR°R№RїRѕRїSѓR»SЏSЂRЅS–S€RёR№.

R”RIR°RgS†SЏS‚SЊ S€RѕSЃS‚RёR№ RјRµRјRѕSЂS–R°R» R·R°RiRёR±R»RёRј S”RISЂRµSЏRј RIS–RgRyeSЂRёR»Rё RЅR° RўRµSЂRЅRѕRїS–R»SЊS‰RёRЅS–. R’R†R”R•Rћ

RЈ RљRѕR·RѕRIS– RIS–RgRyeSЂRёR»Rё RјRµRјRѕSЂS–R°R» S”RISЂRµSЏRј, SЂRѕR·SЃS‚SЂS–R»SЏRЅRёRј Sѓ 1941-1943 SЂRѕRyeR°S…. R’SЃS‚R°RЅRѕRIRёR»Rё R№RѕRiRѕ RїRѕR±R»RёR·Sѓ S”RISЂRµR№SЃSЊRyeRѕRiRѕ S†RIRёRЅS‚R°SЂSЏ RЅR° RISѓR»RёS†S– RќR°SЂRѕRgRёS‡S–RISЃSЊRyeS–R№.

RЎRµRЅR°S‚ RЎRЁRђ RѕRgRЅRѕRiRѕR»RѕSЃRЅRѕ RIRёR·RЅR°RI RiRµRЅRѕS†RёRg RIS–SЂRјRµRЅ, SЂRѕR·S–R·R»RёRIS€Rё RўSѓSЂRµS‡S‡RёRЅSѓ

RЎRµRЅR°S‚ RЎRЁRђ 12 RiSЂSѓRgRЅSЏ RѕRgRЅRѕRiRѕR»RѕSЃRЅRѕ SѓS…RIR°R»RёRI S–SЃS‚RѕSЂRёS‡RЅSѓ SЂRµR·RѕR»SЋS†S–SЋ, SЏRyeR° RIRёR·RЅR°S” RiRµRЅRѕS†RёRgRѕRј RјR°SЃRѕRIS– RIR±RёRISЃS‚RIR° RIS–SЂRјRµRЅ SЃS‚RѕR»S–S‚S‚SЏ S‚RѕRјSѓ. R¦RµR№ RyeSЂRѕRye SЂRѕR·R»SЋS‚RёRI RўSѓSЂRµS‡S‡RёRЅSѓ S– R·R°RIRgR°RI SѓRgR°SЂSѓ RїRѕ RIR¶Rµ R№ S‚R°Rye RїSЂRѕR±R»RµRјRЅRёRј RIS–RgRЅRѕSЃRёRЅR°Rј RјS–R¶ RђRЅRyeR°SЂRѕSЋ S‚R° R’R°S€RёRЅRiS‚RѕRЅRѕRј.

RђRќRћRќRЎ: R—R°SЃS–RgR°RЅRЅSЏ RїSЂRѕRiSЂR°RјRё Seminarium V«R¤RѕS‚RѕRgRѕRyeSѓRјRµRЅS‚Rё RµRїRѕS…Rё R“RѕR»RѕRgRѕRјRѕSЂSѓ: RѕSЃRѕR±R»RёRIRѕSЃS‚S– RIRёSЏRIR»RµRЅRЅSЏ, R°S‚SЂRёR±SѓS†S–S—, S–RЅS‚RµSЂRїSЂRµS‚R°S†S–S—V»

RќR° S‚RµRјSѓ V«R¤RѕS‚RѕRgRѕRyeSѓRјRµRЅS‚Rё RµRїRѕS…Rё R“RѕR»RѕRgRѕRјRѕSЂSѓ: RѕSЃRѕR±R»RёRIRѕSЃS‚S– RIRёSЏRIR»RµRЅRЅSЏ, R°S‚SЂRёR±SѓS†S–S—, S–RЅS‚RµSЂRїSЂRµS‚R°S†S–S—V» R±SѓRgSѓS‚SЊ RiRѕRIRѕSЂRёS‚Rё RЅR° S‡RµSЂRiRѕRIRѕRјSѓ R·R°SЃS–RgR°RЅRЅS– RїSЂRѕRiSЂR°RјRё Seminarium Sѓ RљRёS”RIS–.

RђRЅRgSЂRµR° RGR°R»SѓRїR°, R°RIS‚RѕSЂRyeR° SЃS†RµRЅR°SЂS–SЋ S„S–R»SЊRјSѓ V«R¦S–RЅR° RїSЂR°RIRgRёV»: V«S†Rµ S–SЃS‚RѕSЂS–SЏ, SЏRyeSѓ SЂRѕR·RїRѕRIS–RI RјRµRЅS– RgS–RgSѓSЃSЊV»

RЎS†RµRЅR°SЂS–R№ RgRѕ S„S–R»SЊRјSѓ V«R¦S–RЅR° RїSЂR°RIRgRёV», SЏRyeRёR№ R·RЅSЏR»R° RїRѕR»SЊSЃSЊRyeR° SЂRµR¶RёSЃRµSЂRyeR° RђT‘RЅS”S€RyeR° R“RѕR»R»R°RЅRg, RЅR°RїRёSЃR°R»R° RђRЅRgSЂRµR° RGR°R»SѓRїR° vЂ“ R°RјRµSЂRёRyeR°RЅSЃSЊRyeR° R¶SѓSЂRЅR°R»S–SЃS‚RyeR° SѓRyeSЂR°S—RЅSЃSЊRyeRѕRiRѕ RїRѕS…RѕRgR¶RµRЅRЅSЏ. R’RѕRЅR° RgSЂSѓRyeSѓS”S‚SЊSЃSЏ RI V«The AtlanticV», V«TIMEV», V«ForbesV». R’RїRµSЂS€Rµ RїSЂRѕ R“RѕR»RѕRgRѕRјRѕSЂ RђRЅRgSЂRµR° RїRѕS‡SѓR»R° RI RgRёS‚RёRЅSЃS‚RIS– RIS–Rg SЃRIRѕRiRѕ RgS–RgSѓSЃSЏ, SЏRyeRёR№ R№RѕRiRѕ RїRµSЂRµR¶RёRI. Rђ RI SЃS‚SѓRgRµRЅS‚SЃSЊRyeS– SЂRѕRyeRё RIRѕRЅR° S‡RёS‚R°R»R° RїSЂRѕ R¶RёS‚S‚SЏ SЂRµRїRѕSЂS‚RµSЂR° V«New York TimesV» R’RѕR»S‚RµSЂR° R”SЋSЂR°RЅS‚S– RI RњRѕSЃRyeRIS–. RЎR°RјRµ S‚RѕRgS– RIRѕRЅR° RgS–R·RЅR°R»R°SЃSЏ RїSЂRѕ R“R°SЂRµS‚R° R”R¶RѕRЅSЃR°, RїSЂRёRiR°RgR°R»R° S–SЃS‚RѕSЂS–SЋ SЃRIRѕS”S— SЂRѕRgRёRЅRё S– RIRёSЂS–S€RёR»R°: V«RЇ S‚RѕS‡RЅRѕ RЅR°RїRёS€Sѓ SЃS†RµRЅR°SЂS–R№ RgRѕ S„S–R»SЊRјSѓ, SЏRyeRёR№ SЂRѕR·RїRѕRIS–RgR°S‚RёRјRµ RїSЂRѕ S†RµV».

R’SѓR»RёS†SЋ RI RљRёS”RIS– RјRѕR¶SѓS‚SЊ RЅR°R·RIR°S‚Rё S–RјRµRЅRµRј R“R°SЂRµS‚R° R”R¶RѕRЅSЃR°, SЏRyeRёR№ SЂRѕR·RїRѕRIS–RI SЃRIS–S‚Sѓ RїSЂRѕ R“RѕR»RѕRgRѕRјRѕSЂ

R“R°SЂRµS‚ R”R¶RѕRЅSЃ SѓRїRµSЂS€Rµ Sѓ R·R°S…S–RgRЅS–R№ RїSЂRµSЃS– R·R°SЏRIRёRI RїS–Rg RIR»R°SЃRЅRёRј S–RјRµRЅRµRј, S‰Rѕ RI RЈRyeSЂR°S—RЅS– Sѓ 1932-1933 SЂRѕRyeR°S… RIS–RgR±SѓRISЃSЏ R“RѕR»RѕRgRѕRјRѕSЂ.

RџR°SЂR»R°RјRµRЅS‚ R’R°R»RµRЅSЃS–S— RIRёR·RЅR°RI R“RѕR»RѕRgRѕRјRѕSЂ RiRµRЅRѕS†RёRgRѕRј. R¤RћRўRћ

RЈ RїR°SЂR»R°RјRµRЅS‚S– R’R°R»RµRЅSЃS–R№SЃSЊRyeRѕS— R°RIS‚RѕRЅRѕRјS–S— R†SЃRїR°RЅS–S— Sѓ SЃRµSЂRµRgSѓ SЂRѕR·RiR»SЏRЅSѓR»Rё RїRёS‚R°RЅRЅSЏ RIRёR·RЅR°RЅRЅSЏ R“RѕR»RѕRgRѕRјRѕSЂSѓ RI RЈRyeSЂR°S—RЅS– 1932-1933 SЂRѕRyeS–RI.

RЎS‚R°R»S–RЅSѓ RЅRµ RIRgR°R»RѕSЃSЏ R·R»R°RјR°S‚Rё S…SЂRµR±RµS‚ SѓRyeSЂR°S—RЅS†SЏRј, S—S… RgSѓS… RIRёR¶RёRI - RїRѕRјS–S‡RЅRёRye R”RµSЂR¶SЃRµRyeSЂRµS‚R°SЂSЏ RЎRЁRђ. R’R†R”R•Rћ

RЈ S‡RµS‚RIRµSЂS‚Sѓ SЃSѓR±RѕS‚Sѓ R»RёSЃS‚RѕRїR°RgR° SѓRyeSЂR°S—RЅS†S– S‚R° R°RјRµSЂRёRyeR°RЅS†S– R’R°S€RёRЅRiS‚RѕRЅR° R·S–R±SЂR°R»RёSЃSЏ R±S–R»SЏ RјRµRјRѕSЂS–R°R»Sѓ RџR°RјvЂ™SЏS‚S– R¶RµSЂS‚RI R“RѕR»RѕRgRѕRјRѕSЂSѓ, S‰RѕR± R·R°RїR°R»RёS‚Rё SЃRIS–S‡RyeRё RI RїR°RјSЏS‚SЊ RїSЂRѕ RјS–R»SЊR№RѕRЅRё SѓRyeSЂR°S—RЅS†S–RI, SЏRyeS– R±SѓR»Rё R·R°RјRѕSЂRgRѕRIR°RЅS– RiRѕR»RѕRgRѕRј RїS–Rg S‡R°SЃ cS‚R°R»S–RЅSЃSЊRyeRёS… SЂRµRїSЂRµSЃS–R№ 1932-33 SЂSЂ.

R’SЃRµR»RµRЅSЃSЊRyeRёR№ RџR°S‚SЂS–R°SЂS… RїSЂRѕRIS–RI RїR°RЅR°S…RёRgSѓ R·R° R¶RµSЂS‚RIR°RјRё R“RѕR»RѕRgRѕRјRѕSЂSѓ. R¤RћRўRћ

RЈ RЎS‚R°RјR±SѓR»S– R·R° SѓS‡R°SЃS‚SЋ R’SЃRµR»RµRЅSЃSЊRyeRѕRiRѕ RџR°S‚SЂS–R°SЂS…R° R’R°SЂS„RѕR»RѕRјS–SЏ RIS–RgSЃR»SѓR¶RµRЅRѕ R±RѕR¶RµSЃS‚RIRµRЅRЅSѓ R»S–S‚SѓSЂRiS–SЋ S‚R° RїR°RЅR°S…RёRgSѓ R·R° R¶RµSЂS‚RIR°RјRё R“RѕR»RѕRgRѕRјRѕSЂSѓ 1932-33 SЂRѕRyeS–RI RI RЈRyeSЂR°S—RЅS–.