RЎRїRµS†RїSЂRѕRµRyeS‚

RЎR°R±RѕS‚R°R¶RЅR° R°RyeS†S–SЏ S– RџR°S†RёS„S–RyeR°S†S–SЏ 1930. R”Rµ S‚SѓS‚ RјS–S„Rё, RїSЂR°RIRgR° S– S…R°R№Rї?

RћR±RёRgRIS– SЃS‚RѕSЂRѕRЅRё S–RЅSЃS‚SЂSѓRјRµRЅS‚R°R»S–R·SѓRIR°R»Rё RїRѕRgS–S— R»S–S‚R° 1930 SЂ. RgR»SЏ RgRѕSЃSЏRiRЅRµRЅRЅSЏ RIR»R°SЃRЅRёS… RїRѕR»S–S‚RёS‡RЅRёS… S†S–R»RµR№. R— S‚RѕS‡RyeRё R·RѕSЂSѓ RїRѕR»SЊSЃSЊRyeRёS… S–RЅS‚RµSЂRµSЃS–RI R»RµRiRµRЅRgR° RїSЂRѕ V«SЃR°R±RѕS‚R°R¶RЅSѓ R°RyeS†S–SЋV» SЃR°RyeSЂR°R»S–R·RѕRISѓRIR°R»R° RIR»R°RgSѓ RјS–R¶RIRѕS”RЅRЅRѕS— RџRѕR»SЊS‰S– S‚R° RIRёRїSЂR°RIRgRѕRISѓRIR°R»R° R·R°SЃS‚RѕSЃSѓRIR°RЅRЅSЏ RЅRµSЋ R±SЂSѓS‚R°R»SЊRЅRѕS— SЃRёR»Rё RїSЂRѕS‚Rё RiSЂRѕRјR°RgSЏRЅ S–RЅS€RѕS— RµS‚RЅS–S‡RЅRѕS— RiSЂSѓRїRё. R— S–RЅS€RѕRiRѕ R±RѕRyeSѓ, RIRѕRЅR° RїRµSЂRµRyeRѕRЅSѓRIR°R»R° Sѓ R·RiSѓSЂS‚RѕRIR°RЅRѕSЃS‚S–, SЃRёR»S– S‚R° RgRёSЃS†RёRїR»S–RЅRѕRIR°RЅRѕSЃS‚S– SѓRyeSЂR°S—RЅSЃSЊRyeRѕRiRѕ RїS–RgRїS–R»R»SЏ. RЎR°RјRµ V«SЃR°R±RѕS‚R°R¶RЅR° R°RyeS†S–SЏV» SЃS‚R°R»R° RїRµSЂS€RѕSЋ R°RyeS†S–S”SЋ, RїS–Rg S‡R°SЃ SЏRyeRѕS— S€RёSЂRѕRyeS– RyeRѕR»R° RiSЂRѕRјR°RgSЃSЊRyeRѕSЃS‚S– RgS–R·RЅR°R»RёSЃSЏ RїSЂRѕ S–SЃRЅSѓRIR°RЅRЅSЏ RћRЈRќ.

 

R©Rѕ S‡RёS‚R°S”RјRѕ? R RѕRјR°RЅ R’RёSЃRѕS†SЊRyeRёR№. RџR°S†RёS„S–RyeR°S†S–SЏ R“R°R»RёS‡RёRЅRё 1930 SЂRѕRyeSѓ. R”RѕRyeSѓRјRµRЅS‚Rё. RўRѕRј R†. – R›SЊRIS–RI: RЈRyeSЂR°S—RЅR° RњRѕRgRµSЂRЅR°; R’RёRgR°RIRЅRёS†S‚RIRѕ RЈRyeSЂR°S—RЅSЃSЊRyeRѕRiRѕ RљR°S‚RѕR»RёS†SЊRyeRѕRiRѕ RЈRЅS–RIRµSЂSЃRёS‚RµS‚Sѓ, 2019. – 696 SЃ.

R—R±S–SЂRЅRёRye RgRѕRyeSѓRјRµRЅS‚S–RI, S‰Rѕ R·’SЏRIRёRISЃSЏ SѓRIRёRgR°RIRЅRёS‡S–R№ SЃRµSЂS–S— «RЈRyeSЂR°S—RЅR°. R„RISЂRѕRїR° – 1921-1939», SЂRѕR·RyeSЂRёRIR°S” RѕRgRЅSѓ S–R· RЅR°R№R±S–R»SЊS€ RјS–S„RѕR»RѕRiS–R·RѕRIR°RЅRёS… SЃS‚RѕSЂS–RЅRѕRye RI S–SЃS‚RѕSЂS–S— SѓRyeSЂR°S—RЅSЃSЊRyeRѕ-RїRѕR»SЊSЃSЊRyeRёS… RIS–RgRЅRѕSЃRёRЅ – «RїR°S†RёS„S–RyeR°S†S–S—» 1930 SЂ.

RЈ S„RѕRyeSѓSЃS– SѓRIR°RiRё RIS–RgRѕRјRѕRiRѕ RgRѕSЃR»S–RgRЅRёRyeR° S–SЃS‚RѕSЂS–S— SѓRyeSЂR°S—RЅSЃSЊRyeRѕRiRѕ RЅR°S†S–RѕRЅR°R»S–SЃS‚RёS‡RЅRѕRiRѕ SЂSѓS…Sѓ Sѓ RјS–R¶RIRѕS”RЅRЅS–R№ RџRѕR»SЊS‰S– S‚R° RIRёRyeR»R°RgR°S‡R° RЈRЅS–RIRµSЂSЃRёS‚RµS‚Sѓ S–Rј. RњR°SЂS–S— RЎRyeR»RѕRgRѕRISЃSЊRyeRѕS—-RљSЋSЂS– (R›SЋR±R»S–RЅ) R RѕRјR°RЅR° R’RёSЃRѕS†SЊRyeRѕRiRѕ RїRµSЂRµR±SѓRIR°SЋS‚SЊ RgRIS– RѕSЃRЅRѕRIRЅS– RїSЂRѕR±R»RµRјRё: RїRѕRgS–S— RIS–RgRѕRјS– SЏRye «SЃR°R±RѕS‚R°R¶RЅR° R°RyeS†S–SЏ» R°R±Rѕ «S‡RёRЅRЅRёR№ RIRёSЃS‚SѓRї» RЈR’Rћ-RћRЈRќ S– RїSЂRѕRIRµRgRµRЅR° Sѓ RIS–RgRїRѕRIS–RgSЊ RЅR° RЅRµS— «RїR°S†RёS„S–RyeR°S†S–SЏ» RЎS…S–RgRЅRѕS— R“R°R»RёS‡RёRЅRё, S‰Rѕ SЃS‚R°R»Rё RѕRgRЅRёRј S–R· SЃRёRјRIRѕR»S–RI RїRѕR»SЊSЃSЊRyeRѕ-SѓRyeSЂR°S—RЅSЃSЊRyeRёS… RIS–RgRЅRѕSЃRёRЅ Sѓ 1930-S… SЂRѕRyeR°S….

RЈ RIRёRgR°RЅRЅS– SЂRµRїSЂRµR·RµRЅS‚RѕRIR°RЅRѕ RgRѕSЃR»S–RgR¶RµRЅRЅSЏ S‚R° RgRѕRyeSѓRјRµRЅS‚Rё, S‰Rѕ SЃS‚RѕSЃSѓSЋS‚SЊSЃSЏ «RїR°S†RёS„S–RyeR°S†S–S— RЎS…S–RgRЅRѕS— R“R°R»RёS‡RёRЅRё» RI 1930 SЂ. R¦S– RјR°S‚RµSЂS–R°R»Rё R·R±RµSЂS–RiR°SЋS‚SЊSЃSЏ RI SЂS–R·RЅRёS… R°SЂS…S–RIRЅRёS… SѓSЃS‚R°RЅRѕRIR°S… RЈRyeSЂR°S—RЅRё S‚R° SЃRIS–S‚Sѓ. R† S†Rµ R±RµR· RїRµSЂRµR±S–R»SЊS€RµRЅRЅSЏ – RѕRgRЅRµ S–R· RЅR°R№RiSЂSѓRЅS‚RѕRIRЅS–S€RёS… RIRёRgR°RЅSЊ RЅR° S†SЋ S‚RµRјR°S‚RёRyeSѓ.

RђRIS‚RѕSЂ SЃS‚R°RIRёS‚SЊ R·RiR°RgR°RЅS– RїSЂRѕR±R»RµRјRё Sѓ S€RёSЂS€RёR№ RyeRѕRЅS‚RµRyeSЃS‚ RIRЅSѓS‚SЂS–S€RЅSЊRѕS— RїRѕR»S–S‚RёRyeRё RџRѕR»SЊS‰S– S‚R° RЅR° RїS–RgSЃS‚R°RIS– S€RёSЂRѕRyeRѕRiRѕ RyeRѕR»R° RgRѕRyeSѓRјRµRЅS‚S–RI S–R· RїRѕR»SЊSЃSЊRyeRёS… S‚R° R±SЂRёS‚R°RЅSЃSЊRyeRёS… R°SЂS…S–RIS–RI RѕR±T‘SЂSѓRЅS‚RѕRIR°RЅRѕ SЃRїSЂRѕSЃS‚RѕRISѓS” RgRѕS‚RµRїRµSЂS–S€RЅS– S–SЃS‚RѕSЂS–RѕRiSЂR°S„S–S‡RЅS– SѓSЏRIR»RµRЅRЅSЏ Sѓ RџRѕR»SЊS‰S– S‚R° RЈRyeSЂR°S—RЅS– RїSЂRѕ T‘RµRЅRµR·Sѓ S‚R° RїRµSЂRµR±S–Ri «RїR°S†RёS„S–RyeR°S†S–S—» 1930 SЂ. S‚R° SЂSѓR№RЅSѓS” RјS–S„Rё, S‰Rѕ RЅR°S€R°SЂSѓRIR°R»RёSЃSЏ RI RѕR±RѕS… SЃS‚RѕSЂS–RЅ RIRїSЂRѕRgRѕRIR¶ R±R°RiR°S‚SЊRѕS… RgRµSЃSЏS‚RёR»S–S‚SЊ.

R— RѕRiR»SЏRgSѓ RЅR° S†Rµ, RgR°RЅRµ RIRёRgR°RЅRЅSЏ RјRѕR¶RЅR° R±RµR· RїRµSЂRµR±S–R»SЊS€RµRЅRЅSЏ RIRIR°R¶R°S‚Rё SЂRµRIRѕR»SЋS†S–R№RЅRёRј.

RљS–R»SЊRyeS–SЃS‚SЊ R·R°R»SѓS‡RµRЅRѕRiRѕ S‚R° RyeSЂRёS‚RёS‡RЅRѕ RїSЂRѕR°RЅR°R»S–R·RѕRIR°RЅRѕRiRѕ R . R’RёSЃRѕS†SЊRyeRёRј R°SЂS…S–RIRЅRѕRiRѕ RјR°SЃRёRISѓ RgRѕRyeSѓRјRµRЅS‚S–RI S– RјR°S‚RµSЂS–R°R»S–RI RISЂR°R¶R°S”. RЈ R·R±S–SЂRЅRёRyeSѓ RїSѓR±R»S–RyeSѓSЋS‚SЊSЃSЏ 85 RgRѕRyeSѓRјRµRЅS‚S–RI S–R· RїRѕR»SЊSЃSЊRyeRёS…, R±SЂRёS‚R°RЅSЃSЊRyeRёS… S– RїRѕS‡R°SЃS‚Rё SѓRyeSЂR°S—RЅSЃSЊRyeRёS… R°SЂS…S–RIS–RI, R±S–R»SЊS€S–SЃS‚SЊ R· SЏRyeRёS… RIRIRѕRgRёS‚SЊSЃSЏ RgRѕ RЅR°SѓRyeRѕRIRѕRiRѕ RѕR±S–RiSѓ RIRїRµSЂS€Rµ.

R—RѕRyeSЂRµRјR°, SЃRµSЂRµRg RgRѕRyeSѓRјRµRЅS‚S–RI R·RIS–S‚Rё, S€RёS„SЂRѕRiSЂR°RјRё, S–RЅSЃS‚SЂSѓRyeS†S–S—, RЅR°RyeR°R·Rё RїRѕR»SЊSЃSЊRyeRѕS— RїRѕR»S–S†S–S— S‚R° RѕSЂRiR°RЅS–RI RIR»R°RgRё RїSЂRѕ «SЃR°R±RѕS‚R°R¶RЅSѓ R°RyeS†S–SЋ» S‚R° «RїR°S†RёS„S–RyeR°S†S–SЋ». RћSЃRѕR±R»RёRISѓ S†S–RЅRЅS–SЃS‚SЊ SЃS‚R°RЅRѕRIR»SЏS‚SЊ RїRѕRЅR°Rg RgRIR° RgRµSЃSЏS‚RyeRё RgRѕRyeSѓRјRµRЅS‚S–RI R°RЅRiR»S–R№SЃSЊRyeRѕSЋ RјRѕRIRѕSЋ, R·RѕRyeSЂRµRјR° R·RIS–S‚Rё R±SЂRёS‚R°RЅSЃSЊRyeRѕRiRѕ RїRѕSЃRѕR»SЊSЃS‚RIR° Sѓ R’R°SЂS€R°RIS–.

R’RёRgR°RЅRЅSЏ RЅR°RiR»SЏRgRЅRѕ RgRµRјRѕRЅSЃS‚SЂSѓS” RїSЂRѕRgSѓRyeS‚RёRIRЅS–SЃS‚SЊ RgR¶RµSЂRµR»RѕR·RЅR°RIS‡RѕRiRѕ RїS–RgS…RѕRgSѓ RgRѕ SЂRѕR·RISЏR·R°RЅRЅSЏ SЃRyeR»R°RgRЅRёS… S–SЃS‚RѕSЂS–RѕRiSЂR°S„S–S‡RЅRёS… RїSЂRѕR±R»RµRј.

RџR°SЂR°Rg R’S–R№SЃSЊRyeR° RџRѕR»SЊSЃSЊRyeRѕRiRѕ Sѓ R›SЊRIRѕRIS–
RџR°SЂR°Rg R’S–R№SЃSЊRyeR° RџRѕR»SЊSЃSЊRyeRѕRiRѕ Sѓ R›SЊRIRѕRIS–

R—R° RyeR°RЅRѕRЅS–S‡RЅRѕSЋ RIRµSЂSЃS–S”SЋ, SЏRyeR° Sѓ SЃRIRѕS—S… R·R°RiR°R»SЊRЅRёS… SЂRёSЃR°S… SЃS„RѕSЂRјSѓRIR°R»R°SЃSЏ S‰Rµ RgRѕ R”SЂSѓRiRѕS— SЃRIS–S‚RѕRIRѕS— RIS–R№RЅRё, RЅR°RїSЂRёRyeS–RЅS†S– RїRµSЂS€RѕS— RїRѕR»RѕRIRёRЅRё R»RёRїRЅSЏ 1930 SЂ. RїRѕR»SЊSЃSЊRyeS– RѕSЂRiR°RЅRё R±RµR·RїRµRyeRё R·R°SЂRµS”SЃS‚SЂSѓRIR°R»Rё R·RЅR°S‡RЅSѓ RyeS–R»SЊRyeS–SЃS‚SЊ RїS–RgRїR°R»S–RI RјR°R№RЅR° RїRѕR»SЊSЃSЊRyeRёS… R·RµRјR»RµRIR»R°SЃRЅRёRyeS–RI S– R·SЂRѕR±RёR»R° RIRёSЃRЅRѕRIRѕRye, S‰Rѕ S—S… RIRёRЅSѓRIR°S‚S†SЏRјRё R±SѓR»Rё S‡R»RµRЅRё RЈR’Rћ.

RЈ RIS–RgRїRѕRIS–RgSЊ RЅR° RїRѕRgR°R»SЊS€Rµ R·SЂRѕSЃS‚R°RЅRЅSЏ RyeS–R»SЊRyeRѕSЃS‚S– RїS–RgRїR°R»S–RI RїRѕR»SЊSЃSЊRyeR° RIR»R°RgR° Sѓ RIRµSЂRµSЃRЅS– 1930 SЂ. RIS–RgRgR°R»R° RЅR°RyeR°R· RїSЂRѕ SЂRѕR·RyeRIR°SЂS‚RёSЂSѓRIR°RЅRЅSЏ RїRѕR»S–S†S–R№RЅRёS… S– RIS–R№SЃSЊRyeRѕRIRёS… RїS–RgSЂRѕR·RgS–R»S–RI Sѓ SЃS–R»SЊSЃSЊRyeS–R№ RјS–SЃS†RµRIRѕSЃS‚S– Sѓ RЎS…S–RgRЅS–R№ R“R°R»RёS‡RёRЅS–, S‰Rѕ RїSЂRёR·RIRµR»Rѕ RgRѕ RјR°SЃRѕRIRёS… SЂRµRїSЂRµSЃS–R№ S‚R° R·R°RIRgR°R»Rѕ SЃRµSЂR№RѕR·RЅRѕRiRѕ SѓRgR°SЂSѓ RїRѕ SѓRyeSЂR°S—RЅSЃSЊRyeRѕRјSѓ RЅR°S†S–RѕRЅR°R»SЊRЅRѕRјSѓ SЂSѓS…Sѓ.

RЈ RїS–RgSЃSѓRјRyeSѓ S†Rµ RgR°R»Rѕ RїS–RgSЃS‚R°RIRё RїRѕR»SЊSЃSЊRyeS–R№ RIR»R°RgS– R·R°SЏRIRёS‚Rё RїSЂRѕ RIS‚RёS…RѕRјRёSЂRµRЅRЅSЏ («RїR°S†RёS„S–RyeR°S†S–SЋ») R“R°R»RёS‡RёRЅRё S‚R° RїSЂRёRїRёRЅRµRЅRЅSЏ «R°RЅS‚RёRїRѕR»SЊSЃSЊRyeRѕS— S‚RµSЂRѕSЂRёSЃS‚RёS‡RЅRѕS— R°RyeS†S–S—». R—RiR°RgR°RЅS– RїRѕRgS–S— RIS–RgR±SѓRIR°R»RёSЃSЏ RЅR° S‚R»S– RIRёR±RѕSЂS–RI RgRѕ RїRѕR»SЊSЃSЊRyeRѕRiRѕ RїR°SЂR»R°RјRµRЅS‚Sѓ, RIRЅR°SЃR»S–RgRѕRye S‡RѕRiRѕ R±SѓR»Rё RѕR±RјRµR¶RµRЅS– RјRѕR¶R»RёRIRѕSЃS‚S– RgR»SЏ SѓRyeSЂR°S—RЅSЃSЊRyeRёS… RyeR°RЅRgRёRgR°S‚S–RI.

RќR° RїS–RgSЃS‚R°RIS– R°RЅR°R»S–R·Sѓ S€RёSЂRѕRyeRѕRiRѕ RїR»R°SЃS‚Sѓ RgRѕRyeSѓRјRµRЅS‚S–RI R°RIS‚RѕSЂ RїSЂRёS…RѕRgRёS‚SЊ RgRѕ RIRёSЃRЅRѕRIRyeSѓ, S‰Rѕ RЅR°SЃRїSЂR°RIRgS– «SЃR°R±RѕS‚R°R¶RЅRѕS— R°RyeS†S–S—», SЏRye RјR°SЃS€S‚R°R±RЅRѕRiRѕ S– R·R°R·RgR°R»RµRiS–RgSЊ SЃRїR»R°RЅRѕRIR°RЅRѕRiRѕ R·R°S…RѕRgSѓ RѕSЂRiR°RЅS–R·RѕRIR°RЅRѕRiRѕ SѓRyeSЂR°S—RЅSЃSЊRyeRёRј RїS–RgRїS–R»R»SЏRј, RЅRµ S–SЃRЅSѓRIR°R»Rѕ, R° RїSЂRѕRIRµRgRµRЅR° «RїR°S†RёS„S–RyeR°S†S–SЏ» RЅRµ R±SѓR»R° RЅS– RIS–RgRїR»R°S‚RѕSЋ, RЅS– SЃR°RјRѕS†S–R»R»SЋ, R° R»RёS€Rµ S‡RµSЂRiRѕRIRёRј R·RЅR°SЂSЏRgRgSЏRј RgR»SЏ R·RјS–S†RЅRµRЅRЅSЏ RїRѕR·RёS†S–R№ RїSЂR°RIR»SЏS‡RѕRiRѕ S‚R°R±RѕSЂSѓ Sѓ RџRѕR»SЊS‰S– S‚R° RїRѕRiR»RёR±R»RµRЅRЅSЏ R°RIS‚RѕSЂRёS‚R°SЂRЅRѕRiRѕ SЂRµR¶RёRјSѓ.

RћR±RёRgRIS– SЃS‚RѕSЂRѕRЅRё, SЏRye RїRѕR»SЊSЃSЊRyeRёR№ «SЃR°RЅR°S†S–R№RЅRёR№» SѓSЂSЏRg, S‚R°RyeS– RЅRѕRIRѕSѓS‚RIRѕSЂRµRЅR° RћRЈRќ (R·R°SЃRЅRѕRIR°RЅR° Sѓ 1929 SЂ. RЅR° RyeRѕRЅRiSЂRµSЃS– Sѓ R’S–RgRЅS–), R±SѓR»Rё R·R°S†S–RyeR°RIR»RµRЅRЅS– RI SѓS‚RIRµSЂRgR¶RµRЅRЅS– RјS–S„Sѓ RїSЂRѕ «SЃR°R±RѕS‚R°R¶RЅSѓ R°RyeS†S–SЋ».

RџRѕR»SЊSЃSЊRyeR° RIR»R°RgR° RїRѕS‚SЂRµR±SѓRIR°R»R° RїRѕRIR°R¶RЅRѕS— RїSЂRёS‡RёRЅRё RgR»SЏ R»RµRiS–S‚RёRјS–R·R°S†S–S— RyeR°SЂR°R»SЊRЅRѕS— RѕRїRµSЂR°S†S–S— RїSЂRѕS‚Rё SѓRyeSЂR°S—RЅSЃSЊRyeRѕRiRѕ RЅR°SЃRµR»RµRЅRЅSЏ Sѓ R“R°R»RёS‡RёRЅS–, RI S‚RѕR№ S‡R°SЃ SЏRye RјRѕR»RѕRgR° SѓRyeSЂR°S—RЅSЃSЊRyeR° RїS–RgRїS–R»SЊRЅR° RѕSЂRiR°RЅS–R·R°S†S–SЏ RїSЂR°RiRЅSѓR»R° R·RgRѕR±SѓS‚Rё RїRѕR»S–S‚RёS‡RЅRёR№ RyeR°RїS–S‚R°R» S‚R° RѕSЂRµRѕR» R±RѕSЂS†SЏ R· RїRѕR»SЊSЃSЊRyeRёRј SЂRµR¶RёRјRѕRј RgR»SЏ RЅR°SЂRѕS‰SѓRIR°RЅRЅSЏ SЃRIRѕRiRѕ RIRїR»RёRISѓ Sѓ R·R°S…S–RgRЅRѕSѓRyeSЂR°S—RЅSЃSЊRyeRѕRјSѓ SЃSѓSЃRїS–R»SЊSЃS‚RIS–.

RћR±RёRgRIS– SЃS‚RѕSЂRѕRЅRё S–RЅSЃS‚SЂSѓRјRµRЅS‚R°R»S–R·SѓRIR°R»Rё RїRѕRgS–S— R»S–S‚R° 1930 SЂ. RgR»SЏ RgRѕSЃSЏRiRЅRµRЅRЅSЏ RIR»R°SЃRЅRёS… RїRѕR»S–S‚RёS‡RЅRёS… S†S–R»RµR№. R— S‚RѕS‡RyeRё R·RѕSЂSѓ RїRѕR»SЊSЃSЊRyeRёS… S–RЅS‚RµSЂRµSЃS–RI R»RµRiRµRЅRgR° RїSЂRѕ «SЃR°R±RѕS‚R°R¶RЅSѓ R°RyeS†S–SЋ» SЃR°RyeSЂR°R»S–R·RѕRISѓRIR°R»R° RIR»R°RgSѓ RјS–R¶RIRѕS”RЅRЅRѕS— RџRѕR»SЊS‰S– S‚R° RIRёRїSЂR°RIRgRѕRISѓRIR°R»R° R·R°SЃS‚RѕSЃSѓRIR°RЅRЅSЏ RЅRµSЋ R±SЂSѓS‚R°R»SЊRЅRѕS— SЃRёR»Rё RїSЂRѕS‚Rё RiSЂRѕRјR°RgSЏRЅ S–RЅS€RѕS— RµS‚RЅS–S‡RЅRѕS— RiSЂSѓRїRё.

R— S–RЅS€RѕRiRѕ R±RѕRyeSѓ, RIRѕRЅR° RїRµSЂRµRyeRѕRЅSѓRIR°R»R° Sѓ R·RiSѓSЂS‚RѕRIR°RЅRѕSЃS‚S–, SЃRёR»S– S‚R° RgRёSЃS†RёRїR»S–RЅRѕRIR°RЅRѕSЃS‚S– SѓRyeSЂR°S—RЅSЃSЊRyeRѕRiRѕ RїS–RgRїS–R»R»SЏ. RЎR°RјRµ «SЃR°R±RѕS‚R°R¶RЅR° R°RyeS†S–SЏ» SЃS‚R°R»R° RїRµSЂS€RѕSЋ R°RyeS†S–S”SЋ, RїS–Rg S‡R°SЃ SЏRyeRѕS— S€RёSЂRѕRyeS– RyeRѕR»R° RiSЂRѕRјR°RgSЃSЊRyeRѕSЃS‚S– RgS–R·RЅR°R»RёSЃSЏ RїSЂRѕ S–SЃRЅSѓRIR°RЅRЅSЏ RћRЈRќ.

RџRѕRiSЂRѕRјR»RµRЅR° RїRѕR»SЊSЃSЊRyeRёRјRё R¶R°RЅRgR°SЂRјR°RјRё RїS–Rg S‡R°SЃ «RџR°S†RёS„S–RyeR°S†S–S—» S‡RёS‚R°R»SЊRЅSЏ «RџSЂRѕSЃRIS–S‚Rё», SЃ. RљRЅSЏRiRёRЅRёS‡S–, R RѕRiR°S‚RёRЅSЃSЊRyeRѕRiRѕ RїRѕRIS–S‚Sѓ
RџRѕRiSЂRѕRјR»RµRЅR° RїRѕR»SЊSЃSЊRyeRёRјRё R¶R°RЅRgR°SЂRјR°RјRё RїS–Rg S‡R°SЃ «RџR°S†RёS„S–RyeR°S†S–S—» S‡RёS‚R°R»SЊRЅSЏ «RџSЂRѕSЃRIS–S‚Rё», SЃ. RљRЅSЏRiRёRЅRёS‡S–, R RѕRiR°S‚RёRЅSЃSЊRyeRѕRiRѕ RїRѕRIS–S‚Sѓ

RќR°SЃRїSЂR°RIRgS–, SЏRye R°SЂRiSѓRјRµRЅS‚RѕRIR°RЅRѕ RgRѕRIRѕRgRёS‚SЊ R RѕRјR°RЅ R’RёSЃRѕS†SЊRyeRёR№, RyeRµSЂS–RIRЅRёS†S‚RIRѕ RїRѕR»SЊSЃSЊRyeRёS… RѕSЂRiR°RЅS–RI R±RµR·RїRµRyeRё RЅRµ RјR°R»Rѕ RgRѕSЃS‚R°S‚RЅSЊRѕ RgRѕRyeR°R·S–RI, R°R±Rё RїS–RgS‚RIRµSЂRgRёS‚Rё S„R°RyeS‚RёS‡RЅSѓ RyeS–R»SЊRyeS–SЃS‚SЊ SЃR°R±RѕS‚R°R¶S–RI SѓS‡RёRЅRµRЅRёS… RЈR’Rћ (RћRЈRќ).

R—R° RЅR°RIRµRgRµRЅRѕSЋ R°RIS‚RѕSЂRѕRј SЃS‚R°S‚RёSЃS‚RёRyeRѕSЋ, R· RїRѕRјS–R¶ 180 SЃR°R±RѕS‚R°R¶S–RI R·R° RїRµSЂS–RѕRg SЃRµSЂRїRЅSЏ – R¶RѕRIS‚RЅSЏ 1930 SЂ. S‚S–R»SЊRyeRё 14 R±SѓR»Rё R· RїRµRIRЅS–SЃS‚SЋ RIRёR·RЅR°RЅS– SЏRye S‚R°RyeS–, S‰Rѕ R±SѓR»Rё R·RgS–R№SЃRЅRµRЅS– RЈR’Rћ.

R‘S–R»SЊS€S–SЃS‚SЊ RIRёRyeRѕRЅR°RIS†S–RI RЅR°RIRјRёSЃRЅRёS… RїS–RgRїR°R»S–RI, SЏRyeS‰Rѕ R№ R±SѓR»Rё R·R°RgS–SЏRЅS– RI RїRѕR»S–S‚RёS‡RЅRѕRјSѓ R¶RёS‚S‚S–, RјRѕRiR»Rё RїRѕS…RѕRgRёS‚Rё R· SЂS–R·RЅRёS… RїRѕR»S–S‚RёS‡RЅRёS… SЃRµSЂRµRgRѕRIRёS‰, R·RѕRyeSЂRµRјR° S–R· RљRџR—RЈ (RљRѕRјSѓRЅS–SЃS‚RёS‡RЅR° RїR°SЂS‚S–SЏ R—R°S…S–RgRЅRѕS— RЈRyeSЂR°S—RЅRё – R†.Rџ.), SЏRyeS– R· «RyeR»R°SЃRѕRIRёS… RјRѕS‚RёRIS–RI» RїSѓR±R»S–S‡RЅRѕ RїS–RgS‚SЂRёRјR°R»Rё RїS–RgRїR°R»Rё RјR°S”S‚RyeS–RI RїRѕR»SЊSЃSЊRyeRёS… R·RµRјR»RµRIR»R°SЃRЅRёRyeS–RI.

RЇRye RїRѕRyeR°R·SѓS” R°RIS‚RѕSЂ, SѓRyeSЂR°S—RЅSЃSЊRyeRµ RїS–RgRїS–R»R»SЏ RЅRµ RiRѕS‚SѓRIR°R»RѕSЃSЏ S– RЅRµ R±SѓR»Rѕ R·RgR°S‚RЅRµ RЅR° RїSЂRѕRIRµRgRµRЅRЅSЏ RјR°SЃS€S‚R°R±RЅRѕS— RѕSЂRiR°RЅS–R·RѕRIR°RЅRѕS— R°RyeS†S–S—, R° RyeRµSЂS–RIRЅRёS†S‚RIRѕ RћRЈRќ RЅR° S‡RѕR»S– R„RIRiRµRЅRѕRј RљRѕRЅRѕRIR°R»SЊS†RµRј RЅRµ SЂRµRyeRѕRјRµRЅRgSѓRIR°R»Rѕ R·RgS–R№SЃRЅSЋRIR°S‚Rё RјR°SЃRѕRIS– RIRёSЃS‚SѓRїRё R· RѕRiR»SЏRgSѓ RЅR° RїR»R°RЅRё S‰RѕRgRѕ SѓS‡R°SЃS‚S– RЅR°S†S–RѕRЅR°R»S–SЃS‚RёS‡RЅRёS… RyeR°RЅRgRёRgR°S‚S–RI Sѓ RIRёR±RѕSЂS‡S–R№ RyeR°RјRїR°RЅS–S— RgRѕ RїRѕR»SЊSЃSЊRyeRѕRiRѕ RїR°SЂR»R°RјRµRЅS‚Sѓ.

R‘SѓRgSЊ-SЏRyeR° RїRѕRїRµSЂRµRgRЅSЏ «SЃR°R±RѕS‚R°R¶RЅR° R°RyeS†S–SЏ» R·R°R·RgR°R»RµRiS–RgSЊ R·RјRµRЅS€SѓRIR°R»R° R± S€R°RЅSЃRё RЅR° RIRyeR»SЋS‡RµRЅRЅSЏ RїSЂRµRgSЃS‚R°RIRЅRёRyeS–RI RЈR’Rћ-RћRЈRќ RgRѕ RIRёR±RѕSЂS‡RёS… SЃRїRёSЃRyeS–RI. RўRёRј RЅRµ RјRµRЅS€Rµ, RyeRµSЂS–RIRЅRёS†S‚RIRѕ RїSЂRѕRIRѕRgSѓ RIRёSЂS–S€RёR»Rѕ SЃRyeRѕSЂRёSЃS‚R°S‚RёSЃSЏ R·S– R·RIRёRЅSѓRIR°S‡RµRЅSЊ RїRѕR»SЊSЃSЊRyeRѕS— RIR»R°RgRё RgR»SЏ R·RgRѕR±SѓS‚S‚SЏ RїRѕR»S–S‚RёS‡RЅRёS… RgRёRIS–RgRµRЅRgS–RI.

R’S–RgS‚R°Rye, RЈR’Rћ RIRёR·RЅR°R»R° SЃRIRѕSЋ RїSЂRёS‡RµS‚RЅS–SЃS‚SЊ RgRѕ «SЃR°R±RѕS‚R°R¶RЅRѕS— R°RyeS†S–S—». R¦RµR№ RyeSЂRѕRye R±SѓRI SЃRїSЂSЏRјRѕRIR°RЅRёR№ RЅR° RїS–RgRЅSЏS‚S‚SЏ RїSЂRµSЃS‚RёR¶Sѓ SѓRyeSЂR°S—RЅSЃSЊRyeRѕRiRѕ RїS–RgRїS–R»R»SЏ SЏRye Sѓ RџRѕR»SЊS‰S–, S‚R°Rye S– R·R°RyeRѕSЂRgRѕRЅRѕRј.

RђRЅR°R»S–R·SѓSЋS‡Rё T‘RµRЅRµR·Sѓ RїS–RgRїR°R»S–RI, R . R’RёSЃRѕS†SЊRyeRёR№ SЃR»SѓS€RЅRѕ R·RIRµSЂS‚R°S” SѓRIR°RiSѓ RЅR° RµRyeRѕRЅRѕRјS–S‡RЅS– S„R°RyeS‚RѕSЂRё, SЏRyeS– SЂR°RЅS–S€Rµ RЅRµ R±SЂR°R»RёSЃSЊ RgRѕ SѓRIR°RiRё. RћRgRЅRёRј S–R· RѕSЃRЅRѕRIRЅRёS… RgR¶RµSЂRµR» RїS–RgRїR°R»S–RI RIS–RЅ RIRIR°R¶R°S” «RIRµR»RёRyeSѓ RµRyeRѕRЅRѕRјS–S‡RЅSѓ RyeSЂRёR·Sѓ», S‰Rѕ RїSЂRёR·RIRµR»R° RgRѕ SЃS‚SЂS–RјRyeRѕRiRѕ R·SЂRѕSЃS‚R°RЅRЅSЏ RyeS–R»SЊRyeRѕSЃS‚S– S‚.R·RI. R°SЃRµRyeSѓSЂR°S†S–R№RЅRёS… RїS–RgRїR°R»S–RI Sѓ SЃS–R»SЊSЃSЊRyeS–R№ RјS–SЃS†RµRIRѕSЃS‚S– R· RјRµS‚RѕSЋ RѕS‚SЂRёRјR°RЅRЅSЏ RiSЂRѕS€RѕRIRѕRiRѕ RIS–RgS€RyeRѕRgSѓRIR°RЅRЅSЏ R·R° RїRѕS€RyeRѕRgR¶RµRЅRµ RјR°R№RЅRѕ R·R° RgRѕRiRѕRIRѕSЂRѕRј SЃS‚SЂR°S…SѓRIR°RЅRЅSЏ.

R¦Rµ SЃRµSЂR№RѕR·RЅRѕ RїS–RgRIR°R¶SѓS” SЃS‚R°S‚RёSЃS‚RёRyeSѓ RїRѕR»SЊSЃSЊRyeRѕRiRѕ RњR’RЎ S‰RѕRgRѕ SЂRѕR·RјR°S…Sѓ «SЃR°R±RѕS‚R°R¶RЅRѕS— R°RyeS†S–S—» Sѓ R“R°R»RёS‡RёRЅS–. RќR°SЃRїSЂR°RIRgS– RїS–RgRїR°R»Rё Sѓ S‚RѕR№ S‡R°SЃ RIS–RgR±SѓRIR°R»RёSЃSЏ RЅR° RISЃS–R№ S‚RµSЂRёS‚RѕSЂS–S— RџRѕR»SЊS‰S–, RѕRgRЅR°Rye SЏRye RїSЂRёRIRѕRgRѕRј RgR»SЏ RїSЂRѕRIRµRgRµRЅRЅSЏ «RїR°S†RёS„S–RyeR°S†S–S—» RїRѕR»SЊSЃSЊRyeR° RIR»R°RgR° SЃRyeRѕSЂRёSЃS‚R°R»R°SЃSЏ RЅRёRјRё S‚S–R»SЊRyeRё RI R“R°R»RёS‡RёRЅS–.

R—R±S–SЂRЅRёRye RїRѕRyeR°R·SѓS” SЏRye SѓRyeSЂR°S—RЅSЃSЊRyeRµ RїRёS‚R°RЅRЅSЏ SЃS‚R°R»Rѕ S–RЅSЃS‚SЂSѓRјRµRЅS‚RѕRј RI SЂSѓRyeR°S… RїSЂR°RIR»SЏS‡RѕRiRѕ S‚R°R±RѕSЂSѓ (S‚.R·RI. SЃR°RЅR°S†S–S—) Sѓ RїRѕR·R°S‡RµSЂRiRѕRIS–R№ RIRёR±RѕSЂS‡S–R№ RyeR°RјRїR°RЅS–S— RgRѕ RЎRµR№RјSѓ S‚R° RЎRµRЅR°S‚Sѓ RIRѕSЃRµRЅRё 1930 SЂ.

RЈSЂSЏRg R®R·RµS„R° RџS–R»SЃSѓRgSЃSЊRyeRѕRiRѕ RIRёRyeRѕSЂRёSЃS‚R°RI R·R°S…RѕRgRё R· «R»S–RyeRIS–RgR°S†S–S— SЃR°R±RѕS‚R°R¶RЅRѕS— R°RyeS†S–S— RI RЎS…S–RgRЅS–R№ RњR°R»RѕRїRѕR»SЊS‰S–» RgR»SЏ RїSЂRёRgSѓS€RµRЅRЅSЏ RѕRїRѕR·RёS†S–S—, R°SЂRµS€S‚Sѓ SѓRyeSЂR°S—RЅSЃSЊRyeRёS… RgRµRїSѓS‚R°S‚S–RI S– RїRѕSЃRёR»RµRЅRЅSЏ RїRѕR·RёS†S–R№ SѓSЂSЏRgRѕRIRѕRiRѕ R±R»RѕRyeSѓ Sѓ RїS–RIRgRµRЅRЅRѕ-SЃS…S–RgRЅRёS… RIRѕS”RIRѕRgSЃS‚RIR°S….

R®R·RµS„ RџS–R»SЃSѓRgSЃSЊRyeRёR№
R®R·RµS„ RџS–R»SЃSѓRgSЃSЊRyeRёR№

R’RIRµRgRµRЅRЅSЏ RїRѕR»S–S†S–R№RЅRёS… S– RIS–R№SЃSЊRyeRѕRIRёS… RїS–RgSЂRѕR·RgS–R»S–RI Sѓ RiR°R»RёS†SЊRyeS– SЃRµR»R° RgRѕ S‡R°SЃSѓ RїSЂRѕRIRµRgRµRЅRЅSЏ RIRёR±RѕSЂS–RI SЃSѓS‚S‚S”RIRѕ RѕR±RјRµR¶RёR»R° RјRѕR¶R»RёRIRѕSЃS‚S– RgR»SЏ RIRµRgRµRЅRЅSЏ R°RiS–S‚R°S†S–S— R· R±RѕRyeSѓ SѓRyeSЂR°S—RЅSЃSЊRyeRёS… RїR°SЂS‚S–R№ S– RyeR°RЅRgRёRgR°S‚S–RI.

R—R°RiR°R»RѕRј «RїR°S†RёS„S–RyeR°S†S–SЏ» R·R° SѓS‡R°SЃS‚SЋ RїRѕR»SЊSЃSЊRyeRѕS— RїRѕR»S–S†S–S— S‚R° RIS–R№SЃSЊRyeRѕRIRёS… RїS–RgSЂRѕR·RgS–R»S–RI RѕS…RѕRїRёR»R° R±R»RёR·SЊRyeRѕ 450 SЃS–R» (RiRјS–RЅ) Sѓ R“R°R»RёS‡RёRЅS–, S‚RѕR±S‚Rѕ RјR°R№R¶Rµ Sѓ RgRIR° R· RїRѕR»RѕRIRёRЅRѕSЋ SЂR°R·Rё R±S–R»SЊS€Rµ, RЅS–R¶ R±SѓR»Rѕ SЃS–R», RgRµ R·R°S„S–RyeSЃRѕRIR°RЅRѕ «SЃR°R±RѕS‚R°R¶S–».

RЈ S‚SЂSЊRѕS… RIRѕS”RIRѕRgSЃS‚RIR°S… (R›SЊRIS–RISЃSЊRyeRѕRјSѓ, RўRµSЂRЅRѕRїS–R»SЊSЃSЊRyeRѕRјSѓ S– RЎS‚R°RЅS–SЃR»R°RIS–RISЃSЊRyeRѕRјSѓ) R±SѓR»Rѕ RїSЂRѕRIRµRgRµRЅRѕ 5195 RѕR±S€SѓRyeS–RI S– R·R°R°SЂRµS€S‚RѕRIR°RЅRѕ 1739 RѕSЃS–R±, R°R±SЃRѕR»SЋS‚RЅSѓ R±S–R»SЊS€S–SЃS‚SЊ R· SЏRyeRёS… (RgRѕ 90%) S‡RµSЂRµR· RyeS–R»SЊRyeR° RјS–SЃSЏS†S–RI RIS–RgRїSѓSЃS‚RёR»Rё S‡RµSЂRµR· RIS–RgSЃSѓS‚RЅS–SЃS‚SЊ SЃRyeR»R°RgSѓ R·R»RѕS‡RёRЅSѓ.

RђSЂRµS€S‚Rё SЃSѓRїSЂRѕRIRѕRgR¶SѓRIR°R»RёSЃSЏ R·R°RyeSЂRёS‚S‚SЏRј S„S–R»S–R№ SѓRyeSЂR°S—RЅSЃSЊRyeRёS… RiSЂRѕRјR°RgSЃSЊRyeRёS… RѕSЂRiR°RЅS–R·R°S†S–R№ S– S€RyeS–R», R·RЅRёS‰RµRЅRЅSЏRј S—S…RЅSЊRѕRiRѕ RјR°R№RЅR°, R·R°R±RѕSЂRѕRЅRѕSЋ «RџR»R°SЃS‚Sѓ» (RgRѕ S‡RѕRiRѕ RIR»R°RgR° RiRѕS‚SѓRIR°R»R°SЃSЏ S‰Rµ Sѓ 1929 SЂ.), RЅR°SЃRёR»SЊSЃS‚RIRѕRј S‰RѕRgRѕ S†RёRIS–R»SЊRЅRѕRiRѕ RЅR°SЃRµR»RµRЅRЅSЏ S‚R° S–RЅS€RёRјRё R·R»RѕRIR¶RёRIR°RЅRЅSЏRјRё R· R±RѕRyeSѓ RIS–R№SЃSЊRyeRѕRIRёS… S– RїRѕR»S–S†S–S—.

RџRѕR»SЊSЃSЊRyeR° RIR»R°RgR° RїRѕ SЃSѓS‚S– R·R°SЃS‚RѕSЃSѓRIR°R»R° RїSЂRёRЅS†RёRї RyeRѕR»RµRyeS‚RёRIRЅRѕS— RIS–RgRїRѕRIS–RgR°R»SЊRЅRѕSЃS‚S– R№ S‚RµSЂRѕSЂSѓ S‰RѕRgRѕ RјRёSЂRЅRѕRiRѕ SѓRyeSЂR°S—RЅSЃSЊRyeRѕRiRѕ RЅR°SЃRµR»RµRЅRЅSЏ. RЈSЂSЏRgRѕRIS– R·R°S…RѕRgRё S‚R° RїSѓR±R»S–S‡RЅS– R·R°RyeR»RёRyeRё RїRѕRјSЃS‚RёS‚RёSЃSЏ SѓRyeSЂR°S—RЅS†SЏRј SЂRѕR·R±SѓSЂS…R°R»Rё R°RЅS‚RёSѓRyeSЂR°S—RЅSЃSЊRyeS– RЅR°SЃS‚SЂRѕS— Sѓ RїRѕR»SЊSЃSЊRyeRѕRјSѓ SЃSѓSЃRїS–R»SЊSЃS‚RIS–, RїSЂRёR·RIS–RIS€RёRgRѕ R·SЂRѕSЃS‚R°RЅRЅSЏ RїRѕR±SѓS‚RѕRIRѕRiRѕ RЅR°SЃRёR»SЊSЃS‚RIR° RїSЂRѕS‚Rё SѓRyeSЂR°S—RЅS†S–RI S‚R° S—S…RЅS–R№ RѕSЂRiR°RЅS–R·R°S†S–R№.

R—R° R·R°RgSѓRјRѕRј SѓSЂSЏRgSѓ, S†Rµ RјR°R»Rѕ RјRѕR±S–R»S–R·SѓRIR°S‚Rё RїS–RgS‚SЂRёRјRyeSѓ RїSЂR°RIR»SЏS‡RѕRiRѕ S‚R°R±RѕSЂSѓ RЅR°RїRµSЂRµRgRѕRgRЅS– RIRёR±RѕSЂS–RI.

«RЈ SЃS‚SЂR°S‚RµRiS–S— RїRѕR»SЊSЃSЊRyeRѕRiRѕ RїSЂR°RIR»SЏS‡RѕRiRѕ S‚R°R±RѕSЂSѓ RI 1930 SЂ. SѓRyeSЂR°S—RЅSЃSЊRyeRµ RїRёS‚R°RЅRЅSЏ RЅRµ R±SѓR»Rѕ S‡S–R»SЊRЅRѕSЋ RїSЂRѕR±R»RµRјRѕSЋ, R°R»Rµ R±SѓR»Rѕ RIR°R¶R»RёRIRёRј S– SЂRѕR·S–RiSЂSѓRIR°R»RѕSЃSЏ RI RyeRѕRЅS‚RµRyeSЃS‚S– R±RѕSЂRѕS‚SЊR±Rё R·R° RIR»R°RgSѓ.

«RЎR°R±RѕS‚R°R¶RЅR° R°RyeS†S–SЏ» RЅRµ R±SѓR»R° RїSЂRёS‡RёRЅRѕSЋ RїSЂRѕRIRµRgRµRЅRЅSЏ «RїR°S†RёS„S–RyeR°S†S–S— RЎS…S–RgRЅRѕS— R“R°R»RёS‡RёRЅRё», SЏRyeR±Rё R±SѓR»Rѕ S–RЅR°RyeS€Rµ, S‚Rѕ RїRѕRgS–R±RЅRёRј S‡RёRЅRѕRј SЃR»S–Rg R±SѓR»Rѕ R±RѕSЂRѕS‚RёSЃSЏ R· SѓRјRёSЃRЅRёRјRё RїS–RgRїR°R»R°RјRё-SЃR°R±RѕS‚R°R¶R°RјRё RI S–RЅS€RёS… SЂRµRiS–RѕRЅR°S… RgRµSЂR¶R°RIRё. RџSЂRѕS‚Rµ RЅS–S‡RѕRiRѕ S‚R°RyeRѕRiRѕ RЅRµ S‚SЂR°RїRёR»RѕSЃSЏ.

RћSЃRЅRѕRIRѕSЋ RgR»SЏ RgS–R№, SЏRyeS– R·SЂRѕRgRёR»Rё «RїR°S†RёS„S–RyeR°S†S–SЋ», R±SѓR»Rѕ RїSЂR°RiRЅRµRЅRЅSЏ RgRѕ RїRѕR»S–S‚RёS‡RЅRѕRiRѕ RїR°RЅSѓRIR°RЅRЅSЏ RI RјR°SЃS€S‚R°R±R°S… RgRµSЂR¶R°RIRё. RЈ RЅS–R№ RIR±R°S‡R°R»Rё SЂS–R·RЅRѕRIRёRg RїS–RgRiRѕS‚RѕRIRyeRё RIR»R°RgRЅRѕRiRѕ S‚R°R±RѕSЂSѓ RgRѕ RIRёR±RѕSЂS‡RѕS— RyeR°RјRїR°RЅS–S— Sѓ RЎRµR№Rј S– RЎRµRЅR°S‚, SЏRyeR° RIRѕRgRЅRѕS‡R°SЃ SЃRёRјRIRѕR»S–R·SѓRIR°R»R° RїRѕRiR»RёR±R»RµRЅRЅSЏ R°RIS‚RѕSЂRёS‚R°SЂRЅRѕS— SЃRёSЃS‚RµRјRё RIR»R°RgRё. RџSЂRё SЂRѕR·RїSЂR°RIS– R· RїRѕR»S–S‚RёS‡RЅRёRјRё RїSЂRѕS‚RёRIRЅRёRyeR°RјRё SЂRµRїSЂRµSЃS–SЏRј RїS–RgRgR°RЅRѕ S€RёSЂRѕRyeS– RyeRѕR»R° SѓRyeSЂR°S—RЅSЃSЊRyeRѕRiRѕ SЃSѓSЃRїS–R»SЊSЃS‚RIR°».

RЈRyeSЂR°S—RЅSЃSЊRyeR° RgS–R°SЃRїRѕSЂR° R°RyeS‚RёRIRЅRѕ RIRёSЃS‚SѓRїR°R»R° S–R· RѕSЃSѓRgRѕRј RgS–R№ RїRѕR»SЊSЃSЊRyeRѕS— RIR»R°RgRё RїS–Rg S‡R°SЃ RїR°S†RёS„S–RyeR°S†S–S—. 1930 SЂ.
RЈRyeSЂR°S—RЅSЃSЊRyeR° RgS–R°SЃRїRѕSЂR° R°RyeS‚RёRIRЅRѕ RIRёSЃS‚SѓRїR°R»R° S–R· RѕSЃSѓRgRѕRј RgS–R№ RїRѕR»SЊSЃSЊRyeRѕS— RIR»R°RgRё RїS–Rg S‡R°SЃ RїR°S†RёS„S–RyeR°S†S–S—. 1930 SЂ.

«RџR°S†RёS„S–RyeR°S†S–SЏ» RјR°R»R° RgR°R»RµRyeRѕSЃSЏR¶RЅS– RЅR°SЃR»S–RgRyeRё RgR»SЏ SѓRyeSЂR°S—RЅSЃSЊRyeRѕ-RїRѕR»SЊSЃSЊRyeRёS… RIS–RgRЅRѕSЃRёRЅ, R·R°RyeR»R°RIS€Rё RјS–RЅSѓ SѓRїRѕRIS–R»SЊRЅRµRЅRѕS— RgS–S— Sѓ R»RѕSЏR»SЊRЅS–SЃS‚SЊ SѓRyeSЂR°S—RЅSЃSЊRyeRѕRiRѕ RЅR°SЃRµR»RµRЅRЅSЏ RgRѕ RїRѕR»SЊSЃSЊRyeRѕS— RgRµSЂR¶R°RIRё.

RЈ RїRµSЂS€Sѓ S‡RµSЂRiSѓ, RIRѕRЅR° R·R°RIRgR°R»R° SЃRµSЂR№RѕR·RЅRѕRiRѕ SѓRgR°SЂSѓ RїRѕ SѓRyeSЂR°S—RЅSЃSЊRyeRѕRјSѓ RЅR°S†S–RѕRЅR°R»SЊRЅRѕRјSѓ R¶RёS‚S‚SЋ Sѓ R“R°R»RёS‡RёRЅS–, R° RgRµSЏRyeS– RѕSЂRiR°RЅS–R·R°S†S–S—, SЏRye RЅR°RїSЂRёRyeR»R°Rg, RџR»R°SЃS‚, RЅRµ RIS–RgSЂRѕRgRёR»RёSЃSЏ RgRѕ RyeS–RЅS†SЏ RјS–R¶RIRѕS”RЅRЅRѕRiRѕ RїRµSЂS–RѕRgSѓ. RќRµR·RIR°R¶R°SЋS‡Rё RЅR° S†Rµ, RIR»R°RgR° RgRѕSЃSЏRiRЅSѓR»R° RїSЂRѕS‚RёR»RµR¶RЅRѕRiRѕ RµS„RµRyeS‚Sѓ.

R—R°RјS–SЃS‚SЊ S‚RѕRiRѕ, S‰RѕR± RIS–RgRIRµSЂRЅSѓS‚Rё RјRѕR»RѕRgSЊ RIS–Rg SѓRyeSЂR°S—RЅSЃSЊRyeRѕRiRѕ RїS–RgRїS–R»R»SЏ RyeR°SЂR°R»SЊRЅS– R·R°S…RѕRgRё S‚S–R»SЊRyeRё RїRѕSЃRїSЂRёSЏR»Rё SЂR°RgRёRyeR°R»S–R·R°S†S–S— RЅR°SЃS‚SЂRѕS—RI S– RїRѕRїRѕRIRЅRµRЅRЅSЋ SЂSЏRgS–RI RћRЈRќ. R”R»SЏ RѕSЃS‚R°RЅRЅSЊRѕS— R·RiR°RgR°RЅS– RїRѕRgS–S— SЃS‚R°R»Rё «RїRѕR¶RёRIRѕSЋ» RgR»SЏ RїSЂRѕRїR°RiR°RЅRgRё, SЏRyeR° R·R°RyeR»RёRyeR°R»R° RgRѕ RїRѕRјSЃS‚Rё R·R° «RїR°S†RёS„S–RyeR°S†S–SЋ», S– RЅR° RјS–S„S– RїSЂRѕ RЅRµS— RyeRѕRЅSЃS‚SЂSѓSЋRIR°R»R° «RIRёRїSЂR°RIRgR°RЅRЅSЏ» RgR»SЏ R·R°SЃS‚RѕSЃSѓRIR°RЅRЅSЏ S‚RµSЂRѕSЂSѓ R№ R·R°RјR°S…S–RI RЅR° RїRѕR»SЊSЃSЊRyeRёS… RїRѕR»S–S‚RёRyeS–RI S– RїRѕSЃR°RgRѕRIRёS… RѕSЃS–R± (RўR°RgRµSѓS€ R“RѕR»SѓRIRyeRѕ, R‘SЂRѕRЅS–SЃR»R°RI RџRµSЂR°S†SЊRyeRёR№).

RђRIS‚RѕSЂ RЅR°RIRѕRgRёS‚SЊ S†RёS‚R°S‚Sѓ R„R¶Rё RЎS‚RµRјRїRѕRISЃSЊRyeRѕRiRѕ RїSЂRѕ S‚Rµ, S‰Rѕ «RїR°S†RёS„S–RyeR°S†S–SЏ» R±SѓR»R° R±RµR·RїRѕRIRѕSЂRѕS‚RЅRёRј RјRѕRјRµRЅS‚RѕRј, SЏRyeRёR№ R·R°R·RgR°R»RµRiS–RgSЊ RIRёR·RЅR°S‡RёRI RgRѕR»SЋ «SЃS…S–RgRЅRёS… RyeSЂRµSЃS–RI» R”SЂSѓRiRѕS— R RµS‡S– RџRѕSЃRїRѕR»RёS‚RѕS—.

R†SЃS‚RѕSЂRёRyeR°Rј S‰Rµ RIR°SЂS‚Rѕ RiR»RёR±S€Rµ RїSЂRѕR°RЅR°R»S–R·SѓRIR°S‚Rё RgRѕRIRiRѕSЃS‚SЂRѕRyeRѕRIRёR№ RIRїR»RёRI «RїR°S†RёS„S–RyeR°S†S–S—» RЅR° SѓRyeSЂR°S—RЅSЃSЊRyeRѕ-RїRѕR»SЊSЃSЊRyeS– RIS–RgRЅRѕSЃRёRЅRё Sѓ 1930-1940-S… SЂSЂ. S‚R° S—S— RјS–SЃS†SЏ RI S–SЃS‚RѕSЂS–S— SЃR°RјRѕS— RћRЈRќ.

RњR°R»RѕRgRѕSЃR»S–RgR¶RµRЅRёRј S‚R°RyeRѕR¶ R·R°R»RёS€R°S”S‚SЊSЃSЏ SЂRѕR»SЊ RљSЂRµRјR»SЏ Sѓ SЂRѕR·RїR°R»SЋRIR°RЅRЅS– «RїRѕR»SЊSЃSЊRyeRѕ-SѓRyeSЂR°S—RЅSЃSЊRyeRёS… RyeRѕRЅS„R»S–RyeS‚S–RI» Sѓ R“R°R»RёS‡RёRЅS– RgRѕ S‚R° RїS–Rg S‡R°SЃ RїSЂRѕRIRµRgRµRЅRЅSЏ «RїR°S†RёS„S–RyeR°S†S–S—».

***

P.S. RЇRye RgS–R·RЅR°R»R°SЃSЏ «R†SЃS‚RѕSЂRёS‡RЅR° RїSЂR°RIRgR°», RgSЂSѓRiRёR№ S‚RѕRј RIRёRgR°RЅRЅSЏ R±SѓRgRµ RїSЂRёSЃRISЏS‡RµRЅRёR№ RјS–R¶RЅR°SЂRѕRgRЅRѕRјSѓ RyeRѕRЅS‚RµRyeSЃS‚Sѓ «RїR°S†RёS„S–RyeR°S†S–S—» 1930 SЂ. R”RѕSЃR»S–RgR¶RµRЅRЅSЏ S†SЊRѕRiRѕ R°SЃRїRµRyeS‚Sѓ RgR°SЃS‚SЊ RјRѕR¶R»RёRIS–SЃS‚SЊ SЂRѕR·S€RёSЂRёS‚Rё RЅR°S€Rµ SѓSЏRIR»RµRЅRЅSЏ RїSЂRѕ R·RЅR°S‡RµRЅRЅSЏ R·RiR°RgR°RЅRёS… RїRѕRgS–R№ Sѓ R“R°R»RёS‡RёRЅS– Sѓ RјS–R¶RЅR°SЂRѕRgRЅS–R№ RїRѕR»S–S‚RёS†S– RјS–R¶RIRѕS”RЅRЅRѕRiRѕ RїRµSЂS–RѕRgSѓ.  

RЇRye RIS–RgR±SѓRIR°R»RёSЃSЏ RїR°SЂR»R°RјRµRЅS‚SЃSЊRyeS– RIRёR±RѕSЂRё RI R“R°R»RёS‡RёRЅS– 100 SЂRѕRyeS–RI S‚RѕRјSѓ?

R’RёR±RѕSЂS‡RёR№ RyeRѕRgRµRyeSЃ, SЏRyeRёR№ RїRѕS‡R°RI RgS–SЏS‚Rё RI RЈRyeSЂR°S—RЅS– R· RїRѕS‡R°S‚RyeSѓ 2020 SЂRѕRyeSѓ, SЃSѓS‚S‚S”RIRѕ R·RјS–RЅSЋS” RїSЂRёRЅS†RёRї RiRѕR»RѕSЃSѓRIR°RЅRЅSЏ, RїRµSЂRµRIRµRgRµRЅRЅSЏ RiRѕR»RѕSЃS–RI Sѓ RјR°RЅRgR°S‚Rё, RЅR°SЂS–R·RyeSѓ RѕRyeSЂSѓRiS–RI, S‰Rѕ, R·RIS–SЃRЅRѕ, RЅRµ RѕRјRёRЅRµ S– R›SЊRIS–RIS‰RёRЅSѓ. R¦Rµ RIRёRyeR»RёRyeR°S” RїRµRIRЅS– S–SЃS‚RѕSЂRёS‡RЅS– RїR°SЂR°R»RµR»S– R· 1907 SЂRѕRyeRѕRј, RyeRѕR»Rё RI RђRISЃS‚SЂRѕ-RЈRiRѕSЂS‰RёRЅS– RIS–RgR±SѓR»R°SЃSЏ RIRёR±RѕSЂS‡R° SЂRµS„RѕSЂRјR°, SЏRyeR° SЃSѓS‚S‚S”RIRѕ R·RјS–RЅRёR»R° RїSЂR°RIRёR»R° RIRёR±RѕSЂS–RI Sѓ R“R°R»RёS‡RёRЅS–. RўRѕRgS– RIRёRyeRѕSЂRёSЃS‚RѕRISѓRIR°R»R°SЃSЏ RIRёRyeR»SЋS‡RЅRѕ RјR°R¶RѕSЂRёS‚R°SЂRЅR° RIRёR±RѕSЂS‡R° SЃRёSЃS‚RµRјR°, SЏRyeR° RIS–RgS‚RµRїRµSЂ RЅRµ RIRёRyeRѕSЂRёSЃS‚RѕRISѓS”S‚SЊSЃSЏ RI RЈRyeSЂR°S—RЅS– RїS–Rg S‡R°SЃ RїR°SЂR»R°RјRµRЅS‚SЃSЊRyeRёS… S– RјS–SЃS†RµRIRёS… RIRёR±SЂS–RI RgRѕ SЂR°Rg S–R· RyeS–R»SЊRyeS–SЃS‚SЋ RIRёR±RѕSЂS†S–RI R±S–R»SЊS€Rµ SЏRye 90 S‚RёSЃSЏS‡ RѕSЃS–R±

RђRyeSѓR»R° RїRµSЂR° Sѓ RїS–RgRїS–R»R»S–. R”Rѕ RgRЅSЏ RЅR°SЂRѕRgR¶RµRЅRЅSЏ RџRµS‚SЂR° R¤RµRgSѓRЅR°-"RџRѕR»S‚R°RIRё"

RќR° RїRѕS€SѓRye S– R»S–RyeRIS–RgR°S†S–SЋ RѕRgRЅS–S”S— R»SЋRgRёRЅRё Sѓ 1951 SЂRѕS†S– V«SЃRѕRIS”S‚RёV» RyeRёRЅSѓR»Rё 4 574 RѕS„S–S†RµSЂS–RI S– SЃRѕR»RgR°S‚S–RI, S–R· RЅRёS… vЂ“ 60 S–RЅSЃS‚SЂSѓRyeS‚RѕSЂS–RI S–R· 110 SЃR»SѓR¶R±RѕRIRѕ-SЂRѕR·S€SѓRyeRѕRIRёRјRё SЃRѕR±R°RyeR°RјRё, 500 RyeSѓSЂSЃR°RЅS‚S–RI RЅR°RIS‡R°R»SЊRЅRѕRiRѕ R·R°RiRѕRЅSѓ RњR“R‘, 230 R°RIS‚RѕRјR°S€RёRЅ. RљRёRј R±SѓRI R»RµRiRµRЅRgR°SЂRЅRёR№ V«RџRѕR»S‚R°RIR°V», S‰Rѕ RЅR° R№RѕRiRѕ RїRѕS€SѓRyeRё SЃRїRѕSЂSЏRgRёR»Rё RyeS–R»SЊRyeR° RїRѕR»RyeS–RI S‡RµRyeS–SЃS‚S–RI?

R“RѕRgRёRЅR° RїR°RїSѓRiRё. R”S–S‚Rё RїRёS€SѓS‚SЊ RЎS‚R°R»S–RЅSѓ

R§R°RїSЃSЊRyeRёR№ S‡SѓRI, SЏRye S‚SѓS‚ RyeR°R¶SѓS‚SЊ: "RўRѕ S‡RѕSЂS‚ RgRѕSЂRѕRiRѕSЋ S–RgRµ". RќS–R±RёS‚Rѕ, SЏRyeS‰Rѕ RyeRёRЅSѓS‚Rё Sѓ RIRёS…RѕSЂ SЃRѕRyeRёSЂRѕSЋ vЂ” RїRѕS‚RµS‡Rµ RyeSЂRѕRI. R”RёRIRЅS– S‚SѓS‚ R·R°R±RѕR±RѕRЅRё. RЈS‡RѕSЂR° S‚S– "S‡RѕSЂS‚Rё" RIRёR»RёSЃSЏ RїRѕRїS–Rg RЅRѕRiR°RјRё S– RїRµSЂRµR±S–RiR°R»Rё RgRѕSЂRѕRiSѓ R·R±SѓRgR¶RµRЅRёRј S– SѓSЃRјS–S…RЅRµRЅRёRј RyeRѕR»RµRiR°Rј R§R°RїSЃSЊRyeRѕRiRѕ. R’S–RЅ R·R°R·RgSЂRёRI S‰R°SЃS‚SЋ RyeRѕR»RµRi, SЏRyeS– RIR¶Rµ RїS–S€R»Rё R·R° RyeRѕR»SЋS‡RёR№ RgSЂS–S‚ S– S‚R°R±S–SЂRЅS– RјSѓSЂRё Sѓ RgR°R»RµRyeRёR№, S€RёSЂRѕRyeRёR№ SЃRIS–S‚.

R‘SЂR°S‚Rё RЁRµRїS‚RёS†SЊRyeS– S– S”RISЂRµR№SЃSЊRyeRёR№ RЅR°SЂRѕRg. R§R°SЃS‚RёRЅR° R†

RћRgRЅRёRј S–R· RIR°RiRѕRјRёS… RµRїS–R·RѕRgS–RI Sѓ R¶RёS‚S‚S”RїRёSЃS– RњRёS‚SЂRѕRїRѕR»RёS‚R° RђRЅRgSЂRµSЏ RЁRµRїS‚RёS†SЊRyeRѕRiRѕ, SЏRye S– RI R¶RёS‚S‚S”RїRёSЃS– R№RѕRiRѕ RјRѕR»RѕRgS€RѕRiRѕ R±SЂR°S‚R° R±R». SЃRIS‰RјS‡. RљR»RёRјRµRЅS‚S–SЏ vЂ” RџSЂR°RIRµRgRЅRёRyeR° RќR°SЂRѕRgS–RI RЎRIS–S‚Sѓ, S” S—S…RЅSЏ SѓS‡R°SЃS‚SЊ Sѓ RїRѕSЂSЏS‚SѓRЅRyeSѓ RiR°R»RёS†SЊRyeRёS… S”RISЂRµS—RI Sѓ S‡R°SЃRё R“RѕR»RѕRyeRѕSЃS‚Sѓ. R‘S–R»SЊS€S–SЃS‚SЊ S–RЅS„RѕSЂRјR°S†S–S— S‡RµSЂRїR°S”RјRѕ R·S– SЃRїRѕRiR°RgS–RI RѕS‡RµRIRёRgS†S–RI, RџRѕSЂSЏS‚SѓRЅRѕRye S”RISЂRµS—RI vЂ” SЃRїS–R»SЊRЅR° SЃRїSЂR°RIR° R±SЂR°S‚S–RI, SЏRye S– RgS–SЏR»SЊRЅS–SЃS‚SЊ, SЃRїSЂSЏRјRѕRIR°RЅR° RЅR° RїRѕRiR°S€RµRЅRЅSЏ R°RЅS‚RёSЃRµRјS–S‚SЃSЊRyeRёS… RЅR°SЃS‚SЂRѕS—RI Sѓ S‚RѕRgS–S€RЅSЊRѕRјSѓ SЃSѓSЃRїS–R»SЊSЃS‚RIS–, S…RѕS‡R° R±S–R»SЊS€S–SЃS‚SЊ RgRѕRyeSѓRјRµRЅS‚S–RI RїS–RgRїRёSЃR°RЅR° SЃR°RјRёRј RњRёS‚SЂRѕRїRѕR»RёS‚RѕRј. RџR°SЂR°RgRѕRyeSЃ Sѓ S‚RѕRјSѓ, S‰Rѕ Rѕ. RљR»RёRјRµRЅS‚S–R№ RЁRµRїS‚RёS†SЊRyeRёR№ R±SѓRI RIRёR·RЅR°RЅRёR№ V«RџSЂR°RIRµRgRЅRёRyeRѕRј RЅR°SЂRѕRgS–RI SЃRIS–S‚SѓV» R·R° RїRѕSЂSЏS‚SѓRЅRѕRye S”RISЂRµS—RI Sѓ S‡R°SЃRё R“RѕR»RѕRyeRѕSЃS‚Sѓ, RЅR°S‚RѕRјS–SЃS‚SЊ R·R°SЃR»SѓRiR°Rј RњRёS‚SЂRѕRїRѕR»RёS‚R° RђRЅRgSЂRµSЏ Sѓ S‚R°RyeRѕRјSѓ RIRёR·RЅR°RЅRЅS– R±SѓR»Rѕ RIS–RgRјRѕRIR»RµRЅRѕ.