RЎRїRµS†RїSЂRѕRµRyeS‚

R’S–Rg S‚RIR°SЂRёRЅ RgRѕ R±RѕRiS–RI: RyeRѕSЂRѕS‚RyeR° S–SЃS‚RѕSЂS–SЏ R»SЋRgSЃS‚RIR°

RќR°RѕSЃS‚R°RЅRѕRye R“R°SЂR°SЂS– RїSЂRѕRIS–S‰R°S” RїSЂRѕRgRѕRIR¶RµRЅRЅSЏ RµRIRѕR»SЋS†S–S— R»SЋRgSЃS‚RIR° S‚SЂSЊRѕRјR° S€R»SЏS…R°RјRё: R±S–RѕS–RЅR¶RµRЅRµSЂS–S— RЅR° RiRµRЅRµS‚RёS‡RЅRѕRјSѓ SЂS–RIRЅS–, RyeS–R±RѕSЂRiS–R·R°S†S–S— SѓR¶Rµ S–SЃRЅSѓSЋS‡RёS… S‚S–R» RјRµS…R°RЅS–R·RјR°RјRё R°R±Rѕ RїRµSЂRµRЅRѕSЃSѓ SЃRIS–RgRѕRјRѕSЃS‚S– RЅR° RЅRµRѕSЂRiR°RЅS–S‡RЅS– RЅRѕSЃS–S—. R¦Rµ RїSЂRёR·RIRµRgRµ RgRѕ RїSЂRёRїRёRЅRµRЅRЅSЏ RЅR°S€RѕRiRѕ S–SЃRЅSѓRIR°RЅRЅSЏ SЏRye Homo sapiens. R›SЋRgRё RїRµSЂRµS‚RIRѕSЂRёR»RёSЃSЏ S–R· S‚RIR°SЂRёRЅ RЅR° S–SЃS‚RѕS‚ S–R· RјR°R№R¶Rµ R±RѕR¶RµSЃS‚RIRµRЅRЅRёRјRё SЃRёR»R°RјRё, R°R»Rµ vЂњS‡Rё S” Sѓ SЃRIS–S‚S– S‰RѕSЃSЊ RЅRµR±RµR·RїRµS‡RЅS–S€Rµ R·R° RЅRµR·R°RgRѕRIRѕR»RµRЅRёS… S‚R° R±RµR·RIS–RgRїRѕRIS–RgR°R»SЊRЅRёS… R±RѕRiS–RI, SЏRyeS– RЅRµ R·RЅR°SЋS‚SЊ, S‡RѕRiRѕ RIRѕRЅRё S…RѕS‡SѓS‚SЊ?vЂќ.

 


R©Rѕ S‡RёS‚R°S”RјRѕ?
R®RIR°R» RќRѕR№ R“R°SЂR°SЂS–. R›SЋRgRёRЅR° SЂRѕR·SѓRјRЅR°. R†SЃS‚RѕSЂS–SЏ R»SЋRgSЃS‚RIR° RIS–Rg RјRёRЅSѓR»RѕRiRѕ RgRѕ RјR°R№R±SѓS‚RЅSЊRѕRiRѕ. – RGR°SЂRyeS–RI: RљRЎR”, 2016. – 544 SЃ.


RќR°RIS–S‰Rѕ S‡RёS‚R°S”RјRѕ? R©RѕR± RїRµSЂRµRѕSЃRјRёSЃR»RёS‚Rё S€R»SЏS… RЅR°SЃRµR»RµRЅRЅSЏ RїR»R°RЅRµS‚Rё RIS–Rg RїSЂRѕSЃS‚Rѕ RЅRµR·RIRёS‡R°R№RЅRёS… S‚RIR°SЂRёRЅ RgRѕ RјR°R№R¶Rµ RЅR°RgRїSЂRёSЂRѕRgRЅRёS… S–SЃS‚RѕS‚ S– R·SЂRѕR·SѓRјS–S‚Rё, SЏRye S‚R°Rye RIRёR№S€R»Rѕ, S‰Rѕ RЅR° S†SЊRѕRјSѓ S€R»SЏS…Sѓ RјRё “R·R°RiSѓR±RёR»Rё” SѓSЃS–S… SЃRIRѕS—S… SЂRѕRgRёS‡S–RI, RЅR°RIS‡RёR»RёSЃSЏ SѓSЏRIR»SЏS‚Rё RЅRµS–SЃRЅSѓSЋS‡S– SЂRµS‡S–, RїRѕS‚SЂR°RїRёR»Rё RI SЂR°R±SЃS‚RIRѕ RgRѕ R·RIRёS‡R°R№RЅRѕS— RїS€RµRЅRёS†S–, RIS‚S–Rј, RїRµSЂRµR±SѓRgSѓRIR°R»Rё R—RµRјR»SЋ RЅR° SЃRIS–R№ SЃRјR°Rye, R°R»Rµ RїSЂRё S‚RѕRјSѓ RЅRµ SЃS‚R°R»Rё S‰R°SЃR»RёRIS–S€RёRјRё.

RћS‚R¶Rµ, RЅR°RIS–S‰Rѕ RIS‡RёS‚Rё S–SЃS‚RѕSЂS–SЋ?

RќR° RIS–RgRјS–RЅSѓ RIS–Rg S„S–R·RёRyeRё R°R±Rѕ RµRyeRѕRЅRѕRјS–RyeRё, S–SЃS‚RѕSЂS–SЏ RЅRµ RgR°S” R»SЋRgSЏRј R·R°SЃRѕR±S–RI RgR»SЏ S‚RѕS‡RЅRёS… RїRµSЂRµRgR±R°S‡RµRЅSЊ.

RњRё RIRёRIS‡R°S”RјRѕ S–SЃS‚RѕSЂS–SЋ RЅRµ RgR»SЏ S‚RѕRiRѕ, S‰RѕR±Rё R·RЅR°S‚Rё RјR°R№R±SѓS‚RЅS”, R° RgR»SЏ S‚RѕRiRѕ, S‰RѕR±Rё SЂRѕR·S€RёSЂRёS‚Rё RЅR°S€S– RiRѕSЂRёR·RѕRЅS‚Rё, SЂRѕR·SѓRјS–S‚Rё, S‰Rѕ RЅR°S€R° S‚RµRїRµSЂS–S€RЅSЏ SЃRёS‚SѓR°S†S–SЏ RЅRµ S” R°RЅS– RїSЂRёSЂRѕRgRЅRѕSЋ, R°RЅS– RЅRµRјRёRЅSѓS‡RѕSЋ, S‚R° S‰RѕR±Rё, RIS–RgRїRѕRIS–RgRЅRѕ, RјR°S‚Rё RїRµSЂRµRg SЃRѕR±RѕSЋ R·RЅR°S‡RЅRѕ R±S–R»SЊS€Rµ RјRѕR¶R»RёRIRѕSЃS‚RµR№, R°RЅS–R¶ SѓSЏRIR»SЏR»Rё SЂR°RЅS–S€Rµ”.


***

RќR° RїRѕS‡R°S‚RyeSѓ R“R°SЂR°SЂS– RїSѓRЅRyeS‚RёSЂRѕRј RїSЂRѕRIRѕRgRёS‚SЊ RЅR°SЃ RIS–Rg R’RµR»RёRyeRѕRiRѕ RIRёR±SѓS…Sѓ 13,5 RјR»SЂRg SЂRѕRyeS–RI S‚RѕRјSѓ RgRѕ RѕSЃS‚R°RЅRЅSЊRѕRiRѕ SЃRїS–R»SЊRЅRѕRiRѕ S–R· RјR°RIRїR°RјRё RїSЂR°S‰SѓSЂR° 6 RјR»RЅ SЂRѕRyeS–RI S‚RѕRјSѓ.

Rђ R° RїRѕS‚S–Rј R·RЅR°S‡RЅRѕ RgRµS‚R°R»SЊRЅS–S€Rµ RѕRїRёSЃSѓS” RiRѕR»RѕRIRЅRёS… RїSЂRµRgSЃS‚R°RIRЅRёRyeS–RI SЂRѕRgSѓ Homo, SЏRyeS– RЅR°SЃRµR»SЏR»Rё RїR»R°RЅRµS‚Sѓ RѕSЃS‚R°RЅRЅS– RјS–R»SЊR№RѕRЅRё SЂRѕRyeS–RI.

R’SЃSѓRїRµSЂRµS‡ S‚SЂR°RgRёS†S–R№RЅRёRј SѓSЏRIR»RµRЅRЅSЏRј, RїS–RgRyeSЂRµSЃR»SЋS” R°RIS‚RѕSЂ, R°RЅS– RIRµR»RёRyeRёR№ RјRѕR·RѕRye, R°RЅS– RїSЂSЏRјRѕS…RѕRgS–RЅRЅSЏ RЅR°S€RёS… RїSЂRµRgRyeS–RI RЅRµ SЃS‚R°R»Rё RЅRµRiR°R№RЅRѕ S‚R°RyeRёRјRё RIR¶Rµ R№ RIRµR»RёRyeRёRјRё RїRµSЂRµRIR°RiR°RјRё.

R R°RgS€Rµ RЅR°RIRїR°RyeRё, RIRѕRЅRё RgR°RIR°R»Rё RїRѕS‚RµRЅS†S–R°R»SЊRЅRёR№ R·RёSЃRye Sѓ RјR°R№R±SѓS‚RЅSЊRѕRјSѓ, RЅR°S‚RѕRјS–SЃS‚SЊ SЃS‚RIRѕSЂSЋRIR°R»Rё RїSЂRѕR±R»RµRјRё RIR¶Rµ S‚RѕRgS–.

R¤S–R·RёS‡RЅRѕ SЃR»R°R±RyeS–S€S– R·R° SЂRµS€S‚Sѓ RїSЂRёRјR°S‚S–RI, R·RјSѓS€RµRЅS– R±S–R»SЊS€Rµ S‡R°SЃSѓ S€SѓRyeR°S‚Rё S—R¶Sѓ, RЅRµR·RgR°S‚RЅS– RЅR°SЂRѕRgR¶SѓRIR°S‚Rё RѕRgSЂR°R·Sѓ SЃR°RјRѕSЃS‚S–R№RЅRµ RїRѕS‚RѕRјSЃS‚RIRѕ, R·RIRёS‡R°R№RЅS– Homo RЅRµ RјRѕRiR»Rё RIRёR¶RёS‚Rё RїRѕRѕRgRёRЅS†S–, S‚RѕR¶ R¶RёR»Rё RIRµR»RёRyeRёRјRё RyeRѕR»RµRyeS‚RёRIR°RјRё.

R¦Rµ R·R°RїSѓSЃS‚RёR»Rѕ, RЅR° RgRѕRgR°S‡Sѓ RgRѕ R±S–RѕR»RѕRiS–S‡RЅRѕS—, S‰Rµ R№ SЃRѕS†S–R°R»SЊRЅSѓ RµRIRѕR»SЋS†S–SЋ S– RїSЂRёR·RIRµR»Rѕ RgRѕ S‚R°RyeRѕRiRѕ SЂR°R·SЋS‡RѕRiRѕ SЂS–R·RЅRѕRјR°RЅS–S‚S‚SЏ SЃSѓS‡R°SЃRЅRѕRiRѕ R»SЋRgSЃS‚RIR°.

R©Rµ RѕRgRЅRёRј RIRёRyeR»RёRyeRѕRј SЃS‚R°RI R·R°RЅR°RgS‚Rѕ S€RIRёRgRyeRёR№ SЃS‚SЂRёR±RѕRye RIS–Rg R·R±RёSЂR°S‡S–RI S‚R° RїR°RgR°R»SЊRЅRёRyeS–RI RgRѕ S…RёR¶R°RyeS–RI RЅR° RIRµSЂS…S–RIS†S– S…R°SЂS‡RѕRIRѕRiRѕ R»R°RЅS†SЋRiR° — R·R° SЏRyeRёS…RѕSЃSЊ 300 S‚RёSЃSЏS‡ SЂRѕRyeS–RI.

Homo sapiens
Homo sapiens
R RµRyeRѕRЅSЃS‚SЂSѓRyeS†S–SЏ: lvain Entressangle & Elisabeth Daynes/Science Source

RўRѕR¶ Homo RЅRµ RISЃS‚RёRi SЏRye SЃR»S–Rg RїSЂRёR·RIRёS‡R°S—S‚RёSЃSЏ RgRѕ RїRµSЂRµRјS–RЅRё SЃRIRѕRiRѕ SЃS‚R°S‚SѓSЃSѓ S– S‚R°Rye S– R·R°R»RёS€RёRISЃSЏ RЅRµRЅR°SЃRёS‚RЅRёRј RyeSЂRѕRIRѕRїRёRIS†RµRј, RЅR°SЃR»S–RgRyeRё S‡RѕRiRѕ RјRё SЃRїRѕSЃS‚RµSЂS–RiR°S”RјRѕ R№ RgRѕRЅRёRЅS–.

RЎS‚R°R»Rµ R·R°SЃS‚RѕSЃSѓRIR°RЅRЅSЏ RIRѕRiRЅSЋ 300 S‚RёSЃSЏS‡ SЂRѕRyeS–RI S‚RѕRјSѓ RїSЂRѕRIRµR»Rѕ RЅRµR·RgRѕR»R°RЅRЅSѓ RјRµR¶Sѓ RјS–R¶ R»SЋRgSЊRјRё S– S‚RIR°SЂRёRЅR°RјRё.

R’S–RgS‚RѕRgS– RЅR°S€S– RїSЂRµRgRyeRё R·RЅR°S‡RЅRѕ SЂRѕR·S€RёSЂRёR»Rё SЃRIS–R№ SЂR°S†S–RѕRЅ, SЃRyeRѕSЂRѕS‚RёRIS€Rё RїSЂRё S†SЊRѕRјSѓ S‡R°SЃ RЅR° S‚SЂR°RIR»RµRЅRЅSЏ, RЅR°RIS‡RёR»RёSЃSЏ RgS–S”RIRѕ R·R°S…RёS‰R°S‚RёSЃSЏ RIS–Rg RIRѕSЂRѕRiS–RI S‚R° S‚RѕSЂSѓRIR°S‚Rё S€R»SЏS…Rё RЅRµRїSЂRѕR»R°R·RЅRёRјRё S…R°S‰R°RјRё.

RќRµRIRgRѕRIR·S– RїS–SЃR»SЏ S†SЊRѕRiRѕ RgRѕ RIR¶Rµ S–SЃRЅSѓSЋS‡RёS… RIRёRgS–RI Homo RgRѕRgR°R»RёSЃSЏ S‰Rµ R№ RјRё SЃR°RјS– — Homo sapiens.

RќR°SЂRµS€S‚S–, RgRµSЃSЊ 70 S‚RёSЃSЏS‡ SЂRѕRyeS–RI S‚RѕRјSѓ SЃR°RїS–S”RЅSЃRё R·R°R»RёS€RёR»Rё RїSЂR°R±R°S‚SЊRyeS–RISЃSЊRyeSѓ RђS„SЂRёRyeSѓ R№ RgRѕRIRѕR»S– S€RIRёRgRyeRѕ SЂRѕR·SЃRµR»RёR»RёSЃSЏ SЃRIS–S‚RѕRј, R·RЅRёS‰RёRIS€Rё R°R±Rѕ, RїSЂRёRЅR°R№RјRЅS–, SЃRїSЂRёS‡RёRЅRёRIS€Rё R·RЅRёRyeRЅRµRЅRЅSЏ S–RЅS€RёS… RIRёRgS–RI R»SЋRgRµR№. RЈS‚S–Rј, RgRѕ 4% RiRµRЅS–RI RЅRµR°RЅRgRµSЂS‚R°R»SЊS†S–RI S‚R° 6% RgRµRЅRёSЃS–RIS†S–RI RISЃRµ R¶ R·R°R»RёS€RёR»RѕSЃSЏ Sѓ RЅR°S€S–R№ RyeSЂRѕRIS–.

RЇRye R¶Rµ S†Rµ S—Rј/RЅR°Rј RIRgR°R»RѕSЃSЏ?


***

R“RѕR»RѕRIRЅR° S–RgRµSЏ RїRµSЂS€RѕS— S‡R°SЃS‚RёRЅRё RyeRЅRёRiRё RїRѕR»SЏRiR°S” Sѓ S‚RѕRјSѓ, S‰Rѕ SЃRIRѕS—Rј RЅRµR±R°S‡RµRЅRёRј SѓSЃRїS–S…R°Rј SЃR°RїS–S”RЅSЃRё R·R°RIRgSЏS‡SѓSЋS‚SЊ “RљRѕRiRЅRёS‚RёRIRЅS–R№ SЂRµRIRѕR»SЋS†S–S—” — RIRёRyeRѕSЂRёSЃS‚R°RЅRЅSЋ S‚R°RyeRѕS— RјRѕRIRё, SЏRyeR° R·RgR°S‚RЅR° RѕRїRёSЃSѓRIR°S‚Rё RЅRµS–SЃRЅSѓSЋS‡S– SЂRµS‡S–.

RљRѕRјSѓRЅS–RyeR°S†S–SЏ S‚RIR°SЂRёRЅ RѕR±RјRµR¶RµRЅR° RgRѕR±SЂR°RЅRёRјRё RµRIRѕR»SЋS†S–S”SЋ RїRѕRIS–RgRѕRјR»RµRЅRЅSЏRјRё.

RќRµR°RЅRgRµSЂS‚R°R»SЊS†S– R±SѓR»Rё RIS–RgRyeSЂRёS‚S– RЅRѕRIRёRј RїRѕRЅSЏS‚S‚SЏRј, R°R»Rµ R· SЂRµR°R»SЊRЅRѕRiRѕ SЃRIS–S‚Sѓ [RЅR°R№RЅRѕRIS–S€S– RgRѕSЃR»S–RgR¶RµRЅRЅSЏ RgRѕRIRѕRgSЏS‚SЊ, S‰Rѕ S†Rµ RЅRµ S‚R°Rye, S– SЂRµR»S–RiS–SЋ R· RјRёSЃS‚RµS†S‚RIRѕRј RIRёRЅR°R№S€R»Rё SЃR°RјRµ RIRѕRЅRё — RЎ.R“.].

RќR°S‚RѕRјS–SЃS‚SЊ R»RёS€Rµ SЃR°RїS–S”RЅSЃRё RјRѕRiR»Rё S– RїRѕRIS–RgRѕRјRёS‚Rё RѕRgRЅRѕRїR»RµRјS–RЅRЅRёRyeS–RI RїSЂRѕ R»RµRIS–RI RЅR° RIRѕRgRѕRїRѕS—, S– RѕRiRѕR»RѕSЃRёS‚Rё S‚RIR°SЂRёRЅ SЃRIRѕS—RјRё RЅRµR±RµSЃRЅRёRјRё RїRѕRyeSЂRѕRIRёS‚RµR»SЏRјRё, RЅRµ RiRѕRIRѕSЂSЏS‡Rё RIR¶Rµ RїSЂRѕ RїRѕSЃS‚S–R№RЅRµ RїR»S–S‚RyeSѓRIR°RЅRЅSЏ.

Rђ RЅR°R№RiRѕR»RѕRIRЅS–S€Rµ, S‰Rѕ RIRѕRЅRё SЂRѕR±RёR»Rё S†Rµ RyeRѕR»RµRyeS‚RёRIRЅRѕ, S‚RIRѕSЂSЏS‡Rё RЅRѕRISѓ, SЃRѕS†S–R°R»SЊRЅSѓ SЂRµR°R»SЊRЅS–SЃS‚SЊ Sѓ R±RµR·R»S–S‡S– RIR°SЂS–R°RЅS‚S–RI:

R–RѕRgRЅRѕS— R· S†RёS… SЂRµS‡RµR№ RЅRµ S–SЃRЅSѓS” R·R° RјRµR¶R°RјRё S–SЃS‚RѕSЂS–R№, SЏRyeS– R»SЋRgRё RIRёRiR°RgSѓSЋS‚SЊ S‚R° SЂRѕR·RїRѕRIS–RgR°SЋS‚SЊ RѕRgRёRЅ RѕRgRЅRѕRјSѓ. R–RѕRgRЅRёS… R±RѕRiS–RI Sѓ R’SЃRµSЃRIS–S‚S–, RЅR°S†S–R№, RiSЂRѕS€RµR№, RїSЂR°RI R»SЋRgRёRЅRё, R·R°RyeRѕRЅS–RI S‚R° RїSЂR°RIRѕSЃSѓRgRgSЏ RЅRµ S–SЃRЅSѓS” R·R° RјRµR¶R°RјRё SЃRїS–R»SЊRЅRѕS— SѓSЏRIRё R»SЋRgSЃSЊRyeRёS… S–SЃS‚RѕS‚”.

RќRµ S–SЃRЅSѓS” Sѓ S„S–R·RёS‡RЅS–R№ SЂRµR°R»SЊRЅRѕSЃS‚S– S†RµSЂRyeRѕRI, RgRµSЂR¶R°RI S– RyeRѕSЂRїRѕSЂR°S†S–R№, S‚RѕR¶, S”RgRёRЅR° SЂS–R·RЅRёS†SЏ RјS–R¶ RgR°RIRЅS–RјRё S‡R°RyeR»SѓRЅR°RјRё S‚R° SЃSѓS‡R°SЃRЅRёRјRё SЋSЂRёSЃS‚R°RјRё R»RёS€Rµ Sѓ S‚RѕRјSѓ, S‰Rѕ “SЋSЂRёSЃS‚Rё SЂRѕR·RїRѕRIS–RgR°SЋS‚SЊ RIRёRiR°RgR»RёRIS–S€S– R±R°R№RyeRё”.

R—R°RIRgSЏRyeRё S†RёRј SЃRїS–R»SЊRЅRёRј SЃRѕS†S–R°R»SЊRЅRёRј RIS–SЂSѓRIR°RЅRЅSЏRј SЃR°RїS–S”RЅSЃR°Rј RIRgR°R»RѕSЃSЏ RѕSЂRiR°RЅS–R·RѕRISѓRIR°S‚Rё R¶RёS‚S‚SЏ RIRµR»RёS‡RµR·RЅRѕS— RyeS–R»SЊRyeRѕSЃS‚S– R»SЋRgRµR№, RїRѕRgRѕR»R°RIS€Rё RїSЂRёSЂRѕRgRЅS– RѕR±RјRµR¶RµRЅRЅSЏ Sѓ RIRёRiR»SЏRgS– RѕSЃRѕR±RёSЃS‚RѕRiRѕ R·RЅR°R№RѕRјSЃS‚RIR°.

RўR°Rye SЃS‚R°R»Rё RјRѕR¶R»RёRIRёRјRё SЃRїS–R»SЊRЅS– R·R°RiS–RЅRЅS– RїRѕR»SЋRIR°RЅRЅSЏ, RGSЂRµSЃS‚RѕRIS– RїRѕS…RѕRgRё, RћRћRќ, R° RЅR°R№RiRѕR»RѕRIRЅS–S€Rµ — S‚RѕSЂRiS–RIR»SЏ.

R† S…RѕS‡R° RЅRµR°RЅRgRµSЂS‚R°R»SЊS†S– R±SѓR»Rё S„S–R·RёS‡RЅRѕ RјS–S†RЅS–S€RёRјRё S‚R° RIRёS‚SЂRёRIR°R»S–S€RёRјRё, RїRµSЂRµRјRѕRiR° R·R°R»RёS€RёR»R°SЃSЏ R·R° R·RiSѓSЂS‚RѕRIR°RЅS–S€RёRјRё SЃR°RїS–S”RЅSЃR°RјRё.

RќRµR°RЅRgRµSЂS‚R°R»SЊS†S–
RќRµR°RЅRgRµSЂS‚R°R»SЊS†S–
R¤RѕS‚Rѕ: History

R RѕR·SЃRµR»RёRIS€RёSЃSЊ RїRѕ R—RµRјR»S–, R»SЋRgRё SЂRѕR·SѓRјRЅS– RїSЂRѕRgRµRјRѕRЅSЃS‚SЂSѓRIR°R»Rё SЏRyeRЅR°R№S€RёSЂS€RёR№ SЃRїRµRyeS‚SЂ RµRyeRѕRЅRѕRјS–S‡RЅRёS… S‚R° SЃRѕS†S–R°R»SЊRЅRёS… R»R°RgS–RI, S…RѕS‡R° RI RѕSЃRЅRѕRIS– 60 S–R· 70 S‚RёSЃSЏS‡ SЂRѕRyeS–RI S–SЃS‚RѕSЂS–S— RїRµSЂRµR±SѓRIR°R»Rё R·R±RёSЂR°R»SЊRЅRёS†S‚RIRѕ S‚R° RїRѕR»SЋRIR°RЅRЅSЏ.

R”RµSЏRyeS– SЃSѓSЃRїS–R»SЊSЃS‚RIR° R¶RёR»Rё Sѓ SЃRµRyeSЃSѓR°R»SЊRЅS–R№ SЂS–R·RЅRѕRјR°RЅS–S‚RЅRѕSЃS‚S–, S–RЅS€S– — Sѓ SЃSѓRIRѕSЂS–R№ RјRѕRЅRѕRiR°RјS–S—, S…S‚RѕSЃSЊ R±SѓRI R±R°RiR°S‚S€RёRј, S…S‚RѕSЃSЊ R±S–RgRЅS–S€RёRј, RgRµSЏRyeS– RiSЂSѓRїRё SЃR»R°RIRёR»RёSЃSЏ RIRѕR№RѕRIRЅRёS‡S–SЃS‚SЋ, RgRµSЏRyeS– — RјRёSЂRѕR»SЋR±RЅS–SЃS‚SЋ.

RџRѕSЂS–RIRЅSЏRЅRѕ S–R· RЅR°S‰R°RgRyeR°RјRё, RISЃS– RIRѕRЅRё RIRµR»Rё RјRµRЅS€ RѕR±S‚SЏR¶R»RёRIRёR№, R°R»Rµ S– R±S–R»SЊS€ RЅRµR±RµR·RїRµS‡RЅRёR№ S‚SЂRёR± R¶RёS‚S‚SЏ.

R† S‰Rµ RѕRgRЅRµ RѕR±S”RgRЅSѓRIR°R»Rѕ SѓSЃS–S… SЃR°RїS–S”RЅSЃS–RI RїRѕ SѓSЃS–R№ RїR»R°RЅRµS‚S– — RgRµ R± RIRѕRЅRё RЅRµ R·SЏRIR»SЏR»RёSЃSЏ, RISЃSЋRgRё RЅR°SЃS‚R°RIR°RI RµRyeRѕS†RёRg, R·R°RiR°R»RѕRј S‡RµSЂRµR· RЅRёS… R·RЅRёRyeR»R° RїRѕR»RѕRIRёRЅR° RIRёRgS–RI RIRµR»RёRyeRёS… SЃSѓS…RѕRїSѓS‚RЅRёS… S‚RIR°SЂRёRЅ.

RќRёS‰RµRЅRЅSЏ RgRёRyeRѕS— RїSЂRёSЂRѕRgRё, SЃS…RѕR¶Rµ, S” RIS–R·RёS‚S–RIRyeRѕSЋ R»SЋRgSЃS‚RIR°.


***

R”SЂSѓRiSѓ S‡R°SЃS‚RёRЅSѓ R“R°SЂR°SЂS– RїRѕS‡RёRЅR°S” S–R· SЃRµRЅSЃR°S†S–R№RЅRѕS— R·R°SЏRIRё, SЏRyeR°, R·SЂRµS€S‚RѕSЋ, R·SЂRѕR±RёR»R° R№RѕRiRѕ RIS–RgRѕRјRёRј.

R©Rѕ R± RIRё S‚R°Rј RЅRµ RgSѓRјR°R»Rё, R·R°R·RЅR°S‡R°S” R°RIS‚RѕSЂ, S†Rµ RЅRµ R»SЋRgRё RѕRyeSѓR»SЊS‚SѓSЂRёR»Rё RїS€RµRЅRёS†SЋ, SЂRёSЃ S‚R° RyeR°SЂS‚RѕRїR»SЋ, R° S†Rµ R·RiR°RgR°RЅS– SЂRѕSЃR»RёRЅRё RїRѕRЅRµRIRѕR»RёR»Rё R»SЋRgRёRЅSѓ.

RџS€RµRЅRёS†SЏ R·R° RyeSЂRёS‚RµSЂS–S”Rј SЂRѕR·RїRѕRISЃSЋRgR¶RµRЅRѕSЃS‚S– — RIR·R°RiR°R»S– RµRIRѕR»SЋS†S–R№RЅRёR№ S‡RµRјRїS–RѕRЅ, S‰Rѕ R·R°RIRѕR»RѕRgS–RI RїR»R°RЅRµS‚RѕSЋ. R›SЋRgRё R¶, RЅR°S‚RѕRјS–SЃS‚SЊ, R»RёS€Rµ RїSЂRѕRiSЂR°R»Rё:

RџRµSЂRµSЃS–S‡RЅRёR№ R·RµRјR»RµSЂRѕR± RїSЂR°S†SЋRIR°RI RIR°R¶S‡Rµ, RЅS–R¶ RїRµSЂRµSЃS–S‡RЅRёR№ R·R±RёSЂR°S‡, R° RЅR°RIR·R°RјS–RЅ RѕS‚SЂRёRјSѓRIR°RI R·RЅR°S‡RЅRѕ RiS–SЂS€Rµ S…R°SЂS‡SѓRIR°RЅRЅSЏ. RўR°Rye RЎS–R»SЊSЃSЊRyeRѕRiRѕSЃRїRѕRgR°SЂSЃSЊRyeR° SЂRµRIRѕR»SЋS†S–SЏ SЃS‚R°R»R° RЅR°R№R±S–R»SЊS€RёRј S€R°S…SЂR°R№SЃS‚RIRѕRј RI S–SЃS‚RѕSЂS–S— R»SЋRgSЃS‚RIR°”.

R‘S–R»SЊS€Rµ S‚RѕRiRѕ, RїRѕS‡R°S‚RѕRye R·RµRјR»RµSЂRѕR±SЃS‚RIR° S‡Rё RЅRµ SѓRgRIS–S‡S– RїS–RgRIRёS‰RёRI SЂS–RIRµRЅSЊ RЅR°SЃRёR»SЊSЃS‚RIR° RјS–R¶ RiSЂSѓRїR°RјRё, SЃRїSЂRёSЏRI SЂS–R·RyeRѕRјSѓ RїRѕS€RёSЂRµRЅRЅSЋ S…RIRѕSЂRѕR±, RЅRµ RyeR°R¶SѓS‡Rё RIR¶Rµ RїSЂRѕ RїRѕSЏRISѓ RјR°R№RЅRѕRIRѕS— RЅRµSЂS–RIRЅRѕSЃS‚S– S‚R° “SЂRѕR·RїRµS‰RµRЅRёS… RµR»S–S‚”.

R’RёSЂRѕS‰SѓRIR°RЅRЅSЏ RїS€RµRЅRёS†S– RїRµSЂRµS‚RIRѕSЂRёR»RѕSЃSЏ RЅR° RїR°SЃS‚RyeSѓ — S‡RёRј R±S–R»SЊS€Rµ R»SЋRgRё RїSЂR°S†SЋRIR°R»Rё, S‚RёRј R±S–R»SЊS€Rµ RјRѕRiR»Rё R·S–R±SЂR°S‚Rё RISЂRѕR¶R°SЋ.

RђR»Rµ RgRѕR±SЂRёR№ RISЂRѕR¶R°R№ RѕR·RЅR°S‡R°RI R·R±S–R»SЊS€RµRЅRЅSЏ RЅR°SЃRµR»RµRЅRЅSЏ, RgR»SЏ RїSЂRѕRiRѕRgSѓRIR°RЅRЅSЏ SЏRyeRѕRiRѕ S‚SЂRµR±R° R±SѓR»Rѕ RїSЂR°S†SЋRIR°S‚Rё S‰Rµ R±S–R»SЊS€Rµ.

Rђ RIRµR»RёRyeR° RiSЂSѓRїR° RїRѕRIRµSЂRЅSѓS‚RёSЃSЏ RgRѕ R·R±RёSЂR°R»SЊRЅRёS†S‚RIR° RIR¶Rµ RЅRµ RјRѕRiR»R°. R’S‚S–Rј, S…RѕS‡R° RјR°R№R¶Rµ RyeRѕR¶RЅR° RѕRyeSЂRµRјR° R»SЋRgRёRЅR° RIS–Rg RѕSЃS–R»RѕSЃS‚S– R±S–R»SЏ RїRѕR»S–RI RїSЂRѕRiSЂR°R»R°, R»SЋRgSЃS‚RIRѕ SЏRye RIRёRg RIRёRiSЂR°R»Rѕ.

RџRµSЂRµRјRѕR¶RµRЅRёRјRё R¶ Sѓ RЎS–R»SЊSЃSЊRyeRѕRiRѕSЃRїRѕRgR°SЂSЃSЊRyeS–R№ SЂRµRIRѕR»SЋS†S–S— RIRёSЏRIRёR»RёSЃSЏ RѕRgRѕRјR°S€RЅRµRЅS– S‚RIR°SЂRёRЅRё.

R—RµRјR»RµSЂRѕR±Rё RgRѕR±Rё RЅRµRѕR»S–S‚Sѓ
R—RµRјR»RµSЂRѕR±Rё RgRѕR±Rё RЅRµRѕR»S–S‚Sѓ

RGRѕS‡R° RIS–RIS†S–, SЃRIRёRЅS– S– RyeRѕSЂRѕRIRё S” RЅR°R№RїRѕS€RёSЂRµRЅS–S€RёRјRё SЃSЃR°RIS†SЏRјRё RїS–SЃR»SЏ R»SЋRgRёRЅRё, R° RyeSѓSЂRµR№ R·RЅR°S‡RЅRѕ R±S–R»SЊS€Rµ R·R° SЃR°RїS–S”RЅSЃS–RI, R·R° S‚R°RyeRёR№ RїRѕRїSѓR»SЏS†S–R№RЅRёR№ SѓSЃRїS–S… RISЃS– RIRѕRЅRё SЂRѕR·RїR»R°S‡SѓSЋS‚SЊSЃSЏ S€RIRёRgRyeRѕSЋ SЃRјRµSЂS‚SЋ RIS–Rg SЂSѓRye RiRѕSЃRїRѕRgR°SЂS–RI S– R·RgRµR±S–R»SЊS€RѕRiRѕ RЅRµSЃS‚RµSЂRїRЅRёRјRё SѓRјRѕRIR°RјRё R¶RёS‚S‚SЏ (RIRµRiR°RЅ R“R°SЂR°SЂS– RїSЂRёSЃRISЏS‚RёRI RgRµS‚R°R»SЊRЅRѕRјSѓ RѕRїRёSЃSѓ S†RёS… R¶R°S…S–S‚SЊ S‡RёRјR°R»Rѕ RјS–SЃS†SЏ).

R¦SЏ RЅRµRIS–RgRїRѕRIS–RgRЅS–SЃS‚SЊ RјS–R¶ RµRIRѕR»SЋS†S–R№RЅRёRј SѓSЃRїS–S…RѕRј S‚R° S–RЅRgRёRIS–RgSѓR°R»SЊRЅRёRјRё SЃS‚SЂR°R¶RgR°RЅRЅSЏRјRё S”, RјR°R±SѓS‚SЊ, RЅR°R№RIR°R¶R»RёRIS–S€RёRј SѓSЂRѕRyeRѕRј, SЏRyeRёR№ RЅR°Rј RgR°S” RЎS–R»SЊSЃSЊRyeRѕRiRѕSЃRїRѕRgR°SЂSЃSЊRyeR° SЂRµRIRѕR»SЋS†S–SЏ... RјRё R·RЅRѕRISѓ S‚R° R·RЅRѕRISѓ RїRѕR±R°S‡RёRјRѕ, SЏRye SЂS–R·RyeRµ R·R±S–R»SЊS€RµRЅRЅSЏ RyeRѕR»RµRyeS‚RёRIRЅRѕS— SЃRёR»Rё S‚R° RѕS‡RµRIRёRgRЅRёR№ SѓSЃRїS–S… RЅR°S€RѕRiRѕ RIRёRgSѓ SЂSѓRyeR° RI SЂSѓRyeSѓ R№S€R»Rё R· RIRµR»RёRyeRёRјRё SЃS‚SЂR°R¶RgR°RЅRЅSЏRјRё RѕRyeSЂRµRјRёS… R№RѕRiRѕ RїSЂRµRgSЃS‚R°RIRЅRёRyeS–RI”.

R† RЅR° RgRѕRgR°S‡Sѓ RgRѕ RЅRµSЃRyeS–RЅS‡RµRЅRЅRѕS— RIRёSЃRЅR°R¶R»RёRIRѕS— RїSЂR°S†S– R·RµRјR»RµSЂRѕR±Rё RѕS‚SЂRёRјR°R»Rё S‰Rµ RѕRgRёRЅ RyeR»RѕRїS–S‚, SЏRyeRѕRiRѕ RЅRµ R±SѓR»Rѕ Sѓ R·R±RёSЂR°S‡S–RI: RїR»R°RЅSѓRIR°RЅRЅSЏ RјR°R№R±SѓS‚RЅSЊRѕRiRѕ.

RўRѕR№, S…S‚Rѕ RЅRµ R·R°RiR»SЏRgR°RI RЅR° SЂS–Rye R°R±Rѕ RgRµSЃSЏS‚RёR»S–S‚S‚SЏ RЅR°RїRµSЂRµRg, RјSѓSЃRёRI RїRѕRјRµSЂS‚Rё R· RiRѕR»RѕRgSѓ.

R RѕR·SЂR°S…SѓRЅRѕRye SЂRёR·RёRyeS–RI RѕR·RЅR°S‡R°RI RIR¶RёS‚S‚SЏ RїSЂRµRIRµRЅS‚RёRIRЅRёS… R·R°S…RѕRgS–RI: RIS–Rg R±SѓRgS–RIRЅRёS†S‚RIR° R°RјR±R°SЂS–RI RgRѕ SЂRёS‚S‚SЏ RyeR°RЅR°R»S–RI, — R° S‚R°Rј RIR¶Rµ R±SѓR»Rѕ SЂSѓRyeRѕSЋ RїRѕRgR°S‚Rё RgRѕ RїRѕSЏRIRё RIR»R°RgRё RgR»SЏ RyeRµSЂSѓRIR°RЅRЅSЏ S†RёRјRё RїSЂRѕS†RµSЃR°RјRё.


***

RќRµRIRgRѕRIR·S– RЅR°RgR»RёS€RyeRё S—R¶S– RїRѕS‡R°R»Rё RIRёR»SѓS‡R°S‚RёSЃSЏ Sѓ SЃRµR»SЏRЅ RїRѕR»S–S‚RёS‡RЅRёRјRё SЃRёSЃS‚RµRјR°RјRё, SЏRyeS– RIRёRyeRѕSЂRёSЃS‚RѕRISѓRIR°R»Rё S†S– SЂRµSЃSѓSЂSЃRё RЅR° S‚RIRѕSЂRµRЅRЅSЏ S–RјRїRµSЂS–R№ S–R· RїS–SЂR°RјS–RgR°RјRё, RgRѕSЂRѕRiR°RјRё S‚R° S‚RµR°S‚SЂR°RјRё.

Rђ R·R°RyeSЂS–RїR»SЋRIR°R»Rё S†RµR№ RїRµSЂRµSЂRѕR·RїRѕRgS–R» “SѓSЏRIRЅS– RїRѕSЂSЏRgRyeRё”, R·R°S„S–RyeSЃRѕRIR°RЅS– Sѓ RgRѕRyeSѓRјRµRЅS‚R°S…: RIS–Rg RљRѕRgRµRyeSЃSѓ RGR°RјRјSѓSЂR°RїS– RgRѕ R”RµRyeR»R°SЂR°S†S–S— RЅRµR·R°R»RµR¶RЅRѕSЃS‚S– RЎRЁRђ (R° SЂS–R·RЅRёS†SЏ RјS–R¶ RЅRёRјRё, RЅR°RiR°RgSѓS” R°RIS‚RѕSЂ, S” R»RёS€Rµ Sѓ RЅR°S€S–R№ SѓSЏRIS–).

R¤SЂR°RiRјRµRЅS‚ RљRѕRgRµRyeSЃSѓ RGR°RјRјSѓSЂR°RїS–
R¤SЂR°RiRјRµRЅS‚ RљRѕRgRµRyeSЃSѓ RGR°RјRјSѓSЂR°RїS–
R¤RѕS‚Rѕ: Haider Adnan

R›RёS€Rµ RIS–SЂR° R±S–R»SЊS€RѕSЃS‚S– R»SЋRgRµR№, RѕSЃRѕR±R»RёRIRѕ RµR»S–S‚Rё S‚R° SЃRёR»RѕRIRёRyeS–RI, Sѓ S–S”SЂR°SЂS…S–SЋ S– RЅRµSЂS–RIRЅS–SЃS‚SЊ RgRѕR·RIRѕR»SЏR»R° S„SѓRЅRyeS†S–RѕRЅSѓRIR°S‚Rё RgR°RIRЅS–Rј S–RјRїRµSЂS–SЏRј, R»RёS€Rµ RIS–SЂR° Sѓ RgRµRјRѕRyeSЂR°S‚S–SЋ S‚R° RїSЂR°RIR° R»SЋRgRёRЅRё R·R°R±RµR·RїRµS‡SѓSЋS‚SЊ S–SЃRЅSѓRIR°RЅRЅSЏ S‚RµRїRµSЂS–S€RЅSЊRѕRiRѕ R·R°S…S–RgRЅRѕRiRѕ SЃRIS–S‚Sѓ.

RЎSѓS‡R°SЃRЅR° SЃRёSЃS‚RµRјR° RµRyeRѕRЅRѕRјS–RyeRё RЅRµ RїSЂRѕS‚SЂRёRјR°R»R°SЃSЏ R± S– RѕRgRЅRѕRiRѕ RgRЅSЏ, SЏRyeR±Rё R±S–R»SЊS€S–SЃS‚SЊ S–RЅRIRµSЃS‚RѕSЂS–RI S‚R° R±R°RЅRyeS–SЂS–RI RЅRµ R·RјRѕRiR»Rё RїRѕRIS–SЂRёS‚Rё RI RyeR°RїS–S‚R°R»S–R·Rј”.

RђR»Rµ S†RµR№ SѓSЏRIRЅRёR№ RїRѕSЂSЏRgRѕRye RЅRµ RIRёSЃRёS‚SЊ Sѓ RїRѕRIS–S‚SЂS–, R°, RїRѕ-RїRµSЂS€Rµ, RIRјRѕRЅS‚RѕRIR°RЅRёR№ Sѓ SЂRµR°R»SЊRЅS– SЂRµS‡S–, SЏRye-RѕS‚ RgR¶RёRЅSЃRё S‡Rё RgRёS‚SЏS‡S– RyeS–RјRЅR°S‚Rё, RїRѕ-RgSЂSѓRiRµ, R·R° RgRѕRїRѕRјRѕRiRѕSЋ SЂRµRyeR»R°RјRё S„RѕSЂRјSѓS” RЅR°S€S– RIR»R°SЃRЅS– R±R°R¶R°RЅRЅSЏ, RЅR°RїSЂRёRyeR»R°Rg, RgS–S”S‚RёS‡RЅSѓ “RљRѕR»Sѓ” S‡Rё RIS–RgRїSѓSЃS‚RyeSѓ Sѓ RџR°SЂRёR¶S–, S– RїRѕ-S‚SЂRµS‚S”, RїRѕS”RgRЅSѓS” RЅR°SЃ S–R· S–RЅS€RёRјRё R»SЋRgSЊRјRё.

R’RёS…RѕRgSѓ S–R· S–SЃRЅSѓSЋS‡RѕRiRѕ SѓSЏRIRЅRѕRiRѕ RїRѕSЂSЏRgRyeSѓ RЅRµRјR°S”, R°R»SЊS‚RµSЂRЅR°S‚RёRIR° — R°R±SЃRѕR»SЋS‚RЅR° SЃR°RјRѕS‚RЅS–SЃS‚SЊ.

RџRµSЂRµS…S–Rg RIS–Rg R¶RёS‚S‚SЏ RI RiSЂSѓRїR°S… RgRѕ R¶RёS‚S‚SЏ RI S–RјRїRµSЂS–SЏS… RIRёRјR°RiR°RI S‰Rµ RѕRgRЅS–S”S— RЅRѕRIR°S†S–S— — RїRёSЃRµRјRЅRѕSЃS‚S–.

RЎR°RјRµ R·R°RIRgSЏRyeRё S—R№ SЃS‚R°R»Rё RјRѕR¶R»RёRIS– R·R°RyeRѕRЅRё S‚R° RѕR±R»S–Rye RїRѕRgR°S‚RyeS–RI, S‚RѕR±S‚Rѕ R±SЋSЂRѕRyeSЂR°S‚S–SЏ.

RџRёSЃRµRјRЅS–SЃS‚SЊ R±SѓR»R° RЅR°SЃS‚S–R»SЊRyeRё RIR°R¶R»RёRIRѕSЋ, S‰Rѕ S—S— RЅRµR·R°R»RµR¶RЅRѕ RIRёRЅR°S…RѕRgRёR»Rё Sѓ SЂS–R·RЅRёS… RyeS–RЅS†SЏS… SЃRIS–S‚Sѓ, S– S†RµR№ RїSЂRѕS†RµSЃ S‚SЂRёRIR°S” RgRѕSЃS– (RїSЂRёRЅR°R№RјRЅS–, RgRѕ RїRѕSЏRIRё R±S–RЅR°SЂRЅRѕRiRѕ RyeRѕRgSѓ S‚RѕS‡RЅRѕ).

R†RЅS€RёRј RЅR°SЃR»S–RgRyeRѕRј S„RѕSЂRјSѓRIR°RЅRЅSЏ RIRµR»RёRyeRёS… SЃSѓSЃRїS–R»SЊSЃS‚RI SЃS‚R°R»R° RїRѕSЏRIR° RISЃSЋRgRёSЃSѓS‰RёS… S‚R° R·R°RIR¶RgRё RgRёSЃRyeSЂRёRјS–RЅR°S†S–R№RЅRёS… S–S”SЂR°SЂS…S–R№, SЏRye-RѕS‚ RyeR°SЃS‚RѕRIRѕS— RI R†RЅRgS–S—, SЂR°SЃRѕRIRѕS— RI RђRјRµSЂRёS†S– S‚R° RiRµRЅRgRµSЂRЅRѕS— RїRѕ RISЃSЊRѕRјSѓ SЃRIS–S‚S–.

RќR° R±R°RiR°S‚SЊRѕS… RїSЂRёRyeR»R°RgR°S… R°RIS‚RѕSЂ RїRѕRyeR°R·SѓS”, S‰Rѕ RI S—S…RЅS–R№ RѕSЃRЅRѕRIS– RЅRµRјR°S” RїSЂRёSЂRѕRgRЅRѕRiRѕ RgRµS‚RµSЂRјS–RЅS–R·RјSѓ, R° R»RёS€Rµ RyeSѓR»SЊS‚SѓSЂRЅS– SЃS‚RµSЂRµRѕS‚RёRїRё, S…RѕS‡R° RјSѓSЃRёS‚SЊ RIRёR·RЅR°S‚Rё, S‰Rѕ R¶RѕRgRЅRѕS— R·R°RiR°R»SЊRЅRѕRїSЂRёR№RЅSЏS‚RЅRѕS— S‚RµRѕSЂS–S— RѕR±T‘SЂSѓRЅS‚SѓRIR°RЅRЅSЏ S‡RѕR»RѕRIS–S‡RѕRiRѕ RїR°RЅSѓRIR°RЅRЅSЏ RЅR°Rg R¶S–RЅRyeR°RјRё RЅRµRјR°S” R№ RgRѕSЃS–.


***

RўSЂRµS‚SЏ S‡R°SЃS‚RёRЅR° RyeRЅRёRiRё RїSЂRёSЃRISЏS‡RµRЅR° RѕR±S”RgRЅR°RЅRЅSЋ R»SЋRgSЃS‚RIR°.

RЇRyeS‰Rѕ RgRёRIRёS‚RёSЃSЏ RЅR° S–SЃS‚RѕSЂS–SЋ R· RIRёSЃRѕS‚Rё RїS‚R°S€RёRЅRѕRiRѕ RїRѕR»SЊRѕS‚Sѓ, RyeR°R¶Rµ R“R°SЂR°SЂS–, S‚Rѕ R±SѓRgRµ RЅRµR·SЂRѕR·SѓRјS–R»RёRј, Sѓ SЏRyeRёR№ R±S–Rye RIRѕRЅR° SЂSѓS…R°S”S‚SЊSЃSЏ, R±Rѕ RЅR° RyeRѕR¶RЅSѓ S–RЅS‚RµRiSЂR°S†S–SЋ R»SЋRgRµR№, SЃRyeR°R¶S–RјRѕ, SЃRIS–S‚RѕRIRѕSЋ SЂRµR»S–RiS–S”SЋ, RїSЂRёRїR°RgR°S” RgRµR·S–RЅS‚RµRiSЂR°S†S–SЏ S–RјRїRµSЂS–S— RЅR° RЅR°S†S–RѕRЅR°R»SЊRЅS– RgRµSЂR¶R°RIRё.

RЁSѓRјRµSЂSЃSЊRyeRёR№ RyeR»RёRЅRѕRїRёSЃ
RЁSѓRјRµSЂSЃSЊRyeRёR№ RyeR»RёRЅRѕRїRёSЃ

RЈS‚S–Rј, SЏRyeS‰Rѕ RїS–RgRЅSЏS‚RёSЃSЏ RgRѕ SЂS–RIRЅSЏ SЃSѓRїSѓS‚RЅRёRyeR°, S‚Rѕ RISЃRµ SЃS‚R°S” RѕS‡RµRIRёRgRЅRёRј — R»SЋRgSЃSЊRyeS– RyeSѓR»SЊS‚SѓSЂRё SЃRїRѕR»SѓS‡R°SЋS‚SЊSЃSЏ.

RЇRyeS‰Rѕ 10 S‚RёSЃSЏS‡ SЂRѕRyeS–RI S‚RѕRјSѓ RЅR°SЃRµR»RµRЅRЅSЏ RїR»R°RЅRµS‚Rё R±SѓR»Rѕ R·R°RјRyeRЅRµRЅRµ Sѓ S‚RёSЃSЏS‡R°S… RЅR°RgS–R№RЅRѕ S–R·RѕR»SЊRѕRIR°RЅRёS… SЃRIS–S‚S–RI, S‚Rѕ R·R° 2 S‚RёSЃSЏS‡S– SЂRѕRyeS–RI RgRѕ R .RG. S†RёS… SЃRёSЃS‚RµRј R·R°R»RёS€RёR»RѕSЃSЏ RyeS–R»SЊRyeR° SЃRѕS‚RµRЅSЊ, R° RЅR°RїRµSЂRµRgRѕRgRЅS– S”RISЂRѕRїRµR№SЃSЊRyeRѕS— RyeRѕR»RѕRЅS–R·R°S†S–S— — RyeS–R»SЊRyeR° S€S‚SѓRye.

RќRёRЅS–, RЅRµR·RIR°R¶R°SЋS‡Rё RЅR° RgRµSЂR¶R°RIRЅS– RyeRѕSЂRgRѕRЅRё, RјRё R¶RёRIRµRјRѕ Sѓ RѕRgRЅRѕRјSѓ-S”RgRёRЅRѕRјSѓ SЃRIS–S‚S– R· SѓSЃS–RјR° RїRµSЂRµRIR°RiR°RјRё S‚R° RЅRµRgRѕR»S–RyeR°RјRё S‚R°RyeRѕRiRѕ SЃS‚R°RЅSѓ.

RџRѕS‡R°S‚RѕRye “RiR»RѕR±R°R»S–R·R°S†S–S—” R±SѓRI R·R°RyeR»R°RgRµRЅRёR№ Sѓ 1 S‚RёSЃSЏS‡RѕR»S–S‚S‚S– RgRѕ R .RG. S–R· RїRѕSЏRIRѕSЋ S‚SЂSЊRѕS… SѓRЅS–RIRµSЂSЃR°R»SЊRЅRёS… RїRѕSЂSЏRgRyeS–RI, SЏRyeS– RIRёRIRёS‰SѓRIR°R»RёSЃSЏ RЅR°Rg RїR»RµRјS–RЅRЅRёRј SЂS–R·RЅRѕRјR°RЅS–S‚S‚SЏRј: RјRѕRЅRµS‚R°SЂRЅRѕRiRѕ, S–RјRїRµSЂSЃSЊRyeRѕRiRѕ S‚R° SЂRµR»S–RiS–R№RЅRѕRiRѕ.

RџRµSЂS€RёRјRё R»SЋRgSЊRјRё, SЏRyeS– R·SѓRјS–R»Rё RIRёR№S‚Rё R·R° RјRµR¶S– R±S–RЅR°SЂRЅRѕRiRѕ RµRIRѕR»SЋS†S–R№RЅRѕRiRѕ RїRѕRgS–R»Sѓ «RЅR°SЃ RїSЂRѕS‚Rё RЅRёS…» S‚R° RїRµSЂRµRgR±R°S‡RёS‚Rё RїRѕS‚RµRЅS†S–R°R» RѕR±’S”RgRЅR°RЅRЅSЏ R»SЋRgSЃS‚RIR°, SЃS‚R°R»Rё S‚RѕSЂRiS–RIS†S–, R·R°RIRѕR№RѕRIRЅRёRyeRё S‚R° RїSЂRѕSЂRѕRyeRё.

R”R»SЏ S‚RѕSЂRiS–RIS†S–RI SѓRIRµSЃSЊ SЃRIS–S‚ R±SѓRI RѕRgRЅRёRј RIRµR»RёRyeRёRј SЂRёRЅRyeRѕRј, R° RISЃS– R»SЋRgRё — RїRѕS‚RµRЅS†S–R№RЅRёRјRё RїRѕRyeSѓRїS†SЏRјRё.

R”R»SЏ R·R°RIRѕR№RѕRIRЅRёRyeS–RI SѓRIRµSЃSЊ SЃRIS–S‚ R±SѓRI RѕRgRЅS–S”SЋ RIRµR»RёRyeRѕSЋ S–RјRїRµSЂS–S”SЋ, R° RISЃS– R»SЋRgRё — RїRѕS‚RµRЅS†S–R№RЅRёRјRё RїS–RgRgR°RЅRёRјRё.

R”R»SЏ RїSЂRѕSЂRѕRyeS–RI R¶Rµ SѓRIRµSЃSЊ SЃRIS–S‚ RјR°RI S”RgRёRЅSѓ S–SЃS‚RёRЅSѓ, R° RISЃS– R»SЋRgRё R±SѓR»Rё RїRѕS‚RµRЅS†S–R№RЅRёRјRё RIS–SЂSѓSЋS‡RёRјRё”.

R’SЃS– RIRѕRЅRё RЅR°RјR°RiR°R»RёSЃSЏ RISЃS‚R°RЅRѕRIRёS‚Rё S‚R°RyeRёR№ RїRѕSЂSЏRgRѕRye, SЏRyeRёR№ R±Rё R·R°RgRѕRIRѕR»SЊRЅSЏRI SѓSЃS–S… S‚R° SЃRyeSЂS–R·SЊ.


***

R”R°R»S– RЅR° RyeS–R»SЊRyeR°RgRµSЃSЏS‚SЊRѕS… SЃS‚RѕSЂS–RЅRyeR°S… R°RIS‚RѕSЂ RѕRїRёSЃSѓS” S–SЃS‚RѕSЂS–SЋ RiSЂRѕS€RµR№ RIS–Rg RїRµSЂS€RёS… S‚RѕRIR°SЂS–RI-RµRyeRIS–RIR°R»RµRЅS‚S–RI RgRѕ SЃSѓS‡R°SЃRЅRѕS— RµR»RµRyeS‚SЂRѕRЅRЅRѕS— RyeRѕRјRµSЂS†S–S—.

R“R°SЂR°SЂS– RїRѕRISЃSЏRyeS‡R°SЃ RЅR°RiR°RgSѓS” SЃRIRѕSЋ RiRѕR»RѕRIRЅSѓ S‚RµR·Sѓ: RiSЂRѕS€S– S–SЃRЅSѓSЋS‚SЊ R»RёS€Rµ S‚RѕRјSѓ, S‰Rѕ RјRё Sѓ RЅRёS… RIS–SЂRёRјRѕ.

R“SЂRѕS€S– — RЅR°R№RµS„RµRyeS‚RёRIRЅS–S€R° SЃRёSЃS‚RµRјR° RIR·R°S”RјRЅRѕS— RgRѕRIS–SЂRё RI S–SЃS‚RѕSЂS–S— R»SЋRgSЃS‚RIR°, SЏRyeR° RїRµSЂRµRyeRёRgR°S” RјS–SЃS‚RyeRё RјS–R¶ RyeSѓR»SЊS‚SѓSЂR°RјRё, RЅS–RyeRѕRiRѕ RЅRµ RgRёSЃRyeSЂRёRјS–RЅSѓS” S‚R° RgRѕR·RIRѕR»SЏS” SЃRїS–RIRїSЂR°S†SЋRIR°S‚Rё RЅRµR·RЅR°R№RѕRјS†SЏRј.

RЈS‚S–Rј, S– S‚RµRјRЅRёR№ R±S–Rye “R±RµR·SЃRµSЂRgRµS‡RЅRѕS—” RyeRѕRјRµSЂS†S–R°R»S–R·R°S†S–S— SЃRIS–S‚Sѓ RIS–RЅ S‚RµR¶ RЅRµ RѕRјRёRЅR°S”.

R”R°R»S– R°RIS‚RѕSЂ RyeRѕRЅS†RµRЅS‚SЂSѓS” SѓRIR°RiSѓ RЅR° S–RјRїRµSЂS–SЏS…, SЏRyeS–, RISЃSѓRїRµSЂRµS‡ SЃSЊRѕRiRѕRgRЅS–S€RЅS–Rј RїR°S†RёS„S–SЃS‚SЃSЊRyeRёRј SѓSЏRIR»RµRЅRЅSЏRј, R±SѓR»Rё RЅR°R№RїRѕS€RёSЂRµRЅS–S€RѕSЋ S„RѕSЂRјRѕSЋ RѕSЂRiR°RЅS–R·R°S†S–S— R»SЋRgRµR№ RїSЂRѕS‚SЏRiRѕRј RѕSЃS‚R°RЅRЅS–S… 2,5 S‚RёSЃSЏS‡ SЂRѕRyeS–RI RI SѓSЃS–S… R±RµR· RIRёRЅSЏS‚RyeSѓ RyeSѓS‚RѕS‡RyeR°S… RїR»R°RЅRµS‚Rё.

R†RјRїRµSЂS–S— RgS–SЏR»Rё SЏRye R±R°RiR°S‚RѕS‚RѕRЅRЅS– RgRѕSЂRѕR¶RЅS– RiRµR№RgRµSЂRё S‚R° SѓRЅS–S„S–RyeSѓRIR°R»Rё RїRµSЂRIS–SЃRЅRµ RyeSѓR»SЊS‚SѓSЂRЅRѕ-RїR»RµRјS–RЅRЅRµ SЂRѕR·RјR°S—S‚S‚SЏ RgRѕ SЃS‚R°RЅRgR°SЂS‚S–RI SЃSѓS‡R°SЃRЅRѕRiRѕ SЃRIS–S‚Sѓ, RѕSЃRѕR±R»RёRIRѕ Sѓ SЃS„RµSЂR°S… RїRѕR»S–S‚RёRyeRё S‚R° SЋSЂRёSЃRїSЂSѓRgRµRЅS†S–S—.

R RёRјSЃSЊRyeS– RgRёRЅR°SЂS–S—
R RёRјSЃSЊRyeS– RgRёRЅR°SЂS–S—

R“R°SЂR°SЂS– RЅR°SЃRјS–S…R°S”S‚SЊSЃSЏ RЅR°Rg RЅR°SѓRyeRѕRIS†SЏRјRё S‚R° RїRѕR»S–S‚RёRyeR°RјRё, RїR°S„RѕSЃRЅRѕ RЅR°R»R°S€S‚RѕRIR°RЅRёRјRё RїSЂRѕS‚Rё S–RјRїRµSЂS–R°R»S–R·RјSѓ: “R¶RѕRgRµRЅ R°RyeR°RgRµRјS–Rye S‡Rё RїRѕR»S–S‚RёS‡RЅRёR№ S…S–SЂSѓSЂRi RЅRµ R·RgR°S‚RµRЅ RIS–RgSЂS–R·R°S‚Rё S–RјRїRµSЂSЃSЊRyeSѓ SЃRїR°RgS‰RёRЅSѓ, RЅRµ RIR±RёRIS€Rё RїR°S†S–S”RЅS‚R°”.

RћRgRЅR°Rye RЅR°Rg R№RѕRiRѕ RїSЂRѕRiRЅRѕR·RѕRј RїSЂRѕ R·R°RЅRµRїR°Rg RЅR°S†S–RѕRЅR°R»S–R·RјSѓ S– SЂSѓS… SЃRIS–S‚Sѓ RgRѕ RiR»RѕR±R°R»SЊRЅRѕS— S–RјRїRµSЂS–S— RјRѕR¶RµRјRѕ RїRѕSЃRјS–SЏS‚RёSЃSЏ RIR¶Rµ RјRё.

RќR°SЂRµS€S‚S–, RјRѕRIR° R·R°S…RѕRgRёS‚SЊ RїSЂRѕ SЂRµR»S–RiS–SЋ.

RЎSЊRѕRiRѕRgRЅS– SЂRµR»S–RiS–SЏ S‡R°SЃS‚Rѕ RIRIR°R¶R°S”S‚SЊSЃSЏ RgR¶RµSЂRµR»RѕRј RgRёSЃRyeSЂRёRјS–RЅR°S†S–S—, RЅRµR·RiRѕRgRё S‚R° SЂRѕR·’S”RgRЅR°RЅRЅSЏ. RџSЂRѕS‚Rµ, S„R°RyeS‚RёS‡RЅRѕ, SЂRµR»S–RiS–SЏ R±SѓR»R° S‚SЂRµS‚S–Rј RIRµR»RёRyeRёRј RѕR±’S”RgRЅSѓRIR°S‡RµRј R»SЋRgSЃS‚RIR°, RЅR°SЂS–RIRЅS– R· RiSЂRѕS€RёRјR° S‚R° S–RјRїRµSЂS–SЏRјRё”.

RђRIS‚RѕSЂ RїSЂRѕRIRѕRgRёS‚SЊ RЅR°SЃ RgRѕSЂRѕRiRѕSЋ RIS–Rg R°RЅS–RјS–R·RјSѓ RgRѕ RїRѕR»S–S‚RµS—R·RјSѓ, R° RIS–RgS‚R°Rye — RїRѕS‡R°S‚RyeRѕRIRѕRiRѕ RјRѕRЅRѕS‚RµS—R·RјSѓ, R°R»Rµ RgRѕ RIRёRЅRёRyeRЅRµRЅRЅSЏ SѓRЅS–RIRµSЂSЃR°R»SЊRЅRёS… RјS–SЃS–RѕRЅRµSЂSЃSЊRyeRёS… SЂRµR»S–RiS–R№: R±SѓRgRgRёR·RјSѓ, S…SЂRёSЃS‚RёSЏRЅSЃS‚RIR° S‚R° S–SЃR»R°RјSѓ, — RyeSѓR»SЊS‚Rё SЂR°RgS€Rµ SЂRѕR·S”RgRЅSѓRIR°R»Rё, RЅS–R¶ RѕR±S”RgRЅSѓRIR°R»Rё R»SЋRgRµR№.

R’S‚S–Rј, RЅR°RIS–S‚SЊ S‚R°RyeRёR№ RIRёRg SЂRµR»S–RiS–S— RЅRµ SѓR±RµR·RїRµS‡RёRI R»SЋRgSЃS‚RIRѕ RIS–Rg RЅR°SЃRёR»SЊSЃS‚RIR° S– R¶RѕSЂSЃS‚RѕRyeRѕSЃS‚S–.

RўR° R№ S‚Rµ, S‰Rѕ RїSЂRёR№S€R»Rѕ S—Rј RЅR° R·RјS–RЅSѓ: RiSѓRјR°RЅS–R·Rј S‚R° RyeRѕRјSѓRЅS–R·Rј (S‰Rѕ, R·R° R“R°SЂR°SЂS–, S” RїRѕRIRЅRѕS†S–RЅRЅRёRј RIS–SЂRѕRIS‡RµRЅRЅSЏRј, RѕRgRЅRёRј R· S‚SЂSЊRѕS… RїRѕS…S–RgRЅRёS… RIS–Rg RiSѓRјR°RЅS–R·RјSѓ, RїRѕSЂSѓS‡ S–R· R»S–R±RµSЂR°R»S–R·RјRѕRј S‚R° RЅR°S†RёR·RјRѕRј), — RIRёSЏRIRёR»RѕSЃSЏ RЅS–S‡RёRј RЅRµ RyeSЂR°S‰RёRј.

RљRѕRјRµSЂS†S–SЏ, S–RјRїRµSЂS–S— S‚R° SѓRЅS–RIRµSЂSЃR°R»SЊRЅS– SЂRµR»S–RiS–S—, RISЂRµS€S‚S–-SЂRµS€S‚, RїS–RgRIRµR»Rё RїSЂR°RyeS‚RёS‡RЅRѕ RISЃS–S… SЂRѕR·SѓRјRЅRёS… RЅR° RISЃS–S… RyeRѕRЅS‚RёRЅRµRЅS‚R°S… RgRѕ RiR»RѕR±R°R»SЊRЅRѕRiRѕ SЃRIS–S‚Sѓ, RI SЏRyeRѕRјSѓ RјRё R¶RёRIRµRјRѕ SЃSЊRѕRiRѕRgRЅS–. RќRµ S‚Rµ, S‰RѕR±Rё S†RµR№ S€R»SЏS… RµRyeSЃRїR°RЅSЃS–S— S‚R° RѕR±’S”RgRЅR°RЅRЅSЏ R±SѓRI RїSЂSЏRјRёRј R°R±Rѕ R±RµR· RїRµSЂRµS€RyeRѕRg.

RџSЂRѕS‚Rµ, RgRёRIR»SЏS‡RёSЃSЊ RЅR° R·R°RiR°R»SЊRЅSѓ RyeR°SЂS‚RёRЅSѓ, RјRѕR¶RЅR° SЃRyeR°R·R°S‚Rё, S‰Rѕ RїRµSЂRµS…S–Rg RIS–Rg R±R°RiR°S‚SЊRѕS… RјR°R»RёS… RyeSѓR»SЊS‚SѓSЂ RgRѕ RyeS–R»SЊRyeRѕS… RIRµR»RёRyeRёS… S‚R°, RЅR°SЂRµS€S‚S–, RgRѕ S”RgRёRЅRѕRiRѕ RiR»RѕR±R°R»SЊRЅRѕRiRѕ SЃSѓSЃRїS–R»SЊSЃS‚RIR° SЃS‚R°RI, RјR°R±SѓS‚SЊ, RЅRµRјRёRЅSѓS‡RёRј SЂRµR·SѓR»SЊS‚R°S‚RѕRј RgRёRЅR°RјS–S‡RЅRѕRiRѕ SЂRѕR·RIRёS‚RyeSѓ S–SЃS‚RѕSЂS–S— R»SЋRgSЃS‚RIR°”.


***

R§RµS‚RIRµSЂS‚R° S‡R°SЃS‚RёRЅR° RyeRЅRёRiRё RѕRїRёSЃSѓS” RќR°SѓRyeRѕRISѓ SЂRµRIRѕR»SЋS†S–SЋ, S‰Rѕ SЂRѕR·RїRѕS‡R°R»R°SЃSЏ RїSЏS‚SЃRѕS‚ SЂRѕRyeS–RI S‚RѕRјSѓ S– R·R°RyeR»R°R»R° RїS–RgRIR°R»RёRЅRё SЃSѓS‡R°SЃRЅRѕRiRѕ SЃRIS–S‚Sѓ.

R S–R·RЅRёS†SЏ RјS–R¶ 1000 S‚R° 1500 SЂRѕRyeR°RјRё R±SѓR»R° RЅRµR·RЅR°S‡RЅRѕSЋ, RЅR°S‚RѕRјS–SЃS‚SЊ R·R° RѕSЃS‚R°RЅRЅS– RїS–RI S‚RёSЃSЏS‡RѕR»S–S‚S‚SЏ RЅR°SЃRµR»RµRЅRЅSЏ R—RµRјR»S–, R·R°RIRgSЏRyeRё RЅR°SЃR»S–RgRyeR°Rј RЅRѕRIRёS… RIS–RgRyeSЂRёS‚S‚S–RI, R·R±S–R»SЊS€RёR»RѕSЃSЊ Sѓ 14 SЂR°R·S–RI, R° RIRёSЂRѕR±RЅRёS†S‚RIRѕ — Sѓ 240!

R’ RѕSЃRЅRѕRIS– S†S–S”S— SЂRµRIRѕR»SЋS†S–S— R»RµR¶R°R»Rё RgRIS– S–RgRµS—:

R°) RјRѕR¶R»RёRIS–SЃS‚SЊ R·RgRѕR±SѓS‚S‚SЏ RїSЂRёRЅS†RёRїRѕRIRѕ RЅRѕRIRѕRiRѕ R·RЅR°RЅRЅSЏ R·R°RIRgSЏRyeRё RЅR°SѓRyeRѕRIRёRј RјRµS‚RѕRgR°Rј, R° RЅRµ R»RёS€Rµ R·R±RµSЂRµR¶RµRЅRЅSЏ SѓR¶Rµ RIS–RgRyeSЂRёS‚RѕRiRѕ SЂR°RЅS–S€Rµ;

R±) RIS–RgSЃSѓS‚RЅS–SЃS‚SЊ Sѓ RЅR°SѓS†S– S–SЃS‚RёRЅRё RI RѕSЃS‚R°RЅRЅS–R№ S–RЅSЃS‚R°RЅS†S–S— S‚R° RїRѕSЃS‚S–R№RЅR° RIRµSЂRёS„S–RyeR°S†S–SЏ RgRѕSЃSЏRiRЅRµRЅSЊ RїRѕRїRµSЂRµRgRЅRёRyeS–RI.

R“RµRѕRiSЂR°S„S–S‡RЅS– RIS–RgRyeSЂRёS‚S‚SЏ XVI RIS–RyeSѓ R·R°RїSѓSЃS‚RёR»Rё RќR°SѓRyeRѕRISѓ SЂRµRIRѕR»SЋS†S–SЋ XVII SЃS‚RѕR»S–S‚S‚SЏ.

RљRѕSЂR°R±R»S– RGSЂRёSЃS‚RѕS„RѕSЂR° RљRѕR»SѓRјR±R°: RќS–RЅ’SЏ, RџS–RЅS‚R° S‚R° RЎR°RЅS‚R°-RњR°SЂS–SЏ
RљRѕSЂR°R±R»S– RGSЂRёSЃS‚RѕS„RѕSЂR° RљRѕR»SѓRјR±R°: RќS–RЅ’SЏ, RџS–RЅS‚R° S‚R° RЎR°RЅS‚R°-RњR°SЂS–SЏ

RќRѕRIS– RgRѕSЃR»S–RgR¶RµRЅRЅSЏ RgR°RIR°R»Rё RЅRѕRIS– R·RЅR°RЅRЅSЏ, R·RЅR°RЅRЅSЏ – RїRѕSЂRѕRgR¶SѓRIR°R»Rё S‚RµS…RЅRѕR»RѕRiS–S—, S‚S– – RgRѕR·RIRѕR»SЏR»Rё RѕS‚SЂRёRјSѓRIR°S‚Rё R±S–R»SЊS€Rµ RgRѕS…RѕRgS–RI, S‡R°SЃS‚RёRЅR° R· SЏRyeRёS… R№S€R»R° RЅR° RЅR°SѓRyeSѓ.

RћSЃS‚R°RЅRЅS– 300 SЂRѕRyeS–RI SЂSѓS… S†RёRј RyeRѕR»RѕRј R»RёS€Rµ RїSЂRёS€RIRёRgS€SѓRIR°RISЃSЏ, RgR°SЂSѓSЋS‡Rё RЅR°Rј RЅRµR±R°S‡RµRЅS– SЂR°RЅS–S€Rµ SЂRµS‡S– (RiRѕR»RѕRIRЅRµ — R·R±SЂRѕSЋ S‚R° RIRµSЂSЃS‚R°S‚Rё), SЂSЏS‚SѓSЋS‡Rё RIS–Rg R±S–RgRЅRѕSЃS‚S– R№ S…RIRѕSЂRѕR± S‚R° RїRµSЂRµRyeRѕRЅSѓSЋS‡Rё Sѓ RЅRµR·RIRѕSЂRѕS‚RЅRѕSЃS‚S– RїSЂRѕRiSЂRµSЃSѓ.

RЎRїR°R№RyeR° RЅR°SѓRyeRё R· S–RјRїRµSЂS–R°R»S–R·RјRѕRј, R° S—S… RѕR±RѕS… — S–R· RyeR°RїS–S‚R°R»S–R·RјRѕRј, R±SѓR»R° SЂSѓS€S–R№RЅRѕSЋ SЃRёR»RѕSЋ RїRµSЂRµS‚RIRѕSЂRµRЅSЊ SѓRїSЂRѕRgRѕRIR¶ RѕSЃS‚R°RЅRЅS–S… RїSЏS‚RёSЃRѕS‚ SЂRѕRyeS–RI.

RќRµ RјRёRЅR°S” R“R°SЂR°SЂS– S– “RїSЂRѕRyeR»SЏS‚RѕRiRѕ” RїRёS‚R°RЅRЅSЏ — S‡RѕRјSѓ SЃR°RјRµ R„RISЂRѕRїS– R·R° S†RµR№ RїRµSЂS–RѕRg RIRgR°R»RѕSЃSЏ RїS–RgRyeRѕSЂRёS‚Rё SЃRIS–S‚?

RќR° RgSѓRјRyeSѓ R°RIS‚RѕSЂR°, S‚S–R»SЊRyeRё Sѓ S†S–R№ S‡R°SЃS‚RёRЅS– SЃRIS–S‚Sѓ RIRёRЅRёRyeR»Rѕ SѓRЅS–RyeR°R»SЊRЅRµ RїRѕS”RgRЅR°RЅRЅSЏ R·R°RiR°R»SЊRЅRѕSЃRIS–S‚RѕRIRѕRiRѕ R·R°RIRѕR№RѕRIRЅRёS†SЊRyeRѕRiRѕ S–RјRїRµSЂR°S‚RёRISѓ S–R· S†S–RЅRЅRѕSЃS‚SЏRјRё RЅR°SѓRyeRё S‚R° S†S–RЅRЅRѕSЃS‚SЏRјRё RyeR°RїS–S‚R°R»S–R·RјSѓ.

RџRѕ-RїRµSЂS€Rµ, R»RёS€Rµ S”RISЂRѕRїRµR№SЃSЊRyeS– RѕS„S–S†RµSЂRё R±SѓR»Rё RѕRgRЅRѕS‡R°SЃRЅRѕ R№ RgRѕSЃR»S–RgRЅRёRyeR°RјRё: S–SЃRїR°RЅS†S– RI RђRјRµSЂRёS†S–, S„SЂR°RЅS†SѓR·Rё RI R„RiRёRїS‚S–, R±SЂRёS‚R°RЅS†S– RI R†RЅRgS–S— S‚R° RџRµSЂSЃS–S—.

RќR°SѓRyeR° RgRѕR·RIRѕR»SЏR»R° RIS–R№SЃSЊRyeRѕRIRёRј R»RµRiS€Rµ RїRµSЂRµRјR°RiR°S‚Rё RIRѕSЂRѕRiS–RI, R·R° S†Rµ RgRµSЂR¶R°RIRё SЃRїRѕRЅSЃRѕSЂSѓRIR°R»Rё RЅR°SѓRyeSѓ.

RџRѕ-RgSЂSѓRiRµ, R»RёS€Rµ RI R„RISЂRѕRїS– RIS–R»SЊRЅRёR№ RIS–Rg SЂRµR»S–RiS–R№RЅRёS… RѕR±RјRµR¶RµRЅSЊ RyeSЂRµRgRёS‚ Sѓ SЃRѕSЋR·S– S–R· R·R°S…RёS‰RµRЅRѕSЋ RїSЂRёRIR°S‚RЅRѕSЋ RIR»R°SЃRЅS–SЃS‚SЋ RIS–RgRyeSЂRёR»Rё S€R»SЏS… RgRѕ RЅRµRѕR±RјRµR¶RµRЅRѕRiRѕ R·R±R°RiR°S‡RµRЅRЅSЏ.

RЁRIRёRgRyeRѕ R·SЂRѕSЃS‚R°SЋS‡S– RyeR°RїS–S‚R°R»Rё RgRѕR·RIRѕR»SЏR»Rё S–RЅRIRµSЃS‚SѓRIR°S‚Rё RI S–RЅRЅRѕRIR°S†S–S— (SЏRye-RѕS‚ RїR°SЂRѕRIRёR№ RgRIRёRiSѓRЅ), R° S–RЅRЅRѕRIR°S†S–S— R·R±S–R»SЊS€SѓRIR°R»Rё RїSЂRёR±SѓS‚RyeRё RyeR°RїS–S‚R°R»S–SЃS‚S–RI.

R©Rµ RѕRgRЅRёRј S€R»SЏS…RѕRј RѕS‚SЂRёRјR°RЅRЅSЏ RgRѕS…RѕRgS–RI R±SѓR»R° RyeRѕR»RѕRЅS–R·R°S†S–SЏ SЃRIS–S‚Sѓ, R°R»Rµ RЅS–RgRµ R±S–R»SЊS€Rµ RЅR° RїR»R°RЅRµS‚S–, RyeSЂS–Rј R„RISЂRѕRїRё, RїSЂRёRIR°S‚RЅS– RyeRѕRјRїR°RЅS–S— (RiRѕR»RѕRIRЅRµ — RћSЃS‚-R†RЅRgSЃSЊRyeS–) RЅRµ SЃS‚R°RIR°R»Rё R±S–R»SЊS€ SѓSЃRїS–S€RЅRёRјRё R·R°RIRѕR№RѕRIRЅRёRyeR°RјRё, RЅS–R¶ RgRµSЂR¶R°RIRё.

R†RјRїRµSЂS–S—, RїRѕR±SѓRgRѕRIR°RЅS– RЅR° RyeSЂRµRgRёS‚S– (R‘SЂRёS‚R°RЅS–SЏ, R“RѕR»R»R°RЅRgS–SЏ), RIRёSЏRIRёR»RёSЃSЏ RµS„RµRyeS‚RёRIRЅS–S€RёRјRё R·R° SЃS‚R°SЂS– R°RiSЂR°SЂRЅRѕ-S‚RѕSЂRiRѕRIRµR»SЊRЅS– RgRµSЂR¶R°RIRё (R†SЃRїR°RЅS–SЏ, R¤SЂR°RЅS†S–SЏ), S‚RѕR¶ R„RISЂRѕRїR° RїS–RgRyeRѕSЂRёR»R° SЃRIS–S‚, R° RyeR°RїS–S‚R°R»S–R·Rј — R„RISЂRѕRїSѓ.

RђR»Rµ SЂRёRЅRyeRѕRIS– SЃS‚RѕSЃSѓRЅRyeRё RIS–Rg RїRѕS‡R°S‚RyeSѓ RјR°R»Rё S– R·RIRѕSЂRѕS‚RЅS–R№ R±S–Rye: SѓR±RѕRiS–SЃS‚SЊ S‚R° R±RµR·RїSЂR°RIRЅS–SЃS‚SЊ RЅR°R№RјR°RЅRёS… RїSЂR°S†S–RIRЅRёRyeS–RI RIRgRѕRјR°, RїRѕRiSЂR°R±SѓRIR°RЅRЅSЏ RјS–SЃS†RµRIRёS… R¶RёS‚RµR»S–RI S– SЂR°R±SЃS‚RIRѕ Sѓ RyeRѕR»RѕRЅS–SЏS…, RЅRµ RyeR°R¶SѓS‡Rё RIR¶Rµ RїSЂRѕ RiRµRЅRѕS†RёRgRё RI RђS„SЂRёS†S–, RiRѕR»RѕRg RI R†RЅRgS–S— S‡Rё RѕRїS–SѓRјRЅSѓ R·R°R»RµR¶RЅS–SЃS‚SЊ RI RљRёS‚R°S—, RѕSЂRiR°RЅS–R·RѕRIR°RЅS– S”RISЂRѕRїRµR№S†SЏRјRё.

R R°R±RѕS‚RѕSЂRiS–RIR»SЏ
R R°R±RѕS‚RѕSЂRiS–RIR»SЏ

RќR° SЃSѓS‡R°SЃRЅRѕRјSѓ RµS‚R°RїS– R±RµR·RїSЂRµS†RµRgRµRЅS‚RЅR° RyeRѕRјRµSЂS†S–R°R»S–R·R°S†S–SЏ RIRёRЅRЅR° Sѓ R±RµR·RgSѓRјRЅRѕRјSѓ SЃRїRѕR¶RёRIR°S†S‚RIS– RјR°SЃ S‚R° RµRyeRѕR»RѕRiS–S‡RЅRёS… RїSЂRѕR±R»RµRјR°S….

RќR°SЂRµS€S‚S–, RЅR°SѓRyeR° RїRѕRgR°SЂSѓRIR°R»R° R»SЋRgSЃS‚RISѓ RїRµSЂRµS‚RIRѕSЂRµRЅRЅSЏ RµRЅRµSЂRiS–S—.

R’S–Rg RјSЏR·S–RI S‚R° SЃRїRѕSЂR°RgRёS‡RЅRѕ R·R»RѕRIR»RµRЅRѕS— SЃRёR»Rё RIS–S‚SЂSѓ RјRё RїRµSЂRµR№S€R»Rё RgRѕ RIRёRyeRѕRїRЅRѕRiRѕ RїR°R»RёRIR° (RISѓRiS–R»R»SЏ, RЅR°S„S‚R°), R° RїS–R·RЅS–S€Rµ — RgRѕ R°S‚RѕRјRЅRёS… SЂRµR°RyeS‚RѕSЂS–RI.

R¦Rµ RїSЂRёR·RIRµR»Rѕ RgRѕ SЂRёRIRyeSѓ RїSЂRѕRgSѓRyeS‚RёRIRЅRѕSЃS‚S–: R·R°RIRѕRgSЃSЊRyeRµ SЃS‚R°RЅRyeRѕRIRµ, R° RїRѕS‚S–Rј RIR·R°RiR°R»S– RyeRѕRЅRIRµS”SЂRЅRµ RIRёSЂRѕR±RЅRёS†S‚RIRѕ, RgRIRёRiSѓRЅRё RgR»SЏ R°RIS‚RѕRјRѕR±S–R»S–RI, RїRѕS‚SЏRiS–RI, RїR°SЂRѕRїR»R°RIS–RI S– R°RIS–R°S†S–S—, S…S–RјS–S‡RЅS– RјR°S‚RµSЂS–R°R»Rё S– RgRѕR±SЂRёRIR°, — RISЃRµ S†Rµ SЃRyeR»R°RgRѕRIS– RџSЂRѕRјRёSЃR»RѕRIRѕS— SЂRµRIRѕR»SЋS†S–S—, SЏRyeR° R· RGR†RG SЃS‚RѕR»S–S‚S‚SЏ RIRёR·RЅR°S‡R°S” RѕR±R»RёS‡S‡SЏ SЃRIS–S‚Sѓ.


***

RЎRїRёSЃRѕRye RiRѕR»RѕRIRЅRёS… RIS–RgRјS–RЅRЅRѕSЃS‚RµR№ SѓSЃS–S… RїRѕRїRµSЂRµRgRЅS–S… S‡R°SЃS–RI RIS–Rg S‚RµRїRµSЂS–S€RЅSЊRѕS— RgRѕR±Rё, RїRѕSЂRѕRgR¶RµRЅRёS… RџSЂRѕRјRёSЃR»RѕRIRѕSЋ SЂRµRIRѕR»SЋS†S–S”SЋ, R·R° R“R°SЂR°SЂS– RIRёRiR»SЏRgR°S” S‚R°Rye:

  • SЃS‚R°RЅRgR°SЂS‚RёR·R°S†S–SЏ RIRёSЂRѕR±RЅRёS†S‚RIR°,
  • SЃRёRЅS…SЂRѕRЅS–R·R°S†S–SЏ SЃRIS–S‚RѕRIRѕRiRѕ S‡R°SЃSѓ S‚R° RyeR°R»RµRЅRgR°SЂSЏ,
  • RiSЂRѕRјR°RgSЃSЊRyeRёR№ S‚SЂR°RЅSЃRїRѕSЂS‚,
  • SѓSЂR±R°RЅS–R·R°S†S–SЏ,
  • RgRµRјRѕRyeSЂR°S‚RёR·R°S†S–SЏ,
  • R·R°RЅRµRїR°Rg RїR°S‚SЂS–R°SЂS…R°R»SЊRЅRѕS— SЂRѕRgRёRЅRё S‚R° S‚SЂR°RgRёS†S–R№RЅRёS… RiSЂRѕRјR°Rg,
  • SЂRѕR·RyeRIS–S‚ SЃRµSЂRµRgRЅSЊRѕRiRѕ RyeR»R°SЃSѓ,
  • R·R°S…RёSЃS‚ RїSЂR°RI R»SЋRgRёRЅRё.

R“RѕR»RѕRIRЅRёRјRё S‚SЂRµRЅRgR°RјRё Sѓ SЃRѕS†S–R°R»SЊRЅRѕRјSѓ R¶RёS‚S‚S– RѕSЃS‚R°RЅRЅS–S… RgRIRѕS…SЃRѕS‚ SЂRѕRyeS–RI R°RIS‚RѕSЂ RЅR°R·RёRIR°S” RїRµSЂRµS…S–Rg RIS–Rg RyeRѕR»RµRyeS‚RёRIS–R·RјSѓ RgRѕ RїS–RgS‚SЂRёRјR°RЅRѕRiRѕ RgRµSЂR¶R°RIRѕSЋ S–RЅRgRёRIS–RgSѓR°R»S–R·RјSѓ, R° S‚R°RyeRѕR¶ R·R°RјS–RЅSѓ SЂRµR°R»SЊRЅRёS… RiSЂRѕRјR°Rg RЅR° SѓSЏRIRЅS– (RIS–Rg RЅR°S†S–R№ RgRѕ S„R°RЅR°S‚S–RI RїRѕRї-R·S–SЂRѕRye).

RћSЃRѕR±R»RёRIRѕS— SѓRIR°RiRё R·R°SЃR»SѓRiRѕRISѓS” RјRёSЂRЅRёR№ S…R°SЂR°RyeS‚RµSЂ RЅR°S€RѕRiRѕ S‡R°SЃSѓ. RџRѕRїSЂRё SЃRIS–S‚RѕRIS– RIS–R№RЅRё S‚R° RiRµRЅRѕS†RёRgRё, RЅR°SЃRёR»SЊRЅRёS†SЊRyeRѕSЋ SЃRјRµSЂS‚SЋ RiRёRЅSѓS‚SЊ Sѓ 10-20 SЂR°R·S–RI RјRµRЅS€Rµ R»SЋRgRµR№, RЅS–R¶ Sѓ RЎRµSЂRµRgRЅSЊRѕRIS–S‡S‡S–.

R’’S—R·RЅR° R±SЂR°RјR° RgRѕ RyeRѕRЅS†S‚R°R±RѕSЂSѓ RђSѓS€RIS–S†
R’’S—R·RЅR° R±SЂR°RјR° RgRѕ RyeRѕRЅS†S‚R°R±RѕSЂSѓ RђSѓS€RIS–S†

R”Rѕ S‚RѕRiRѕ R¶ RIS–R№RЅRё R·R°R±RёSЂR°SЋS‚SЊ R¶RёS‚S‚S–RI RјRµRЅS€Rµ R·R° R·R»RѕS‡RёRЅRё, R° R·R»RѕS‡RёRЅRё — RјRµRЅS€Rµ R·R° SЃR°RјRѕRiSѓR±SЃS‚RIR°.

R— 1945 SЂRѕRyeSѓ R¶RѕRgRЅR° RgRµSЂR¶R°RIR° RЅRµ R·RЅRёRyeR»R° R· RјR°RїRё RѕSЃS‚R°S‚RѕS‡RЅRѕ.

RЈ RјS–R¶RЅR°SЂRѕRgRЅS–R№ RїRѕR»S–S‚RёS†S– R·RЅR°S‡RЅRѕ RїRѕSЃRёR»RёR»R°SЃSЏ SЂRѕR»SЊ RЅRµR·R°R»RµR¶RЅRѕS— RЅR°S†S–RѕRЅR°R»SЊRЅRѕS— RgRµSЂR¶R°RIRё, RIRїR»RёRIRё S–RјRїRµSЂS–R№ RїRѕSЃS‚SѓRїRѕRIRѕ R·S–R№S€R»Rё RЅR°RЅS–RIRµS†SЊ.

R–RёS‚S‚SЏ SЃS‚R°R»Rѕ R±R°RiR°S‚S€RёRј S‚R° R±RµR·RїRµS‡RЅS–S€RёRј.

RџSЂRѕS‚Rµ RЅR°RїSЂRёRyeS–RЅS†S– RyeRЅRёRiRё R“R°SЂR°SЂS– R·RЅRѕRISѓ RїRѕRIRµSЂS‚R°S”S‚SЊSЃSЏ RgRѕ RIRёS…S–RgRЅRѕS— S‚RµR·Rё: RµRyeRѕRЅRѕRјS–S‡RЅRёR№ S‚R° RЅR°RIS–S‚SЊ SЃSѓSЃRїS–R»SЊRЅRёR№ SЂRѕR·RIRёS‚RѕRye RЅRµ RyeRѕRЅS‡Rµ RѕR·RЅR°S‡R°S” R·SЂRѕSЃS‚R°RЅRЅSЏ SЂS–RIRЅSЏ S‰R°SЃS‚SЏ Sѓ R»SЋRgRµR№.

R©R°SЃS‚SЏ RЅR°SЃRїSЂR°RIRgS– RЅRµ R·R°R»RµR¶RёS‚SЊ RIS–Rg RѕR±’S”RyeS‚RёRIRЅRёS… SѓRјRѕRI R±R°RiR°S‚SЃS‚RIR°, R·RgRѕSЂRѕRI’SЏ R°R±Rѕ RЅR°RIS–S‚SЊ RiSЂRѕRјR°RgRё.

RЎRyeRѕSЂS–S€Rµ, RIRѕRЅRѕ R·R°R»RµR¶RёS‚SЊ RIS–Rg RyeRѕSЂRµR»SЏS†S–S— RјS–R¶ RѕR±’S”RyeS‚RёRIRЅRёRјRё SѓRјRѕRIR°RјRё R¶RёS‚S‚SЏ S‚R° SЃSѓR±’S”RyeS‚RёRIRЅRёRјRё RѕS‡S–RyeSѓRIR°RЅRЅSЏRјRё.

RЇRyeS‰Rѕ RIRё S…RѕS‡RµS‚Rµ RIRѕR·R° R· RїR°SЂRѕSЋ R±RёS‡RyeS–RI S‚R° RѕS‚SЂRёRјSѓS”S‚Rµ RIRѕR·R° R· RїR°SЂRѕSЋ R±RёS‡RyeS–RI – RIRё R·R°RgRѕRIRѕR»RµRЅS–.

RЇRyeS‰Rѕ R¶ RIRё S…RѕS‡RµS‚Rµ RЅRѕRIRёR№ «R¤RµSЂSЂR°SЂS–», R° RѕS‚SЂRёRјSѓS”S‚Rµ R»RёS€Rµ RIR¶RёRIR°RЅRёR№ «R¤S–R°S‚» – S‚Rѕ RїRѕS‡SѓRIR°S”S‚RµSЃSЊ RѕR±RgS–R»RµRЅRёRј”.

RўR°Rye SЃR°RјRѕ R°RIS‚RѕSЂ R°RЅR°R»S–R·SѓS” SЃRµRЅSЃ R¶RёS‚S‚SЏ S– RїSЂRёS…RѕRgRёS‚SЊ RgRѕ RIRёSЃRЅRѕRIRyeSѓ, S‰Rѕ RIS–RЅ S” R»RёS€Rµ SЃSѓR±S”RyeS‚RёRIRЅRѕSЋ S–R»SЋR·S–S”SЋ, R° S‚RѕRјSѓ RїS–R·RЅR°RЅRЅSЏ SЃR°RјRѕRiRѕ SЃRµR±Rµ — RiRѕR»RѕRIRЅRёR№ S€R»SЏS… RgRѕ RIS–RgRЅR°R№RgRµRЅRЅSЏ S†SЊRѕRiRѕ SЃRµRЅSЃSѓ.

RќR°RѕSЃS‚R°RЅRѕRye R“R°SЂR°SЂS– RїSЂRѕRIS–S‰R°S” RїSЂRѕRgRѕRIR¶RµRЅRЅSЏ RµRIRѕR»SЋS†S–S— R»SЋRgSЃS‚RIR° S‚SЂSЊRѕRјR° S€R»SЏS…R°RјRё:

  • R±S–RѕS–RЅR¶RµRЅRµSЂS–S— RЅR° RiRµRЅRµS‚RёS‡RЅRѕRјSѓ SЂS–RIRЅS–,
  • RyeS–R±RѕSЂRiS–R·R°S†S–S— SѓR¶Rµ S–SЃRЅSѓSЋS‡RёS… S‚S–R» RјRµS…R°RЅS–R·RјR°RјRё R°R±Rѕ
  • RїRµSЂRµRЅRѕSЃSѓ SЃRIS–RgRѕRјRѕSЃS‚S– RЅR° RЅRµRѕSЂRiR°RЅS–S‡RЅS– RЅRѕSЃS–S—.

R¦Rµ RїSЂRёR·RIRµRgRµ RgRѕ RїSЂRёRїRёRЅRµRЅRЅSЏ RЅR°S€RѕRiRѕ S–SЃRЅSѓRIR°RЅRЅSЏ SЏRye Homo sapiens:

RЅR°SЃS‚SѓRїRЅR° SЃS‚R°RgS–SЏ S–SЃS‚RѕSЂS–S— RIRyeR»SЋS‡R°S‚RёRјRµ RI SЃRµR±Rµ RЅRµ R»RёS€Rµ S‚RµS…RЅRѕR»RѕRiS–S‡RЅS– S‚R° RѕSЂRiR°RЅS–R·R°S†S–R№RЅS– RїRµSЂRµS‚RIRѕSЂRµRЅRЅSЏ, R°R»Rµ R№ R·R°SЃR°RgRЅRёS‡S– S‚SЂR°RЅSЃS„RѕSЂRјR°S†S–S— R»SЋRgSЃSЊRyeRѕS— SЃRIS–RgRѕRјRѕSЃS‚S– S‚R° RѕSЃRѕR±RёSЃS‚RѕSЃS‚S–.

RџSЂRёS‡RѕRјSѓ S†S– S‚SЂR°RЅSЃS„RѕSЂRјR°S†S–S— RјRѕR¶SѓS‚SЊ R±SѓS‚Rё RЅR°SЃS‚S–R»SЊRyeRё RgRѕRyeRѕSЂS–RЅRЅRёRјRё, S‰Rѕ RїRѕSЃS‚R°RIR»SЏS‚SЊ RїS–Rg RIRµR»RёRyeRµ RїRёS‚R°RЅRЅSЏ SЃR°Rј S‚RµSЂRјS–RЅ «R»SЋRgSЃSЊRyeRѕS—»”.

RЈ RїS–SЃR»SЏRјRѕRIS– R°RIS‚RѕSЂ S‰Rµ SЂR°R· RїS–RgRyeSЂRµSЃR»SЋS”, S‰Rѕ RјRё RїSЂRѕR№S€R»Rё RIRµR»RёS‡RµR·RЅRёR№ S€R»SЏS…, R°R»Rµ RgRѕSЃSЏRiR»Rё RЅRµR±R°RiR°S‚SЊRѕS… SЂRµS‡RµR№, SЏRyeRёRјRё RјRѕR¶RЅR° RїRёS€R°S‚RёSЃSЏ.

R›SЋRgRё RїRµSЂRµS‚RIRѕSЂRёR»RёSЃSЏ S–R· S‚RIR°SЂRёRЅ RЅR° S–SЃS‚RѕS‚ S–R· RјR°R№R¶Rµ R±RѕR¶RµSЃS‚RIRµRЅRЅRёRјRё SЃRёR»R°RјRё, R°R»Rµ “S‡Rё S” Sѓ SЃRIS–S‚S– S‰RѕSЃSЊ RЅRµR±RµR·RїRµS‡RЅS–S€Rµ R·R° RЅRµR·R°RgRѕRIRѕR»RµRЅRёS… S‚R° R±RµR·RIS–RgRїRѕRIS–RgR°R»SЊRЅRёS… R±RѕRiS–RI, SЏRyeS– RЅRµ R·RЅR°SЋS‚SЊ, S‡RѕRiRѕ RIRѕRЅRё S…RѕS‡SѓS‚SЊ?”.

R“RѕRgRёRЅR° RїR°RїSѓRiRё. R”S–S‚Rё RїRёS€SѓS‚SЊ RЎS‚R°R»S–RЅSѓ

R§R°RїSЃSЊRyeRёR№ S‡SѓRI, SЏRye S‚SѓS‚ RyeR°R¶SѓS‚SЊ: "RўRѕ S‡RѕSЂS‚ RgRѕSЂRѕRiRѕSЋ S–RgRµ". RќS–R±RёS‚Rѕ, SЏRyeS‰Rѕ RyeRёRЅSѓS‚Rё Sѓ RIRёS…RѕSЂ SЃRѕRyeRёSЂRѕSЋ vЂ” RїRѕS‚RµS‡Rµ RyeSЂRѕRI. R”RёRIRЅS– S‚SѓS‚ R·R°R±RѕR±RѕRЅRё. RЈS‡RѕSЂR° S‚S– "S‡RѕSЂS‚Rё" RIRёR»RёSЃSЏ RїRѕRїS–Rg RЅRѕRiR°RјRё S– RїRµSЂRµR±S–RiR°R»Rё RgRѕSЂRѕRiSѓ R·R±SѓRgR¶RµRЅRёRј S– SѓSЃRјS–S…RЅRµRЅRёRј RyeRѕR»RµRiR°Rј R§R°RїSЃSЊRyeRѕRiRѕ. R’S–RЅ R·R°R·RgSЂRёRI S‰R°SЃS‚SЋ RyeRѕR»RµRi, SЏRyeS– RIR¶Rµ RїS–S€R»Rё R·R° RyeRѕR»SЋS‡RёR№ RgSЂS–S‚ S– S‚R°R±S–SЂRЅS– RјSѓSЂRё Sѓ RgR°R»RµRyeRёR№, S€RёSЂRѕRyeRёR№ SЃRIS–S‚.

R‘SЂR°S‚Rё RЁRµRїS‚RёS†SЊRyeS– S– S”RISЂRµR№SЃSЊRyeRёR№ RЅR°SЂRѕRg. R§R°SЃS‚RёRЅR° R†

RћRgRЅRёRј S–R· RIR°RiRѕRјRёS… RµRїS–R·RѕRgS–RI Sѓ R¶RёS‚S‚S”RїRёSЃS– RњRёS‚SЂRѕRїRѕR»RёS‚R° RђRЅRgSЂRµSЏ RЁRµRїS‚RёS†SЊRyeRѕRiRѕ, SЏRye S– RI R¶RёS‚S‚S”RїRёSЃS– R№RѕRiRѕ RјRѕR»RѕRgS€RѕRiRѕ R±SЂR°S‚R° R±R». SЃRIS‰RјS‡. RљR»RёRјRµRЅS‚S–SЏ vЂ” RџSЂR°RIRµRgRЅRёRyeR° RќR°SЂRѕRgS–RI RЎRIS–S‚Sѓ, S” S—S…RЅSЏ SѓS‡R°SЃS‚SЊ Sѓ RїRѕSЂSЏS‚SѓRЅRyeSѓ RiR°R»RёS†SЊRyeRёS… S”RISЂRµS—RI Sѓ S‡R°SЃRё R“RѕR»RѕRyeRѕSЃS‚Sѓ. R‘S–R»SЊS€S–SЃS‚SЊ S–RЅS„RѕSЂRјR°S†S–S— S‡RµSЂRїR°S”RјRѕ R·S– SЃRїRѕRiR°RgS–RI RѕS‡RµRIRёRgS†S–RI, RџRѕSЂSЏS‚SѓRЅRѕRye S”RISЂRµS—RI vЂ” SЃRїS–R»SЊRЅR° SЃRїSЂR°RIR° R±SЂR°S‚S–RI, SЏRye S– RgS–SЏR»SЊRЅS–SЃS‚SЊ, SЃRїSЂSЏRјRѕRIR°RЅR° RЅR° RїRѕRiR°S€RµRЅRЅSЏ R°RЅS‚RёSЃRµRјS–S‚SЃSЊRyeRёS… RЅR°SЃS‚SЂRѕS—RI Sѓ S‚RѕRgS–S€RЅSЊRѕRјSѓ SЃSѓSЃRїS–R»SЊSЃS‚RIS–, S…RѕS‡R° R±S–R»SЊS€S–SЃS‚SЊ RgRѕRyeSѓRјRµRЅS‚S–RI RїS–RgRїRёSЃR°RЅR° SЃR°RјRёRј RњRёS‚SЂRѕRїRѕR»RёS‚RѕRј. RџR°SЂR°RgRѕRyeSЃ Sѓ S‚RѕRјSѓ, S‰Rѕ Rѕ. RљR»RёRјRµRЅS‚S–R№ RЁRµRїS‚RёS†SЊRyeRёR№ R±SѓRI RIRёR·RЅR°RЅRёR№ V«RџSЂR°RIRµRgRЅRёRyeRѕRј RЅR°SЂRѕRgS–RI SЃRIS–S‚SѓV» R·R° RїRѕSЂSЏS‚SѓRЅRѕRye S”RISЂRµS—RI Sѓ S‡R°SЃRё R“RѕR»RѕRyeRѕSЃS‚Sѓ, RЅR°S‚RѕRјS–SЃS‚SЊ R·R°SЃR»SѓRiR°Rј RњRёS‚SЂRѕRїRѕR»RёS‚R° RђRЅRgSЂRµSЏ Sѓ S‚R°RyeRѕRјSѓ RIRёR·RЅR°RЅRЅS– R±SѓR»Rѕ RIS–RgRјRѕRIR»RµRЅRѕ.

R›SЋS‚RЅRµRIR° RgSЂR°RјR° RїSЂRµR·RёRgRµRЅS‚R° R‘RµRЅRµS€R°

R—R° SЃS‚RѕR»RѕRј RI RyeR°R±S–RЅRµS‚S– RїSЂRµR·RёRgRµRЅS‚R° R§RµS…RѕSЃR»RѕRIR°S‡S‡RёRЅRё RЅR° RџSЂR°R·SЊRyeRѕRјSѓ R“SЂR°RgS– SЃRёRgS–RI SЃRёRIRёR№ S…RIRѕSЂRёR№ S‡RѕR»RѕRIS–Rye. RџSЂRµR·RёRgRµRЅS‚Sѓ R•RgRIR°SЂRgRѕRIS– R‘RµRЅRµS€Sѓ R±SѓR»Rѕ R»RёS€Rµ 63 SЂRѕRyeRё, RїSЂRѕS‚Rµ RїRѕSЃS‚S–R№RЅS– S…RIRѕSЂRѕR±Rё S– S‚RёSЃRye R· R±RѕRyeSѓ RїRѕR»S–S‚RёS‡RЅRёS… RѕRїRѕRЅRµRЅS‚S–RI S†S–R»RyeRѕRIRёS‚Rѕ RIRёSЃRЅR°R¶RёR»Rё R№RѕRiRѕ. RџSЂRµR·RёRgRµRЅS‚ S‰RѕR№RЅRѕ RїS–RgRїRёSЃR°RI RїSЂRёR·RЅR°S‡RµRЅRЅSЏ RЅRѕRIRѕRiRѕ RyeRѕRјSѓRЅS–SЃS‚RёS‡RЅRѕRiRѕ SѓSЂSЏRgSѓ. R™RѕRiRѕ RgRµSЂR¶R°RIR°, SЏRyeSѓ RIS–RЅ RIR»R°SЃRЅRѕSЂSѓS‡ R·R°SЃRЅRѕRISѓRIR°RI, R±SѓRgSѓRIR°RI S– R·R° SЏRyeSѓ R±RёRISЃSЏ RgRµSЃSЏS‚RёR»S–S‚S‚SЏRјRё, RїSЂRѕRIR°R»SЋRIR°R»R°SЃSЏ RI RјRѕSЂRѕRye RyeRѕRјSѓRЅS–SЃS‚RёS‡RЅRѕS— RgRёRyeS‚R°S‚SѓSЂRё. R† RїS–Rg RIRёSЂRѕRyeRѕRј R§RµS…RѕSЃR»RѕRIR°S‡S‡RёRЅS– SЃS‚RѕSЏRI R№RѕRiRѕ, R•RgRIR°SЂRgR° R‘RµRЅRµS€R°, RїS–RgRїRёSЃ. RћRgRЅRѕRiRѕ R· RЅR°R№R±S–R»SЊS€RёS… RgRµRјRѕRyeSЂR°S‚S–RI RI S–SЃS‚RѕSЂS–S— S†RµRЅS‚SЂR°R»SЊRЅRѕS— R„RISЂRѕRїRё RGRG SЃS‚RѕR»S–S‚S‚SЏ.

RџR°RЅR°SЃ RњRёSЂRЅRёR№ Sѓ 1917 SЂRѕS†S–. R–RёRIRёR№ S– RiRѕR»RѕRgRЅRёR№ SЃS‚R°S‚SЃSЊRyeRёR№ SЂR°RgRЅRёRye

RќS–, RџR°RЅR°SЃ RњRёSЂRЅRёR№ RЅRµ RїRѕRјRµSЂ Sѓ RGR†RG SЃS‚RѕR»S–S‚S‚S–. R’S–RЅ S‚R° R†RIR°RЅ RќRµS‡SѓR№-R›RµRIRёS†SЊRyeRёR№ - RgRIR° RїRёSЃSЊRјRµRЅRЅRёRyeRё-RyeR»R°SЃRёRyeRё, S…S‚Rѕ RїRµSЂRµR¶RёRI SЂRµRIRѕR»SЋS†S–SЋ. R† S…RѕS‡R° R№RѕRiRѕ SЂRѕRјR°RЅ "RGS–R±R° SЂRµRISѓS‚SЊ RIRѕR»Rё, SЏRye SЏSЃR»R° RїRѕRIRЅS–" RIRёRIS‡R°R»Rё RI S€RyeRѕR»S– RISЃS– R±RµR· RIRёRЅSЏS‚RyeSѓ RїRѕRyeRѕR»S–RЅRЅSЏ SѓRyeSЂR°S—RЅS†S–RI, RgR»SЏ R±S–R»SЊS€RѕSЃS‚S– S†RµR№ S„R°RyeS‚ - RЅRµR°R±RёSЏRyeR° RЅRѕRIRёRЅR°.