RЎRїRµS†RїSЂRѕRµRyeS‚

RџR»RѕS‰S– S‚R° RIRµR¶S–. RњS–R¶ SЂRµR°R»SЊRЅRёRј R¶RёS‚S‚SЏRј S‚R° RIS–SЂS‚SѓR°R»SЊRЅRёRј RїSЂRѕSЃS‚RѕSЂRѕRј SЃRѕS†S–R°R»SЊRЅRёS… RјRµSЂRµR¶

RЈSЂRѕRye S–SЃS‚RѕSЂS–S— RїRѕR»SЏRiR°S” Sѓ S‚RѕRјSѓ, S‰Rѕ RgRѕRIS–SЂRёS‚Rё RјRµSЂRµR¶R°Rј SѓRїSЂR°RIR»SЏS‚Rё SЃRIS–S‚RѕRј vЂ“ S†Rµ SЂRµS†RµRїS‚ R°RЅR°SЂS…S–S—: Sѓ RЅR°R№RyeSЂR°S‰RѕRјSѓ SЂR°R·S– RIR»R°RgR° RѕRїRёRЅRёS‚SЊSЃSЏ RI SЂSѓRyeR°S… S–R»SЋRјS–RЅR°S‚S–RI, R°R»Rµ S‰Rµ R±S–R»SЊS€Rµ S€R°RЅSЃS–RI, S‰Rѕ RI SЂSѓRyeR°S… SЏRyeRѕR±S–RЅS†S–RI

 

R©Rѕ S‡RёS‚R°S”RјRѕ? RќS–R» R¤RµSЂRiSЋSЃRѕRЅ. RџR»RѕS‰S– S‚R° RIRµR¶S–: RЎRѕS†S–R°R»SЊRЅS– R·RI’SЏR·RyeRё RIS–Rg RјR°SЃRѕRЅS–RI RgRѕ S„RµR№SЃR±SѓRyeSѓ. – RљRёS—RI: RќR°S€ S„RѕSЂRјR°S‚, 2018. – 552 SЃ.

RќR°RIS–S‰Rѕ S‡RёS‚R°S”RјRѕ? R©RѕR± RIS–RgS–R№S‚Rё RIS–Rg S‚SЂR°RgRёS†S–R№RЅRѕRiRѕ RѕRїRёSЃSѓ S–SЃS‚RѕSЂS–S— R»SЋRgSЃS‚RIR° SЏRye RyeRѕRЅRyeSѓSЂRµRЅS†S–S— S–S”SЂR°SЂS…S–S‡RЅRёS… SЃS‚SЂSѓRyeS‚SѓSЂ-«RIRµR¶», RЅR° RIRµSЂS€RёRЅS– SЏRyeRёS… – RїSЂR°RIRёS‚RµR»S–. R©RѕR± RїRѕRiR»SЏRЅSѓS‚Rё RЅR° RЅRµS— SЏRye RЅR° RIR·R°S”RјRѕRgS–SЋ S‡RёSЃR»RµRЅRЅRёS… RјRµSЂRµR¶RµRIRёS… RiSЂSѓRї-«RїR»RѕS‰» R±RµR· RЅR°RїRµSЂRµRg RIRёR·RЅR°S‡RµRЅRёS… R»S–RgRµSЂS–RI.

«RљRѕR»Rё RјRё R·SЂRѕR·SѓRјS–S”RјRѕ S†S– RѕSЃRЅRѕRIRЅS– SѓSЂRѕRyeRё S‚RµRѕSЂS–S— RјRµSЂRµR¶, S–SЃS‚RѕSЂS–SЏ R»SЋRgSЃS‚RIR° RјR°S‚RёRјRµ R·RѕRISЃS–Rј S–RЅS€RёR№ RIRёRiR»SЏRg: RЅRµ S‚Rµ, S‰RѕR±, SЏRye R¶R°SЂS‚S–RIR»RёRIRѕ RIRёSЃR»RѕRIRёRISЃSЏ RgSЂR°RјR°S‚SѓSЂRi RђR»R°RЅ R‘RµRЅRЅRµS‚S‚, S–SЃS‚RѕSЂS–SЏ R±SѓR»R° «RЅRёR·RyeRѕSЋ RyeR»SЏS‚RёS… RїRѕRgS–R№, S‰Rѕ R№RgSѓS‚SЊ RѕRgRЅR° R·R° RѕRgRЅRѕSЋ», RЅR°RIS–S‚SЊ RЅRµ RѕRgRЅS–S”SЋ, S‰Rѕ S‚SЂR°RїR»SЏS”S‚SЊSЃSЏ RїS–SЃR»SЏ S–RЅS€RѕS—, S‰Rѕ RIR¶Rµ RЅR°SЃS‚RѕR±S–SЃS–R»R°; S†Rµ RјS–R»SЊSЏSЂRgRё RїRѕRgS–R№, RїRѕRISЏR·R°RЅRёS… RјS–R¶ SЃRѕR±RѕSЋ RI R±RµR·R»S–S‡ SЂS–R·RЅRёS… SЃRїRѕSЃRѕR±S–RI».

***

R¤RµSЂRiSЋSЃRѕRЅ RїRѕS‡RёRЅR°S” RyeRЅRёRiSѓ S–R· RyeRѕSЂRѕS‚RyeRѕS— SЂRѕR·RїRѕRIS–RgS– RїSЂRѕ RћSЂRgRµRЅ S–R»SЋRјS–RЅR°S‚S–RI. RўRѕS‡RЅS–S€Rµ – RїSЂRѕ S–SЃS‚RѕSЂS–SЋ SѓSЏRIR»RµRЅSЊ RїSЂRѕ RѕSЂRgRµRЅ Sѓ XVIII SЃS‚RѕR»S–S‚S‚S– S‚R° RIRёRЅRёRyeRЅRµRЅRЅSЏ RЅR° S†SЊRѕRјSѓ T‘SЂSѓRЅS‚S– R±RµR·R»S–S‡S– RyeRѕRЅS†RµRїS†S–R№ S‚RµRѕSЂS–S— R·RјRѕRIRё.

RќR°RїSЂRёRyeR»R°Rg, Sѓ SЃRIS–S‚RѕRIRёR№ SѓSЂSЏRg RIS–SЂRёS‚SЊ 51% R°RјRµSЂRёRyeR°RЅS†S–RI, R° S‚R°RyeRѕR¶ S‡RёRјR°R»Rѕ R±SЂRёS‚R°RЅS†S–RI, SЂRѕSЃS–SЏRЅ S‚R° RјSѓSЃSѓR»SЊRјR°RЅ.

R¤RµSЂRiSЋSЃRѕRЅ SЃS‚R°RIRёS‚SЊ SЃRѕR±S– R·R°RIRgR°RЅRЅSЏ SЂRѕR·RїRѕRIS–SЃS‚Rё RїSЂRѕ SЃRѕS†S–R°R»SЊRЅS– RјRµSЂRµR¶S– S‚R°Rye, S‰RѕR± RЅRµ RIRїR°SЃS‚Rё R°RЅS– Sѓ R°RїRѕR»RѕRiS–SЋ, R°RЅS– Sѓ RgRµRјRѕRЅS–R·R°S†S–SЋ S†SЊRѕRiRѕ SЏRIRёS‰R°.

RќR° RgSѓRјRyeSѓ R¤RµSЂRiSЋSЃRѕRЅR°, RјRё R¶RёRIRµRјRѕ Sѓ RgRѕR±Sѓ RISЃSЋRgRёSЃSѓS‰RёS… RјRµSЂRµR¶, S– RїRѕS‚RѕRyeRё S–RЅS„RѕSЂRјR°S†S–S— S‰Rµ RЅS–RyeRѕR»Rё RЅRµ RїRµSЂRµRgR°RIR°R»RёSЃSЏ S‚R°Rye S€RIRёRgRyeRѕ S– RЅRµ RIRїR»RёRIR°R»Rё RЅR° RЅR°S€Rµ R¶RёS‚S‚SЏ S‚R°Rye RїRѕS‚SѓR¶RЅRѕ. RќR°RїSЂRёRyeR»R°Rg, SЏRye RїRµSЂRµRјRѕRiR° R”RѕRЅR°R»SЊRgR° RўSЂR°RјRїR°.

R† RЅR° RyeRѕR¶RЅRѕRiRѕ RѕRїS‚RёRјS–SЃS‚R°, SЏRyeRёR№ RIR±R°S‡R°S” Sѓ SЂRѕR·R±SѓRgRѕRIS– SЃRIS–S‚RѕRIRёS… RјRµSЂRµR¶ RїS–RgT‘SЂSѓRЅS‚SЏ RgR»SЏ S‰Rµ R±S–R»SЊS€RѕRiRѕ RµRyeRѕRЅRѕRјS–S‡RЅRѕRiRѕ SЂRѕR·RIRёS‚RyeSѓ, R·RЅR°S…RѕRgRёS‚SЊSЃSЏ RїRµSЃRёRјS–SЃS‚, S‰Rѕ RѕS‡S–RyeSѓS” S‡RµSЂRµR· RЅRёS… R·RјRµRЅS€RµRЅRЅSЏ SЃS‚R°R±S–R»SЊRЅRѕSЃS‚S– Sѓ SЃRIS–S‚S–.

 
R§R°SЂR»S– R§R°RїR»S–RЅ R·R±RёSЂR°S” S‚R»SѓRјRё R°RјRµSЂRёRyeR°RЅS†S–RI RЅR° RїR»RѕS‰S– R±S–R»SЏ RќR°S†S–RѕRЅR°R»SЊRЅRѕRiRѕ RјRµRјRѕSЂS–R°R»Sѓ, RЅR° R’RѕR»R»-SЃS‚SЂS–S‚, 1918 SЂS–Rye

RџRѕSЃRёR»R°SЋS‡RёSЃSЊ RЅR° RїSЂRёRyeR»R°RgRё R· S„S–R·RёRyeRё, R±S–RѕR»RѕRiS–S— S‚R° RјRµRgRёS†RёRЅRё, R°RIS‚RѕSЂ RgR°S” RIRёR·RЅR°S‡RµRЅRЅSЏ RїSЂRµRgRјRµS‚Sѓ RyeRЅRёRiRё:

«SЃRѕS†S–R°R»SЊRЅS– RјRµSЂRµR¶S– – S†Rµ SЃS‚SЂSѓRyeS‚SѓSЂRё, S„RѕSЂRјSѓRIR°S‚Rё SЏRyeS– R»SЋRgRёRЅS– RIR»R°SЃS‚RёRIRѕ R·R° S—S— RїSЂRёSЂRѕRgRѕSЋ: RїRѕS‡RёRЅR°SЋS‡Rё RIS–Rg R·RЅR°RЅSЊ S– SЂS–R·RЅRѕRјR°RЅS–S‚RЅRёS… S„RѕSЂRј SЂRµRїSЂRµR·RµRЅS‚R°S†S–S—… S–, R·RIS–SЃRЅRѕ, R°R¶ RgRѕ RiRµRЅRµR°R»RѕRiS–S‡RЅRёS… RgRµSЂRµRI… RњRµSЂRµR¶S– RѕS…RѕRїR»SЋSЋS‚SЊ SЃS…RµRјRё SЂRѕR·SЃRµR»RµRЅRЅSЏ, RјS–RiSЂR°S†S–S— S– R·RјS–S€R°RЅS– S€R»SЋR±Rё… R° S‰Rµ – RјS–SЂS–R°RgRё RyeSѓR»SЊS‚S–RI S– SЏRyeS– RјRё S‡R°SЃ RIS–Rg S‡R°SЃSѓ RјRёRјRѕRIRѕR»S– SЃS‚RIRѕSЂSЋS”RјRѕ… SЃRѕS†S–R°R»SЊRЅS– RјRµSЂRµR¶S– R±SѓRIR°SЋS‚SЊ SѓSЃS–S… S„RѕSЂRј S– SЂRѕR·RјS–SЂS–RI – RIS–Rg R·R°RјRyeRЅRµRЅRёS… S‚R°S”RјRЅRёS… S‚RѕRIR°SЂRёSЃS‚RI RgRѕ RIS–RgRyeSЂRёS‚RёS… SЂSѓS…S–RI».

RЈS‚S–Rј, RЅR°R№R±S–R»SЊS€R° R·R°RiR°RgRyeR° RїRѕR»SЏRiR°S” Sѓ S‚RѕRјSѓ, SЏRye R»SЋRgRё, R±SѓRgSѓS‡Rё RїSЂRёSЂRѕRgRЅRёRјRё S‚RIRѕSЂS†SЏRјRё RјRµSЂRµR¶, R±S–R»SЊS€Sѓ S‡R°SЃS‚RёRЅSѓ S–SЃS‚RѕSЂS–S— R·R°R»RёS€R°R»RёSЃSЏ SЂR°R±R°RјRё R¶RѕSЂSЃS‚RyeRёS… RIRµSЂS‚RёRyeR°R»SЊRЅRёS… S–S”SЂR°SЂS…S–R№?

R†SЃS‚RѕSЂRёS‡RЅRѕ R±S–R»SЊS€ SЃS‚SЂSѓRyeS‚SѓSЂRѕRIR°RЅS– SЃSѓSЃRїS–R»SЊSЃS‚RIR° R»RµRiS€Rµ SѓS…RIR°R»SЋRIR°R»Rё SЂS–S€RµRЅRЅSЏ S‚R° RµS„RµRyeS‚RёRIRЅS–S€Rµ RIRµR»Rё RIS–R№RЅRё. RћRgRЅR°Rye SЃR°RјRѕRgRµSЂR¶R°RISЃS‚RIRѕ RјR°S” S– RѕS‡RµRIRёRgRЅS– RIR°RgRё – SЃRїRѕRyeSѓSЃRё RїSЂR°RIRёS‚RµR»S–RI, R±SЂR°Rye SЃRIRѕR±RѕRg, RјRµRЅS€R° RµRyeRѕRЅRѕRјS–S‡RЅR° RµS„RµRyeS‚RёRIRЅS–SЃS‚SЊ S‚R° RISЂR°R·R»RёRIS–SЃS‚SЊ RїRµSЂRµRg RIRёRyeR»RёRyeR°RјRё RїSЂRѕRiSЂRµSЃSѓ.

RЎR°RјRµ S‚RѕRјSѓ Sѓ R·R°S‚S–RЅRyeSѓ «RIRµR¶S–» RIR»R°RgRЅRѕS— S–S”SЂR°SЂS…S–S— R·R°RIR¶RgRё R·RЅR°S…RѕRgRёS‚SЊSЃSЏ RјRµSЂRµR¶RµRIR° «RїR»RѕS‰R°», «RgRµ RIS–RgR±SѓRIR°SЋS‚SЊSЃSЏ SЂRёRЅRyeRѕRIS– RѕRїRµSЂR°S†S–S— S‚R° S–RЅS€S– S„RѕSЂRјRё RїSѓR±R»S–S‡RЅRѕS— RIR·R°S”RјRѕRgS–S—».

R¤RµSЂRiSЋSЃRѕRЅ RѕRїRёSЃSѓS” RiRѕR»RѕRIRЅS– RµR»RµRјRµRЅS‚Rё SЃRѕS†S–R°R»SЊRЅRёS… RјRµSЂRµR¶ – RISѓR·R»Rё (RIR»R°SЃRЅRµ R»SЋRgRё) S‚R° SЂRµR±SЂR° (R·RI’SЏR·RyeRё RјS–R¶ RЅRёRјRё).

R’R°R¶R»RёRIS–SЃS‚SЊ RyeRѕR¶RЅRѕRiRѕ RISѓR·R»R° R·R°R»RµR¶RёS‚SЊ RIS–Rg S‚SЂSЊRѕS… RїRѕRyeR°R·RЅRёRyeS–RI «S†RµRЅS‚SЂR°R»SЊRЅRѕSЃS‚S–»: R·R° SЃS‚SѓRїRµRЅRµRј (RyeS–R»SЊRyeS–SЃS‚SЊ SЂRµR±RµSЂ Sѓ RЅSЊRѕRјSѓ), R·R° RїRѕSЃRµSЂRµRgRЅRёS†S‚RIRѕRј (R· RЅR°SЃRyeS–R»SЊRyeRё RIR°R¶R»RёRIRёRјRё S–RЅS€RёRјRё RISѓR·R»R°RјRё RIS–RЅ RїRѕRI’SЏR·R°RЅRёR№) S‚R° R·R° R±R»RёR·SЊRyeS–SЃS‚SЋ (SЏRyeR° SЃRµSЂRµRgRЅSЏ RIS–RgSЃS‚R°RЅSЊ RјS–R¶ S†RёRј RISѓR·R»RѕRј S‚R° SЂRµS€S‚RѕSЋ).

R©Rѕ RIRёS‰S– RISЃS– S‚SЂRё RїRѕRyeR°R·RЅRёRyeRё Sѓ R»SЋRgRёRЅRё – S‚RёRј RIRѕRЅR° RIRїR»RёRIRѕRIS–S€R° Sѓ RјRµSЂRµR¶S–.

 
R†SЃS‚RѕSЂS–SЏ R RёRјSѓ - S†Rµ S€R»SЏS… RIS–Rg RјRµSЂRµR¶RµRIRѕRiRѕ SЂRµSЃRїSѓR±R»S–RyeR°RЅSЃSЊRyeRѕRiRѕ RїRµSЂS–RѕRgSѓ RgRѕ S–S”SЂR°SЂS…S–S”R·RѕRIR°RЅRѕRiRѕ S–RјRїRµSЂR°S‚RѕSЂSЃSЊRyeRѕRiRѕ. RљR°SЂS‚RёRЅR° R“RµRЅSЂRёRyeR° RЎRµRјRёSЂR°RgSЃSЊRyeRѕRiRѕ "RЎRјRѕR»RѕSЃRyeRёRїRё RќRµSЂRѕRЅR°"

Rђ RїSЂRѕ S‰S–R»SЊRЅS–SЃS‚SЊ RISЃSЊRѕRiRѕ R»SЋRgSЃS‚RIR° RјRѕR¶RЅR° SЃSѓRgRёS‚Rё R·R° RIS–RgRѕRјRѕSЋ RyeRѕRЅS†RµRїS†S–S”SЋ «S€RµSЃS‚Rё SЂSѓRyeRѕSЃS‚RёSЃRyeR°RЅSЊ», SЏRyeSѓ SЃRyeRѕSЂRѕ RgRѕRIRµRgRµS‚SЊSЃSЏ RїRµSЂRµR№RјRµRЅSѓRIR°S‚Rё RЅR° «Rї’SЏS‚Rё» – RЅR°SЃS‚S–R»SЊRyeRё R·R° RїS–RISЃS‚RѕR»S–S‚S‚SЏ RјRё SЃS‚R°R»Rё R±R»RёR¶S‡RёRјRё (R° RyeRѕSЂRёSЃS‚SѓRIR°S‡S– S„RµR№SЃR±SѓRyeSѓ – RIR·R°RiR°R»S– RЅR° RIS–RgSЃS‚R°RЅS– 3,5 RѕRgRёRЅ RIS–Rg RѕRgRЅRѕRiRѕ).

R—RI’SЏR·RyeRё Sѓ RјRµSЂRµR¶S– RјRѕR¶RЅR° RїRѕRgS–R»RёS‚Rё RЅR° «SЃRёR»SЊRЅS–» – R· RgSЂSѓR·SЏRјRё S‚R° RyeRѕR»RµRiR°RјRё, S‚R° «SЃR»R°R±RyeS–» – R· SѓSЃS–RјR° S–RЅS€RёRјRё.

RћSЃRyeS–R»SЊRyeRё R»SЋRgRё SЃS…RёR»SЊRЅS– RgRѕ RiRµRјRѕS„S–R»SЊRЅRѕSЃS‚S– – S‚RѕR±S‚Rѕ RѕR±’S”RgRЅR°RЅRЅSЏ S–R· SЃS…RѕR¶RёRјRё RЅR° SЃRµR±Rµ Sѓ R·R°RјRyeRЅRµRЅS– RiSЂSѓRїRё-RyeR»R°SЃS‚RµSЂRё, S‚Rѕ SЃR°RјRµ «SЃR»R°R±RyeS–» R·RI’SЏR·RyeRё RgRѕR·RIRѕR»SЏSЋS‚SЊ S–RgRµSЏRј, RiSЂRѕS€R°Rј S‚R° RµRјRѕS†S–SЏRј RgRѕR»R°S‚Rё SЂR°SЃRѕRIS–, SЂRµR»S–RiS–R№RЅS– S‚R° RiRµRѕRiSЂR°S„S–S‡RЅS– RјRµR¶S– RyeR»R°SЃS‚RµSЂS–RI.

Rђ S‡RёRј R±S–R»SЊS€Rµ Sѓ RјRµSЂRµR¶S– RISѓR·R»S–RI, S‚RёRј R±S–R»SЊS€Sѓ RyeRѕSЂRёSЃS‚SЊ RIS–Rg RЅRµS— RјR°S” RyeRѕR¶RµRЅ R· RЅRёS….

RЎR°RјRµ SЃS‚SЂSѓRyeS‚SѓSЂRѕSЋ RјRµSЂRµR¶S– RїRѕSЏSЃRЅSЋS”S‚SЊSЃSЏ S„RµRЅRѕRјRµRЅ «RIS–SЂSѓSЃRЅRѕSЃS‚S–»: R»RёS€Rµ S‚S– «RјRµRјRё», S‰Rѕ R·R°S…RѕRїR»SЋSЋS‚SЊ RyeSЂRёS‚RёS‡RЅSѓ RјR°SЃSѓ R»SЋRgRµR№ S–R· RIRµR»RёRyeRѕSЋ RyeS–R»SЊRyeS–SЃS‚SЋ «SЃR»R°R±RyeRёS…» R·RI’SЏR·RyeS–RI, RјR°SЋS‚SЊ S€R°RЅSЃ RIRёSЂRIR°S‚RёSЃSЏ R·R° RјRµR¶S– RyeR»R°SЃS‚RµSЂS–RI, S–RЅS€S– – S‚R°Rye S– R·R°R»RёS€R°SЋS‚SЊSЃSЏ Sѓ SЃRIRѕS—S… RЅS–S€R°S….

 
RњRµSЂRµR¶R° S‚R° S–S”SЂR°SЂS…S–SЏ Sѓ RѕRgRЅRѕRјSѓ R·RѕR±SЂR°R¶RµRЅRЅS–. RџR»RѕS‰R° RЎRISЏS‚RѕRiRѕ RџRµS‚SЂR° S‚R° RIRµR¶S– RiRѕR»RѕRIRЅRѕRiRѕ SЃRѕR±RѕSЂSѓ R—R°S…S–RgRЅRёS… S…SЂRёSЃS‚RёSЏRЅ. R¤RѕS‚Rѕ 1854-1867 SЂRѕRyeS–RI

«RЇRyeR±Rё SѓSЃS– SЃS‚SЂSѓRyeS‚SѓSЂRё SЃRѕS†S–R°R»SЊRЅRёS… RјRµSЂRµR¶ R±SѓR»Rё RѕRgRЅR°RyeRѕRIS–, RјRё R¶RёR»Rё R± Sѓ RiRµS‚SЊ S–RЅS€RѕRјSѓ SЃRIS–S‚S–», RЅR°S‚RѕRјS–SЃS‚SЊ RјRµSЂRµR¶S– RЅR°RїSЂRѕS‡SѓRg SЂS–R·RЅRѕRјR°RЅS–S‚RЅS–.

R†SЃRЅSѓSЋS‚SЊ «RgRѕRIS–R»SЊRЅS–» RјRµSЂRµR¶S–, Sѓ SЏRyeRёS… R±S–R»SЊS€S–SЃS‚SЊ RISѓR·R»S–RI RјR°SЋS‚SЊ RїSЂRёR±R»RёR·RЅRѕ SЂS–RIRЅSѓ RyeS–R»SЊRyeS–SЃS‚SЊ SЂRµR±RµSЂ, SЏRye-RѕS‚ RјRµSЂRµR¶R° S€RѕSЃRµR№RЅRёS… RgRѕSЂS–Ri. R„ – «R±RµR·RјR°SЃS€S‚R°R±RЅS–», RI SЏRyeRёS… RIRёRѕRyeSЂRµRјR»SЋSЋS‚SЊSЃSЏ RЅRµR±R°RiR°S‚Rѕ RIRµR»RёRyeRёS… S…R°R±S–RI, R±S–R»SЊS€Rµ SЃRµSЂRµRgRЅS–S… S‚R° R±RµR·R»S–S‡ RgSЂS–R±RЅRёS…, RЅR°RїSЂRёRyeR»R°Rg, R°RµSЂRѕRїRѕSЂS‚Rё.

«RњRѕRgSѓR»SЊRЅS–» RјRµSЂRµR¶S– SЃRyeR»R°RgR°SЋS‚SЊSЃSЏ S–R· RIRёSЂR°R·RЅRѕ RѕRyeSЂRµSЃR»RµRЅRёS… RyeR»R°SЃS‚RµSЂS–RI, R·’S”RgRЅR°RЅRёS… RјS–R¶ SЃRѕR±RѕSЋ RyeS–R»SЊRyeRѕRјR° SЂRµR±SЂR°RјRё, SЏRye-RѕS‚ RiSЂSѓRїRё R·RЅR°R№RѕRјSЃS‚RI Sѓ RїS–RgR»S–S‚RyeS–RI. R„ S– S‡RёRјR°R»Rѕ RїSЂRѕRјS–R¶RЅRёS… RIRёRgS–RI.

R‘S–R»SЊS€S–SЃS‚SЊ RISѓR·R»S–RI R·R°R·RЅR°SЋS‚SЊ «RµS„RµRyeS‚Sѓ RњR°S‚RIS–SЏ»: RїSЂRё SЂRѕR·S€RёSЂRµRЅRЅS– RјRµSЂRµR¶S– RЅR°R№R±S–R»SЊS€Rµ R·SЂRѕSЃS‚R°SЋS‚SЊ S– RѕS‚SЂRёRјSѓSЋS‚SЊ RIRёRiRѕRgSѓ S‚S–, S‰Rѕ S– S‚R°Rye SѓR¶Rµ RIRµR»RёRyeS–.

R†S”SЂR°SЂS…S–S— R· S†SЊRѕRiRѕ RїRѕRiR»SЏRgSѓ – R·RѕRISЃS–Rј RЅRµ RїSЂRѕS‚RёR»RµR¶RЅS–SЃS‚SЊ, R° RїSЂRѕSЃS‚Rѕ RѕRgRёRЅ R· SЂS–R·RЅRѕRIRёRgS–RI RјRµSЂRµR¶, Sѓ SЏRyeRѕRјSѓ RѕRgRёRЅ RISѓR·RѕR» R·R°RјRёRyeR°S” RЅR° SЃRѕR±S– R±S–R»SЊS€S–SЃS‚SЊ (R° S‚Rѕ R№ SѓSЃS–) R·RI’SЏR·RyeRё RјS–R¶ S–RЅS€RёRјRё.

RЁRIRёRgRyeRёR№ S‚R° RЅR°RgS–R№RЅRёR№ SЃRїRѕSЃS–R± R·SЂSѓR№RЅSѓRIR°S‚Rё S–S”SЂR°SЂS…S–SЋ – S†Rµ RgRѕRgR°S‚Rё RЅRµR·R°R»RµR¶RЅS– RIS–Rg S†RµRЅS‚SЂSѓ SЂRµR±SЂR° RјS–R¶ RISѓR·R»R°RјRё, R·SЂSѓR№RЅSѓRIR°RIS€Rё R№RѕRiRѕ RјRѕRЅRѕRїRѕR»S–SЋ RЅR° R·RI’SЏR·RѕRye:

«R¦Rµ S‡R°SЃS‚RyeRѕRIRѕ RїRѕSЏSЃRЅSЋS”, S‡RѕRјSѓ RIRїSЂRѕRgRѕRIR¶ SѓSЃS–S”S— S–SЃS‚RѕSЂS–S— S–RјRїRµSЂR°S‚RѕSЂS–RI S‚R° RyeRѕSЂRѕR»S–RI RЅRµRїRѕRyeRѕS—R»Rё R·RјRѕRIRё. RўRѕRIR°SЂRёSЃS‚RIR°, RyeR°RјR°SЂRёR»SЊS—, RiSѓSЂS‚RyeRё, RѕSЃRµSЂRµRgRyeRё, RyeR»S–RyeRё – SѓSЃS– S†S– SЃR»RѕRIR° RјR°R»Rё R·R»RѕRIS–SЃRЅRµ R·RЅR°S‡RµRЅRЅSЏ RgR»SЏ RјRѕRЅR°SЂS…S–S‡RЅRѕRiRѕ RgRIRѕSЂSѓ. R†S”SЂR°SЂS…S–S— SѓR¶Rµ RgR°RIRЅRѕ R±SѓR»R° RIS–RgRѕRјR° S‚R° RЅRµRїSЂRёS”RјRЅR° S–SЃS‚RёRЅR°, S‰Rѕ R±SЂR°S‚R°RЅRЅSЏ RїS–RgR»RµRiR»RёS… RјRѕR¶Rµ SЃS‚R°S‚Rё RїRµSЂRµRgRIS–SЃRЅRёRyeRѕRј RїR°R»R°S†RѕRIRѕRiRѕ RїRµSЂRµRIRѕSЂRѕS‚Sѓ».

 
RЎS‚SЂR°S‚R° RyeRѕSЂRѕR»SЏ R¤SЂR°RЅS†S–S— R›SѓS— XVI RЅR° RџR»RѕS‰S– R—RiRѕRgRё 21 SЃS–S‡RЅSЏ 1793 SЂRѕRyeSѓ 

RњS–R¶ SЃRѕR±RѕSЋ RјRµSЂRµR¶S– RIR·R°S”RјRѕRgS–SЋS‚SЊ Sѓ R·RIRёS‡R°R№RЅS– SЃRїRѕSЃRѕR±Rё: RyeRѕRЅRyeSѓSЂSѓSЋS‚SЊ, SЃRїS–RIRїSЂR°S†SЋSЋS‚SЊ S‚R° R·RЅRёS‰SѓSЋS‚SЊ RѕRgRЅR° RѕRgRЅSѓ, RIRѕRЅRё R·RgR°S‚RЅS– SЏRye R°RgR°RїS‚SѓRIR°S‚RёSЃSЏ RgRѕ RЅRѕRIRёS… SѓRјRѕRI, S‚R°Rye S– RѕRїRёSЂR°S‚RёSЃSЏ RїRµSЂRµRјS–RЅR°Rј.

R©RѕRgRѕ S‚RѕRiRѕ, S…S‚Rѕ RIRёR№RgRµ RїRµSЂRµRјRѕR¶S†RµRј Sѓ R±RѕSЂRѕS‚SЊR±S– RјRµSЂRµR¶ R· S–S”SЂR°SЂS…S–SЏRјRё – RgSѓRјRyeRё RgRѕSЃR»S–RgRЅRёRyeS–RI RЅR°SЃS‚S–R»SЊRyeRё SЂRѕR·S…RѕRgSЏS‚SЊSЃSЏ, S‰Rѕ RyeRѕRјRїSЂRѕRјS–SЃSѓ RїRѕRyeRё RЅRµ RIRёRgRЅRѕ.

«RЎS–RјRѕRјR° RѕRgRyeSЂRѕRIRµRЅRЅSЏRјRё» R·R°RIRµSЂS€SѓS” R¤RµSЂRiSЋSЃRѕRЅ S‚RµRѕSЂRµS‚RёS‡RЅSѓ S‡R°SЃS‚RёRЅSѓ RyeRЅRёRiRё:

1) «R–RѕRgRЅR° R»SЋRgRёRЅR° RЅRµ R±SѓRIR°S” RѕSЃS‚SЂRѕRIRѕRј» – SѓSЃS– S‚R°Rye S‡Rё S–RЅR°RyeS€Rµ R·RI’SЏR·R°RЅS– Sѓ RјRµSЂRµR¶S–;

2) «RЎRIS–R№ SЃRIRѕS”RјSѓ RјRёRјRѕRIRѕR»S– R±SЂR°S‚» – SЃRїS–R»SЊRЅS– SЂRёSЃRё S‡Rё RїSЂRµS„RµSЂRµRЅS†S–S— R·RјSѓS€SѓSЋS‚SЊ R»SЋRgRµR№ S‚SЂRёRјR°S‚RёSЃSЏ SЂR°R·RѕRј Sѓ RiSЂSѓRїR°S…-RyeR»R°SЃS‚RµSЂR°S…;

3) «RЎR»R°R±RyeS– R·RI’SЏR·RyeRё – SЃRёR»SЊRЅS–» – RЅR°RIS–S‚SЊ RyeS–R»SЊRyeR° SЃR»R°R±RyeRёS… SЂRµR±RµSЂ R·RI’SЏR·SѓSЋS‚SЊ RyeR»R°SЃS‚RµSЂRё Sѓ R±S–R»SЊS€ SЂRѕR·RiR°R»SѓR¶RµRЅSѓ RјRµSЂRµR¶Sѓ;

4) «RЎS‚SЂSѓRyeS‚SѓSЂR° RIRёR·RЅR°S‡R°S” RIS–SЂSѓSЃRЅS–SЃS‚SЊ», – R° S–S”SЂR°SЂS…S–S‡RЅS– RјRµSЂRµR¶S– RgR»SЏ S†SЊRѕRiRѕ RїRѕRiR°RЅRѕ RїS–RgS…RѕRgSЏS‚SЊ;

5) «RњRµSЂRµR¶S– RЅS–RyeRѕR»Rё RЅRµ RgSЂS–RјR°SЋS‚SЊ» –RЅR°RIS–S‚SЊ RgSѓR¶Rµ RgSЂS–R±RЅS– R·RјS–RЅRё RјRѕR¶SѓS‚SЊ RјR°S‚Rё RIRµR»RёRyeS– RЅR°SЃR»S–RgRyeRё;

6) «RњRµSЂRµR¶S– SЂRѕR·R±SѓRgRѕRISѓSЋS‚SЊ RјRµSЂRµR¶S–», – R°R»Rµ RЅRµRѕR±RѕRI’SЏR·RyeRѕRIRѕ RgRѕR»R°SЋS‚SЊ S–S”SЂR°SЂS…S–S—;

7) «R‘R°RiR°S‚S– R·R±R°RiR°S‡SѓSЋS‚SЊSЃSЏ» – S…RѕS‡R° RјRµSЂRµR¶R° RїRѕSЃRёR»SЋS” RISЃS–S…, R»S–RgRµSЂR°Rј RIRѕRЅR° RgRѕRgR°S” R±S–R»SЊS€Rµ.

***

R—R° R¤RµSЂRiSЋSЃRѕRЅRѕRј, RїRѕR»S–S‚RёS‡RЅS– S–S”SЂR°SЂS…S–S— RIS–Rg RїRѕS‡R°S‚RyeSѓ S–SЃS‚RѕSЂS–S— RIRёRїRµSЂRµRgR¶R°R»Rё R·R° S‡R°SЃRѕRј S‚R° RgRѕRјS–RЅSѓRIR°R»Rё R·R° RyeS–R»SЊRyeS–SЃS‚SЋ RЅR°RgRјRµSЂRµR¶RµRIRёRјRё.«R•RyeSЃRїRµSЂRёRјRµRЅS‚Rё» R· RgRµS†RµRЅS‚SЂR°R»S–R·R°S†S–S”SЋ – SЏRye-RѕS‚ RI R°RЅS‚RёS‡RЅS–R№ R“SЂRµS†S–S— – S€RIRёRgRyeRѕ R·R°R·RЅR°R»Rё RЅRµRIRgR°S‡S–.

RЈS‚S–Rј, RјS–RiSЂR°S†S–S— RIR°SЂRIR°SЂS–RI S‚R° RїRѕS€RёSЂRµRЅRЅSЏ RЅRѕRIRёS… SЂRµR»S–RiS–R№, RiRѕR»RѕRIRЅRµ – S…SЂRёSЃS‚RёSЏRЅSЃS‚RIR°, RїS–RgS–SЂRIR°R»Rё S–S”SЂR°SЂS…S–S‡RЅSѓ R RёRјSЃSЊRyeSѓ S–RјRїRµSЂS–SЋ. RќR° S—S— SЂSѓS—RЅR°S… RїRѕSЃS‚R°RI RјRµSЂRµR¶RµRIRёR№ RїRѕR»S–S‚RёS‡RЅRёR№ SЃRIS–S‚RѕSѓSЃS‚SЂS–R№ SЃRµSЂRµRgRЅSЊRѕRIS–S‡RЅRѕS— R„RISЂRѕRїRё. RќR°S‚RѕRјS–SЃS‚SЊ RљRёS‚R°R№SЃSЊRyeR° S–RјRїRµSЂS–SЏ R·R±RµSЂRµRiR»R°SЃSЏ SЏRye S–S”SЂR°SЂS…S–SЏ.

R—RЅRµR»SЋRgRЅRµRЅRЅSЏ R„RISЂRѕRїRё S‡RµSЂRµR· S‡SѓRјSѓXIV SЃS‚RѕR»S–S‚S‚SЏ S‰Rµ R±S–R»SЊS€Rµ RїS–RgRIR°R¶RёR»Rѕ RјS–S†SЊ RїSЂR°RIRёS‚RµR»S–RI. RџSЂRѕS‚Rµ RїRѕSЃRёR»RёR»Rѕ RyeSѓRїRµS†SЊRyeS– RyeRѕSЂRїRѕSЂR°S†S–S—. Rђ RIR¶Rµ RЅR°SЃS‚SѓRїRЅRѕRiRѕ SЃS‚RѕR»S–S‚S‚SЏ – RјRµSЂRµR¶RµRIS– RїSЂRёRЅS†RёRїRё SѓSЃS‚SЂRѕSЋ RiS–R»SЊRgS–R№ R±SѓR»Rё RїRµSЂRµRЅRµSЃRµRЅS– RЅR° RјS–R¶RЅR°SЂRѕRgRЅS– RIS–RgRЅRѕSЃRёRЅRё.

RџR°SЂR°R»RµR»SЊRЅRѕ R’RµR»RёRyeS– RiRµRѕRiSЂR°S„S–S‡RЅS– RIS–RgRyeSЂRёS‚S‚SЏ «SЃS‚SЂS–RјRyeRѕ RїRµSЂRµS‚RIRѕSЂRёR»Rё RiR»RѕR±R°R»SЊRЅSѓ RµRyeRѕRЅRѕRјS–RyeSѓ R· RyeR»R°RїS‚RёRyeRѕRIRѕS— RyeRѕRIRgSЂRё RјS–SЃS†RµRIRёS… SЂRёRЅRyeS–RI RЅR° S”RgRёRЅRёR№ SЃRIS–S‚RѕRIRёR№ SЂRёRЅRѕRye».

R†SЃRїR°RЅS†S– R·’S”RgRЅR°R»Rё R· R„RISЂRѕRїRѕSЋ RѕR±RёRgRIS– RђRјRµSЂRёRyeRё, R·R°RIRѕSЋRIR°RIS€Rё S—S… (S–S”SЂR°SЂS…S–S—).

RќR°S‚RѕRјS–SЃS‚SЊ RїRѕSЂS‚SѓRiR°R»SЊS†S– Sѓ RџS–RIRgRµRЅRЅS–R№ RђR·S–S— SѓS‚RIRѕSЂSЋRIR°R»Rё R»RёS€Rµ RЅRµRIRµR»RёRyeS– R°RЅRyeR»R°RIRё RgR»SЏ S‚RѕSЂRiS–RIR»S– (RјRµSЂRµR¶S–).

R©Rµ R±S–R»SЊS€ RIR°R¶R»RёRIRѕSЋ R·R° S‚RѕSЂRiRѕRIRµR»SЊRЅSѓ R±SѓR»R° S–RЅS€R° S‚RѕRiRѕS‡R°SЃRЅR° RјRµSЂRµR¶R° – RyeRЅRёRiRѕRgSЂSѓRyeR°SЂSЃSЊRyeR°.

R—R°RIRgSЏRyeRё S—R№ RѕR±RјS–RЅ S–RЅS„RѕSЂRјR°S†S–S”SЋ Sѓ R„RISЂRѕRїS– R·SЂRѕR±RёRISЃSЏ SЃRёSЃS‚RµRјR°S‚RёS‡RЅRёRј, R° R›SЋS‚RµSЂ R·R°RјS–SЃS‚SЊ SЃS‚R°S‚Rё S‡RµSЂRiRѕRIRёRј SЃRїR°R»RµRЅRёRј S”SЂRµS‚RёRyeRѕRј – RїRµSЂRµS‚RIRѕSЂRёRISЃSЏ RЅR° R·R°SЃRЅRѕRIRЅRёRyeR° RїSЂRѕS‚RµSЃS‚R°RЅS‚SЃSЊRyeRѕS— S†RµSЂRyeRIRё.

RЎS‚SѓRgRµRЅS‚Rё SЃRїR°R»SЋSЋS‚SЊ «RЅRµRЅS–RјRµS†SЊRyeS–» S‚RIRѕSЂRё S– RyeRЅRёRiRё RЅR° R±RµSЂR»S–RЅSЃSЊRyeS–R№ RїR»RѕS‰S– RћRїRµSЂRЅRїR»R°S†, 10 S‚SЂR°RIRЅSЏ 1933 SЂ.
RЈ RGRG SЃS‚RѕR»S–S‚S‚S– R·R°RјS–SЃS‚SЊ RїR°R»RёS‚Rё S”SЂRµS‚RёRyeS–RI RїRѕS‡R°R»Rё RїR°R»RёS‚Rё RyeRЅRёR¶RyeRё. RЎS‚SѓRgRµRЅS‚Rё SЃRїR°R»SЋSЋS‚SЊ «RЅRµRЅS–RјRµS†SЊRyeS–» S‚RIRѕSЂRё S– RyeRЅRёRiRё RЅR° R±RµSЂR»S–RЅSЃSЊRyeS–R№ RїR»RѕS‰S– RћRїRµSЂRЅRїR»R°S†, 10 S‚SЂR°RIRЅSЏ 1933 SЂRѕRyeSѓ
R”R¶RµSЂRµR»Rѕ: Bundesarchiv, Bild 102-14597 / Georg Pahl / CC-BY-SA 3.0

RќR°S‚RѕRјS–SЃS‚SЊ RїRѕR·R° R„RISЂRѕRїRѕSЋ SЃRIS–S‚ R·R°R»RёS€R°RISЃSЏ SЂR°RgS€Rµ S–S”SЂR°SЂS…S–S‡RЅRёRј. Rђ Sѓ SЃR°RјS–R№ R„RISЂRѕRїS– R·S–S‚RyeRЅRµRЅRЅSЏ S‚SЂR°RgRёS†S–R№RЅRёS… S–S”SЂR°SЂS…S–R№ R· RЅRѕRIRёRјRё RјRµSЂRµR¶R°RјRё RїSЂRёR·RIRµR»Rё RgRѕ RЅRёR·RyeRё SЂRµRIRѕR»SЋS†S–R№, SЂRµR»S–RiS–R№RЅRёS… S‚R° RiSЂRѕRјR°RgSЏRЅSЃSЊRyeRёS… RIS–R№RЅ, SЏRyeS– SЃSѓRyeSѓRїRЅRѕ S‚SЂRёRIR°R»Rё RјR°R№R¶Rµ RgRIR° SЃS‚RѕR»S–S‚S‚SЏ.

R’RЅR°SЃR»S–RgRѕRye R RµS„RѕSЂRјR°S†S–S— RIS–RgR±SѓRISЃSЏ RјR°SЃS€S‚R°R±RЅRёR№ RїRµSЂRµS…S–Rg SЃRyeR°SЂR±S–RI R· S†RµSЂRyeRѕRI RgRѕ R±SЋRgR¶RµS‚S–RI, RgRµS€RµRIS– RgSЂSѓRyeRѕRIR°RЅS– RyeRЅRёR¶RyeRё RїSЂRёS€RIRёRgS€RёR»Rё RѕR±RјS–RЅ S–RgRµSЏRјRё, RЅRѕRIS– RѕRyeRµR°RЅSЃSЊRyeS– S‚RѕSЂRiRѕRIRµR»SЊRЅS– S€R»SЏS…Rё RїSЂRёR·RIRµR»Rё RgRѕ RїS–RgRЅRµSЃRµRЅRЅSЏ RЅRѕRIRёS… RјS–SЃS‚, R° RISЃRµ S†Rµ SЂR°R·RѕRј – RgRѕ R·R±R°RiR°S‡RµRЅRЅSЏ R„RISЂRѕRїRё.

RџS–R·RЅS–S€Rµ S‚R°Rј RIRёRЅRёRyeR»R° RјRµSЂRµR¶R° RџSЂRѕSЃRIS–S‚RЅRёS†S‚RIR° (6 S‚RёSЃSЏS‡ RѕSЃS–R±), R° RI RђRјRµSЂRёS†S– – RјRµSЂRµR¶R° SЂRµRIRѕR»SЋS†S–RѕRЅRµSЂS–RI, S‰S–R»SЊRЅRѕ RїRѕS”RgRЅR°RЅRёS… S–R· S‚R°RјS‚RµS€RЅS–Rј RјR°SЃRѕRЅSЃS‚RIRѕRј.

R’S‚S–Rј, RЅR° RgSѓRјRyeSѓ R¤RµSЂRiSЋSЃRѕRЅR°, SѓR¶Rµ RI RGR†RG SЃS‚RѕR»S–S‚S‚S– S–S”SЂR°SЂS…S–S— RIS–RgRЅRѕRIRёR»Rё SЃRIS–R№ RIRїR»RёRI.

R¤SЂR°RЅS†SѓR·SЊRyeR° SЂRµRIRѕR»SЋS†S–SЏ, RЅR° RIS–RgRјS–RЅSѓ RIS–Rg RђRјRµSЂRёRyeR°RЅSЃSЊRyeRѕS—, RїSЂRѕRIR°RgRёR»R°SЃSЏ RЅRµ SЂRѕR·RiR°R»SѓR¶RµRЅRёRјRё RiSЂRѕRјR°RgSЏRЅSЃSЊRyeRёRјRё R°SЃRѕS†S–R°S†S–SЏRјRё, R° SЋSЂR±R°RјRё, S‚RѕR¶ R±SѓR»R° RyeSЂRёRIR°RIS–S€RѕSЋ.

RђRЅR°SЂS…S–SЏ RїSЂRёR·RIRµR»R° RgRѕ S‚RёSЂR°RЅS–S— – SЏRyeRѕR±S–RЅS†S–RI, R° RїRѕS‚S–Rј RќR°RїRѕR»RµRѕRЅR° – S– RgRѕ RIS–RgSЂRѕRgR¶RµRЅRЅSЏ S–RјRїRµSЂSЃSЊRyeRёS… RїRѕSЂSЏRgRyeS–RI.

RџRѕRIR°R»RµRЅRЅSЏ R‘RѕRЅR°RїR°SЂS‚R° SЃRїSЂRёS‡RёRЅRёR»Rѕ RїRѕSЏRISѓ RЅRѕRIRѕRiRѕ SЃRIS–S‚RѕRIRѕRiRѕ SѓSЃS‚SЂRѕSЋ, RЅR° S‡RѕR»S– SЏRyeRѕRiRѕ RїRµSЂRµR±SѓRIR°R»Rё 5 RgRµSЂR¶R°RI: R‘SЂRёS‚R°RЅS–SЏ, R¤SЂR°RЅS†S–SЏ, RџSЂSѓSЃSЃS–SЏ, RђRISЃS‚SЂS–SЏ S‚R° R RѕSЃS–SЏ.

RџSЂRѕS‚SЏRiRѕRј SЃS‚RѕR»S–S‚S‚SЏ R·R°RiR°R»SЊRЅR° RyeS–R»SЊRyeS–SЃS‚SЊ RIS–R№RЅ SѓRїR°R»R° RIRgRIS–S‡S–, RЅRµ RIS–RgR±SѓR»RѕSЃSЏ R¶RѕRgRЅRѕRiRѕ R·R°RiR°R»SЊRЅRѕS”RISЂRѕRїRµR№SЃSЊRyeRѕRiRѕ RyeRѕRЅS„R»S–RyeS‚Sѓ, SѓSЃS– SЂRµRIRѕR»SЋS†S–R№RЅS– SЂSѓS…Rё R·R°R·RЅR°R»Rё RїRѕSЂR°R·RyeRё, R»RµRiS–S‚RёRјRЅS–SЃS‚SЊ RјRѕRЅR°SЂS…S–S— RїRѕSЃRёR»RёR»R°SЃSЏ, R° R±S–R»SЊS€S–SЃS‚SЊ RїSЂR°RIRёS‚RµR»S–RI R±SѓR»Rё RїRѕRI’SЏR·R°RЅS– SЂRѕRgRёRЅRЅRёRјRё R·RI’SЏR·RyeR°RјRё.

RђRgRѕR»SЊS„ R“S–S‚R»RµSЂ RЅR° S„RѕRЅS– R•R№S„RµR»RµRIRѕS— RIRµR¶S–, RџR°SЂRёR¶
RђRgRѕR»SЊS„ R“S–S‚R»RµSЂ RЅR° RїR»RѕS‰S– RўSЂRѕRyeR°RgRµSЂRѕ, RЅR° S„RѕRЅS– R•R№S„RµR»RµRIRѕS— RIRµR¶S–, RџR°SЂRёR¶, 1940 SЂS–Rye

RћRgRЅR°Rye RїS–Rg S†RёRј SЂS–RIRЅRµRј RIRёS‰RёS… S–S”SЂR°SЂS…S–R№ R±SѓSЂS…R»RёRIRѕ SЂRѕR·RIRёRIR°R»RёSЃSЏ S– RјRµSЂRµR¶S–: S„S–RЅR°RЅSЃRѕRIR°, SЏRye-RѕS‚ R RѕS‚S€RёR»SЊRgS–RI, RїRѕS€S‚RѕRIR°, S‚RµR»RµRiSЂR°S„RЅR°, R° RѕSЃRѕR±R»RёRIRѕ – RїSЂRѕRјRёSЃR»RѕRIR°, S‰Rѕ RѕR±’S”RgRЅSѓRIR°R»R° S–RЅR¶RµRЅRµSЂS–RI, RїRѕSЃS‚R°S‡R°R»SЊRЅRёRyeS–RI SЃRёSЂRѕRIRёRЅRё, RyeSѓRїS†S–RI S‚R° RyeSЂRµRgRёS‚RѕSЂS–RI:

«RќR° RyeRѕR¶RЅRѕRјSѓ RµS‚R°RїS– RїSЂRѕRјRёSЃR»RѕRIRѕS— SЂRµRIRѕR»SЋS†S–S— RјRµSЂRµR¶S– RIS–RgS–RiSЂR°RIR°R»Rё RIR°R¶R»RёRISѓ SЂRѕR»SЊ RЅRµ R»RёS€Rµ RI SЂRѕR·RїRѕRISЃSЋRgR¶RµRЅRЅS– RЅRѕRIRёS… RїSЂRѕS†RµSЃS–RI, R° R№, S‰Rѕ RIR°R¶R»RёRIS–S€Rµ, Sѓ RЅR°RiSЂRѕRјR°RgR¶RµRЅRЅS– SЂRѕR·SѓRјRѕRIRѕS— SЃRёR»Rё S‚R° RyeR°RїS–S‚R°R»Sѓ. R’RёRЅR°R№RgRµRЅRЅSЏ RїR°SЂRѕRIRёS… RgRIRёRiSѓRЅS–RI, S‰Rѕ SЃS‚R°RIR°R»Rё RgRµRgR°R»S– RµS„RµRyeS‚RёRIRЅS–S€RёRјRё, R±SѓR»Rѕ SЂRµR·SѓR»SЊS‚R°S‚RѕRј RyeRѕR»RµRyeS‚RёRIRЅRёS… R·SѓSЃRёR»SЊ RјRµSЂRµR¶S–, R° RЅRµ RѕRyeSЂRµRјRёS… RiRµSЂRѕS—S‡RЅRёS… RIRёRЅR°S…S–RgRЅRёRyeS–RI».

RђR»Rµ RїSЂRѕRјRёSЃR»RѕRIR° SЂRµRIRѕR»SЋS†S–SЏ, S‰Rѕ RїRѕS‡R°R»R°SЃSЊ Sѓ R‘SЂRёS‚R°RЅS–S—, RЅRµ RїSЂRёR·RIRµR»R° RgRѕ SЂRµRIRѕR»SЋS†S–S— RїRѕR»S–S‚RёS‡RЅRѕS—. R‘Rѕ R±SЂRёS‚R°RЅSЃSЊRyeR° S–S”SЂR°SЂS…S–SЏ RIRёSЏRIRёR»R°SЃSЏ R°RgR°RїS‚RёRIRЅRѕSЋ S‚R° R·RgR°S‚RЅRѕSЋ RgRѕ RїSЂRѕRiSЂRµSЃSѓ, R·RѕRyeSЂRµRјR° RgRѕ SЃRyeR°SЃSѓRIR°RЅRЅSЏ SЂR°R±SЃS‚RIR°.

RЈ S†RµR№ R¶Rµ S‡R°SЃ RyeSЂR°S—RЅR° S„R°RyeS‚RёS‡RЅRѕ RїRµSЂRµS‚RIRѕSЂRёR»R°SЃSЏ RЅR° SЃRIS–S‚RѕRIRѕRiRѕ RiRµRiRµRјRѕRЅR°, RјR°SЋS‡Rё R»RёS€Rµ R¶RјRµRЅSЊRyeSѓ SЃRѕR»RgR°S‚S–RI S‚R° R°RgRјS–RЅS–SЃS‚SЂR°S‚RѕSЂS–RI RI RѕRyeRµR°RЅS– RјS–SЃS†RµRIRёS… S‚SѓR±S–R»SЊS†S–RI.

***

RџSЂRёS‡RёRЅR°RјRё RgRѕRјS–RЅSѓRIR°RЅRЅSЏ R‘SЂRёS‚R°RЅS–S— R¤RµSЂRiSЋSЃRѕRЅ RЅR°R·RёRIR°S” «RЅRµRїSЂSЏRјRµ RїSЂR°RIR»S–RЅRЅSЏ» RiRЅSѓS‡RyeRёS… RyeRѕR»RѕRЅS–R°R»SЊRЅRёS… SЃS‚SЂSѓRyeS‚SѓSЂ, SЏRyeS– R·R°R»RёS€R°R»Rё R±S–R»SЊS€S–SЃS‚SЊ RIR»R°RgRё – RјS–SЃS†RµRIRёRј RµR»S–S‚R°Rј. RљRѕRЅS‚SЂRѕR»SЋRIR°R»Rё – R»RёS€Rµ RЅR°R№RIR°R¶R»RёRIS–S€Rµ. R†RЅS€R° RїSЂRёS‡RёRЅR° – R±SѓSЂS…R»RёRIRёR№ SЂRѕR·RIRёS‚RѕRye RјRµSЂRµR¶S– R·R°R»S–R·RЅRёS†SЊ S‚R° S‚RµR»RµRiSЂR°S„Sѓ, RiRѕR»RѕRIRЅRёRј S…R°R±RѕRј SЏRyeRёS… R±SѓRI R›RѕRЅRgRѕRЅ.

 
RўSЂR°S„R°R»SЊRiR°SЂSЃSЊRyeR° RїR»RѕS‰R°. RђRЅS‚RёRїRѕRgR°S‚RyeRѕRIS– RїSЂRѕS‚RµSЃS‚Rё Sѓ R›RѕRЅRgRѕRЅS–, 1990 SЂS–Rye

R†SЃRЅSѓRIR°R»Rё S‚R°RyeRѕR¶ RјRµSЂRµR¶S–, SЏRye-RѕS‚ «RљSЂSѓRiR»RёR№ SЃS‚S–R»» Sѓ RџS–RIRgRµRЅRЅS–R№ RђS„SЂRёS†S–, S‰Rѕ RїSЂRѕSЃSѓRIR°R»Rё RIR»R°SЃRЅS– RyeRѕRјRµSЂS†S–R№RЅS– S–RЅS‚RµSЂRµSЃRё, R°R»Rµ RїSЂRёSЃR»SѓRiRѕRISѓRIR°R»RёSЃSЏ R№ S–RјRїRµSЂSЃSЊRyeS–R№ RµRyeSЃRїR°RЅSЃS–S—. RџSЂRѕS‚RёR»RµR¶RЅSѓ RјRѕRgRµR»SЊ – SЏRyeRЅR°R№R±S–R»SЊS€RѕS— S†RµRЅS‚SЂR°R»S–R·R°S†S–S— S‚R° SѓRЅS–S„S–RyeR°S†S–S— – RIRёSЂRѕR±RёRI R‘RµSЂR»S–RЅ, S– S€RIRёRgRyeRѕ SЃR°RјRµ RќS–RјRµS‡S‡RёRЅR° RїRµSЂRµS‚RIRѕSЂRёR»R°SЃSЏ RЅR° RїSЂRѕRIS–RgRЅSѓ S–RЅS‚RµR»RµRyeS‚SѓR°R»SЊRЅSѓ S‚R° RїSЂRѕRјRёSЃR»RѕRISѓ SЃRёR»Sѓ SЃRIS–S‚Sѓ.

R’RµR»RёRyeS– S–S”SЂR°SЂS…S–S— RЎS…RѕRgSѓ, RЅRµRїRѕSЂSѓS€RЅS– SЃS‚RѕR»S–S‚S‚SЏRјRё – RIS–Rg RўSѓSЂRµS‡S‡RёRЅRё RgRѕ RљRёS‚R°SЋ – R·R°R·RЅR°RIR°R»Rё S‰RѕSЂR°R·Sѓ R·RЅR°S‡RЅS–S€RёS… RїRѕSЂR°R·RѕRye Sѓ R±RѕSЂRѕS‚SЊR±S– S–R· R—R°S…RѕRgRѕRј, S– S†Rµ RїSЂRёR·RIRѕRgRёR»Rѕ RgRѕ S—S…RЅSЊRѕRiRѕ RїRѕSЃR»R°R±R»RµRЅRЅSЏ.

RЈ RљRёS‚R°S— RјRµSЂRµR¶S– S…SЂRёSЃS‚RёSЏRЅS–R·RѕRIR°RЅRёS… RїRѕRISЃS‚R°RЅS†S–RI-S‚R°R№RїS–RЅS–RI R»RµRgSЊ RЅRµ R·RIR°R»RёR»Rё S–RјRїRµSЂR°S‚RѕSЂR°, R°R»Rµ, RЅR° R·R°RiR°R», S†RµRЅS‚SЂR°R»S–R·RѕRIR°RЅRµ RїSЂR°RIR»S–RЅRЅSЏ RI RђR·S–S— R·R±RµSЂRµRiR»RѕSЃSЏ SѓRїSЂRѕRgRѕRIR¶ RISЃSЊRѕRiRѕ RGR†RG SЃS‚RѕR»S–S‚S‚SЏ.

RџRµSЂRµS‚RIRѕSЂRµRЅRЅSЏ RќS–RјRµS‡S‡RёRЅRё RЅR° RїSЂRѕRIS–RgRЅSѓ RїRѕS‚SѓRiSѓ, SЏRyeR° R·R°RiSЂRѕR¶SѓRIR°R»R° R‘SЂRёS‚R°RЅS–S— S‚R° R¤SЂR°RЅS†S–S—, RIRёRyeR»RёRyeR°R»R° S—S…RЅS” R·R±R»RёR¶RµRЅRЅSЏ RјS–R¶ SЃRѕR±RѕSЋ S‚R° R· R RѕSЃS–S”SЋ.

R’S–Rg 1871 RїRѕ 1907 SЂS–Rye R±SѓR»Rё SѓRyeR»R°RgRµRЅS– 6 SЂS–R·RЅRѕRјR°RЅS–S‚RЅRёS… RјS–R¶RgRµSЂR¶R°RIRЅRёS… SѓRiRѕRg, S‰Rѕ SЂRѕR·RIRµR»Rё SЃRIS–S‚ RЅR° RgRIR° RїSЂRѕS‚RёR»RµR¶RЅS– S‚R°R±RѕSЂRё.

RўRѕR¶ R¤RµSЂRiSЋSЃRѕRЅR° «RgRёRISѓS” RЅRµ S‚Rµ, S‰Rѕ S‚R°RyeR° RIS–R№RЅR° SЂRѕR·RїRѕS‡R°R»R°SЃSЏ Sѓ 1914 SЂRѕS†S–, R° S‚Rµ, S‰Rѕ S†SЊRѕRiRѕ RЅRµ SЃS‚R°R»RѕSЃSЏ SЂR°RЅS–S€Rµ».

R–RѕRgRЅS– RјS–R¶RЅR°SЂRѕRgRЅS– RјRµSЂRµR¶S–: RIS–Rg S‚RµS…RЅS–S‡RЅRёS…, SЏRye-RѕS‚ S‚RµR»RµS„RѕRЅRЅR°, RgRѕ RїRѕR»S–S‚RёS‡RЅRёS…, RЅR°RїSЂRёRyeR»R°Rg R†RЅS‚RµSЂRЅR°S†S–RѕRЅR°R»Sѓ, – RЅRµ R±SѓR»Rё R·RgR°S‚RЅS– RIS–RgRIRµSЂRЅSѓS‚Rё RIS–R№RЅSѓ. Rђ RЅRѕRIS–S‚RЅS– S‚RµS…RЅRѕR»RѕRiS–S— – R»RёS€Rµ R·R±S–R»SЊS€RёR»Rё RјR°SЃS€S‚R°R±Rё S– S‚SЂRёRIR°R»S–SЃS‚SЊ R±S–R№RЅS–.

***

RџS–Rg S‡R°SЃ S‚R° RїS–SЃR»SЏ RIS–R№RЅRё SЃRIS–S‚RѕRј RїSЂRѕRyeRѕS‚RёR»RёSЃSЏ RyeS–R»SЊRyeR° RµRїS–RgRµRјS–R№, RiRѕR»RѕRIRЅRѕSЋ R· SЏRyeRёS… R±SѓR»R° RЅRµ «S–SЃRїR°RЅRyeR°», R° R±S–R»SЊS€RѕRIRёR·Rј.

R¤RµSЂRiSЋSЃRѕRЅ RgRѕRyeR»R°RgRЅRѕ SЂRѕR·R±RёSЂR°S” RgRIS– SЃRїSЂRѕR±Rё RЅS–RјS†S–RI RїS–RgS–SЂRIR°S‚Rё S”RgRЅS–SЃS‚SЊ RђRЅS‚R°RЅS‚Rё. RџRµSЂS€R° – R·R° RgRѕRїRѕRјRѕRiRѕSЋ RѕRiRѕR»RѕS€RµRЅRЅSЏ RgR¶RёS…R°RgSѓ RЅR° R‘R»RёR·SЊRyeRѕRјSѓ RЎS…RѕRgS–. R”SЂSѓRiR° – RїS–RgS‚SЂRёRјSѓSЋS‡Rё SЂRѕSЃS–R№SЃSЊRyeRёS… SЂRµRIRѕR»SЋS†S–RѕRЅRµSЂS–RI. R§RѕRјSѓ RїRµSЂS€R° SЃRїSЂRѕR±R° RїSЂRѕRIR°R»RёR»R°SЃSЏ, R° RgSЂSѓRiR° – S‚SЂS–SѓRјS„SѓRIR°R»R°?

R RѕR·R»RѕRiS– RјRµSЂRµR¶S– RјSѓSЃSѓR»SЊRјR°RЅSЃSЊRyeRѕS— SѓRјRјRё R±SѓR»Rё R·R°RЅR°RgS‚Rѕ SЂRѕR·’S”RgRЅR°RЅRёRјRё S– R±RµR·RgS–SЏR»SЊRЅRёRјRё.

RќR°S‚RѕRјS–SЃS‚SЊ R›RµRЅS–RЅ SЃRїRёSЂR°RISЃSЏ RЅR° RЅRµRIRµR»RёRyeS– RµS„RµRyeS‚RёRIRЅS– RјRµSЂRµR¶S– SЂRµRIRѕR»SЋS†S–RѕRЅRµSЂS–RI.

 
RљSЂR°SЃRЅR° RїR»RѕS‰R° RI RњRѕSЃRyeRIS–. R›RµRЅS–RЅ RїSЂRѕRјRѕRIR»SЏS” RїRµSЂRµRg S‚R»SѓRјR°RјRё R»SЋRgSѓ 25 S‚SЂR°RIRЅSЏ 1919 SЂRѕRyeSѓ

RўR°RyeRѕR¶ R¤RµSЂRiSЋSЃRѕRЅ RgRµRјRѕRЅSЃS‚SЂSѓS”, SЏRye Sѓ R RѕSЃS–S— RјRµSЂRµR¶S–, S‰Rѕ RIRёSЃS‚SѓRїR°R»Rё RїSЂRѕS‚Rё S†R°SЂSЃSЊRyeRѕRiRѕ SЂRµR¶RёRјSѓ, RїRµSЂRµS‚RIRѕSЂRёR»RёSЃSЏ RЅR° S–S”SЂR°SЂS…S–SЋ, SЏRyeR° RїRµSЂRµRIRµSЂS€RёR»R° R¶RѕSЂSЃS‚RyeS–SЃS‚SЋ SЃRIRѕSЋ RїRѕRїRµSЂRµRgRЅRёS†SЋ.

RђRЅR°R»RѕRiS–S‡RЅRёR№ S€R»SЏS… RIS–Rg RјRµSЂRµR¶ RgRѕ S–S”SЂR°SЂS…S–S—, S…RѕS‡R° R№ RЅRµ S‚R°RyeRѕS— S‚RѕS‚R°R»SЊRЅRѕS—, RїSЂRѕR№S€R»Rё RЅS–RјRµS†SЊRyeS– RЅR°S†RёSЃS‚Rё.

«RўR°S”RјRЅRёS†SЏ SѓSЃRїS–S…Sѓ S‚RѕS‚R°R»S–S‚R°SЂRЅRёS… SЂRµR¶RёRјS–RI RїRѕR»SЏRiR°R»R° RI S‚RѕRјSѓ, S‰RѕR± RїRѕR·R±R°RIRёS‚Rё R»RµRiS–S‚RёRјRЅRѕSЃS‚S–, RїR°SЂR°R»S–R·SѓRIR°S‚Rё S‡Rё RїSЂRѕSЃS‚Rѕ R»S–RyeRIS–RgSѓRIR°S‚Rё RISЃS– SЃRѕS†S–R°R»SЊRЅS– RјRµSЂRµR¶S– RїRѕR·R° RјRµR¶R°RјRё S–S”SЂR°SЂS…S–S‡RЅRёS… S–RЅSЃS‚RёS‚SѓS‚S–RI RїR°SЂS‚S–S— S‚R° RgRµSЂR¶R°RIRё, R° RѕSЃRѕR±R»RёRIRѕ S‚S–, S‰Rѕ RїS–RgS€S‚RѕRIS…SѓRIR°S‚Rё RgRѕ RЅRµR·R°R»RµR¶RЅRёS… RїRѕR»S–S‚RёS‡RЅRёS… RgS–R№».

RќRµR±RµR·RїRµRyeSѓ S–RЅS„S–RyeSѓRIR°RЅRЅSЏ RјRµSЂRµR¶ S‚RѕS‚R°R»S–S‚R°SЂRЅRёRјRё S–RgRµSЏRјRё R¤RµSЂRiSЋSЃRѕRЅ RgSѓR¶Rµ RgRµS‚R°R»SЊRЅRѕ SЂRѕR·RiR»SЏRgR°S” RЅR° RїSЂRёRyeR»R°RgS– RљRµRјR±SЂRёRgR¶SЃSЊRyeRѕS— Rї’SЏS‚S–SЂRyeRё: RyeRѕR»Rё RјRµSЂRµR¶R° R±SЂRёS‚R°RЅSЃSЊRyeRёS… S–RЅS‚RµR»RµRyeS‚SѓR°R»S–RI, «RїRµSЂRµSЂRѕRgR¶RµRЅRёS…» RЅR° SЂR°RgSЏRЅSЃSЊRyeRёS… S€RїRёRiSѓRЅS–RI, RgRµSЃSЏS‚RёR»S–S‚S‚SЏ RЅR°RgR·RIRёS‡R°R№RЅRѕ RµS„RµRyeS‚RёRIRЅRѕ R±R»RѕRyeSѓRIR°R»R° R±SЂRёS‚R°RЅSЃSЊRyeS– R¶ RјRµSЂRµR¶S– SЂRѕR·RIS–RgRyeRё S‚R° RyeRѕRЅS‚SЂSЂRѕR·RIS–RgRyeRё.

«RЎRµSЂRµRgRёRЅR° RGRG SЃS‚. SЃS‚R°R»R° R·RµRЅS–S‚RѕRј S–S”SЂR°SЂS…S–R№. RGRѕS‡R° RџRµSЂS€R° SЃRIS–S‚RѕRIR° RIS–R№RЅR° R·R°RIRµSЂS€RёR»R°SЃSЏ RyeRѕR»R°RїSЃRѕRј S‰RѕRЅR°R№RјRµRЅS€Rµ S‡RѕS‚RёSЂSЊRѕS… RgRёRЅR°SЃS‚RёS‡RЅRёS… S–RјRїRµSЂS–R№ – R RѕRјR°RЅRѕRIRёS…, R“R°R±SЃR±SѓSЂRiS–RI, R“RѕRiRµRЅS†RѕR»R»RµSЂRЅS–RI S‚R° RћSЃRјR°RЅS–RI, – S—S…RЅS– RјS–SЃS†Rµ RgSѓR¶Rµ S€RIRёRgRyeRѕ RїRѕSЃS–R»Rё RЅRѕRIS– S– SЃRёR»SЊRЅS–S€RёR№ S–RјRїRµSЂSЃSЊRyeS– RgRµSЂR¶R°RIRё, SЏRyeS– RїRѕS”RgRЅSѓRIR°R»Rё RI SЃRѕR±S– S–RјRїRµSЂSЃSЊRyeS– RјR°SЃS€S‚R°R±Rё S– RЅR°RїRѕR»SЏRiR°R»Rё RЅR° RµS‚RЅS–S‡RЅS–R№ S‚R° RјRѕRIRЅS–R№ RѕRgRЅRѕSЂS–RgRЅRѕSЃS‚S– R№ R°RIS‚RѕRyeSЂR°S‚S–S—».

R†S”SЂR°SЂS…S–S— R·RЅRѕRISѓ R·R°RїR°RЅSѓRIR°R»Rё Sѓ RyeSЂR°S—RЅR°S… S–R· R°RIS‚RѕSЂRёS‚R°SЂRЅRёRј RјRёRЅSѓR»RёRј. RђR»Rµ S– Sѓ RgRµRјRѕRyeSЂR°S‚RёS‡RЅRёS… RgRµSЂR¶R°RIR°S… R·RЅR°S‡RЅRѕ RїRѕSЃRёR»RёR»R°SЃSЏ S†RµRЅS‚SЂR°R»S–R·R°S†S–SЏ.

RњS–R¶RЅR°SЂRѕRgRЅS– SЃS‚RѕSЃSѓRЅRyeRё, R°SЂRјS–S—, RIRµR»RёRyeS– RїS–RgRїSЂRёS”RјSЃS‚RIR° – RISЃRµ RIRёR±SѓRgRѕRISѓRIR°R»RѕSЃSЏ R·R° S–S”SЂR°SЂS…S–S‡RЅRѕSЋ RјRѕRgRµR»R»SЋ. RњRµSЂRµR¶RµRIS– SЃS‚SЂSѓRyeS‚SѓSЂRё R·RI’SЏR·RyeSѓ RISЃRµ S‰S–R»SЊRЅS–S€Rµ RѕRїR°RЅRѕRISѓRIR°R»R° RgRµSЂR¶R°RIRЅR° S†RµRЅR·SѓSЂR°. RќR°RIS–S‚SЊ R·R»RѕS‡RёRЅRЅS–SЃS‚SЊ SЃS‚R°RIR°R»R° RISЃRµ R±S–R»SЊS€ RѕSЂRiR°RЅS–R·RѕRIR°RЅRѕSЋ.

«R’RµR»RёRyeS– S–S”SЂR°SЂS…S–S‡RЅRѕ RIR»R°S€S‚RѕRIR°RЅS– S–RјRїRµSЂS–S—, SЏRyeS– RIRµR»Rё RјS–R¶ SЃRѕR±RѕSЋ «S…RѕR»RѕRgRЅSѓ RIS–R№RЅSѓ», RјR°R№R¶Rµ RЅRµ R·R°R»RёS€RёR»Rё SЃRIRѕS—Rј RiSЂRѕRјR°RgSЏRЅR°Rј RјS–SЃS†SЏ RgR»SЏ SЃS‚RIRѕSЂRµRЅRЅSЏ RјRµSЂRµR¶».

RћRgRЅRёRј R· RїRѕR±S–S‡RЅRёS… RµS„RµRyeS‚S–RI S†RёS… RїSЂRѕS†RµSЃS–RI SЃS‚R°R»Rѕ RјR°SЃRѕRIRµ R·R»RѕRIR¶RёRIR°RЅRЅSЏ R°R»RyeRѕRiRѕR»RµRј RїRѕ RISЃSЊRѕRјSѓ SЃRIS–S‚Sѓ.

R— S–RЅS€RѕRiRѕ R±RѕRyeSѓ, SЃSѓS‚S‚S”RIRѕ RIRїR°R»R° S–RЅS‚RµRЅSЃRёRIRЅS–SЃS‚SЊ RјS–R¶RЅR°SЂRѕRgRЅRёS… RIRѕS”RЅRЅRёS… RyeRѕRЅS„R»S–RyeS‚S–RI S‚R° RїRѕR¶RIR°RIRёR»R°SЃSЏ S‚RѕSЂRiS–RIR»SЏ.

***

R SѓR±S–R¶ 1960-S… S‚R° 1970-S… SЂRѕRyeS–RI SЃS‚R°RI RїRѕS‡R°S‚RyeRѕRј RgRѕR±Rё RїRѕSЃR»R°R±R»RµRЅRЅSЏ S–S”SЂR°SЂS…S–R№ S‚R° RIS–RgSЂRѕRgR¶RµRЅRЅSЏ RјRµSЂRµR¶.

RЈ RµRyeRѕRЅRѕRјS–S‡RЅRѕRјSѓ RїR»R°RЅS– S†Rµ RїSЂRѕSЏRIRёR»RѕSЃSЏ Sѓ R·R°RЅRµRїR°RgS– RЅR° R—R°S…RѕRgS– S–RgRµR№ SЂRµRiSѓR»SЊRѕRIR°RЅRѕS— RµRyeRѕRЅRѕRјS–RyeRё, S‰Rѕ RЅR°R±SѓR»Rё RїRѕS€RёSЂRµRЅRЅSЏ RїS–SЃR»SЏ SЃRIS–S‚RѕRIRёS… RIS–R№RЅ, R·R°SЃRЅSѓRIR°RЅRЅS– R”R°RIRѕSЃSЊRyeRѕRiRѕ S„RѕSЂSѓRјSѓ (1971 SЂS–Rye) S‚R° R·R°RїSЂRѕRIR°RgR¶RµRЅRЅS– RјR°SЃS€S‚R°R±RЅRѕS— RїSЂRёRIR°S‚RёR·R°S†S–S— – RIS–Rg R§RёR»S– RgRѕ R‘SЂRёS‚R°RЅS–S—.

RЈ RјS–R¶RЅR°SЂRѕRgRЅS–R№ RїRѕR»S–S‚RёS†S– RїRѕS‡R°R»RѕSЃSЏ SЂRѕR·RјRёRIR°RЅRЅSЏ RЅRµRїRѕSЂSѓS€RЅRёS… SЂR°RЅS–S€Rµ RIS–R№SЃSЊRyeRѕRIRѕ-RїRѕR»S–S‚RёS‡RЅRёS… R±R»RѕRyeS–RI.

R—RѕRyeSЂRµRјR°, S‡RµSЂRµR· «S‡RѕRIRЅRёRyeRѕRISѓ RgRёRїR»RѕRјR°S‚S–SЋ» R°RјRµSЂRёRyeR°RЅSЃSЊRyeRѕRiRѕ RgRµSЂR¶SЃRµRyeSЂRµS‚R°SЂSЏ R“RµRЅSЂS– RљS–SЃSЃS–RЅRgR¶RµSЂR° S–R· RљRёS‚R°S”Rј, RgRµRyeRѕR»RѕRЅS–R·R°S†S–SЋ S‚R° SЃS‚RIRѕSЂRµRЅRЅSЏ RЅRѕRIRёS… RјS–R¶RЅR°SЂRѕRgRЅRёS… SЃS‚SЂSѓRyeS‚SѓSЂ S–R· RyeRѕRЅS‚SЂRѕR»SЋ RЅR°Rg RѕR·R±SЂRѕS”RЅRЅSЏRјRё. RЈSЃRµ S†Rµ SЂR°R·RѕRј RѕS‚SЂRёRјR°R»Rѕ RЅR°R·RISѓ «SЂRѕR·SЂSЏRgRyeRё».

RќR°R№RIR°R¶R»RёRIS–S€RёRј RЅR°SЃR»S–RgRyeRѕRј R·R°RЅRµRїR°RgSѓ S†RµRЅS‚SЂR°R»S–R·RѕRIR°RЅRѕRiRѕ RїR»R°RЅSѓRIR°RЅRЅSЏ Sѓ RЎRЁRђ SЃS‚R°R»Rѕ SЃS‚RIRѕSЂRµRЅRЅSЏ Sѓ 70-S… SЂRѕRyeR°S… RЅRµR·R°R»RµR¶RЅRёRјRё RѕRgRёRЅ RIS–Rg RѕRgRЅRѕRiRѕ S– RIS–Rg RgRµSЂR¶R°RIRё SЂRѕR·SЂRѕR±RЅRёRyeR°RјRё RЅRёR·RyeRё RyeRѕRјRї’SЋS‚RµSЂRЅRёS… RјRµSЂRµR¶, S‰Rѕ 1983 SЂRѕS†S– S„R°RyeS‚RёS‡RЅRѕ RѕR±’S”RgRЅR°R»RёSЃSЏ Sѓ R†RЅS‚RµSЂRЅRµS‚.

RЁS‚SѓSЂRј S‚RµR»RµRIRµR¶S– Sѓ R’S–R»SЊRЅSЋSЃS–, R›RёS‚RIR°, 1991 SЂ.
RЁS‚SѓSЂRј S‚RµR»RµRIRµR¶S– Sѓ R’S–R»SЊRЅSЋSЃS–, R›RёS‚RIR°, 1991 SЂS–Rye

R’ RѕRyeSѓRїRѕRIR°RЅS–R№ RЎR RЎR  S‡R°SЃS‚RёRЅS– R„RISЂRѕRїRё Sѓ 70-S… SЂSЂRѕRyeR°S…, RїS–SЃR»SЏ RgRµSЃSЏS‚RёR»S–S‚SЊ RїSЂRёRgSѓS€RµRЅRЅSЏ RIS–R№SЃSЊRyeRѕRIRѕSЋ SЃRёR»RѕSЋ – RIS–RgRЅRѕRIRёR»RѕSЃSЏ SЃS‚R°RЅRѕRIR»RµRЅRЅSЏ RiSЂRѕRјR°RgSЃSЊRyeRёS… RјRµSЂRµR¶. R’RѕRЅRё RѕR±’S”RgRЅSѓRIR°R»Rё RѕRїRѕRЅRµRЅS‚S–RI SЂRµR¶RёRјSѓ S–R· RЅR°R№SЂS–R·RЅRѕRјR°RЅS–S‚RЅS–S€RёS… (S– RЅR°RIS–S‚SЊ RIRѕSЂRѕR¶RёS…) S‚R°R±RѕSЂS–RI.

RќR°R№SЏSЃRyeSЂR°RIS–S€Rµ S†Rµ RїSЂRѕSЏRIRёR»RѕSЃSЏ Sѓ RџRѕR»SЊS‰S–, RgRµ S‰RѕR± RїRѕRgRѕR»R°S‚Rё RїSЂRѕS„SЃRїS–R»RyeSѓ «RЎRѕR»S–RgR°SЂRЅS–SЃS‚SЊ», RIR»R°RgR° 1981 SЂRѕS†S– RјSѓSЃRёR»R° R·R°RїSЂRѕRIR°RgRёS‚Rё RIRѕS”RЅRЅRёR№ SЃS‚R°RЅ.

R—R° 8 SЂRѕRyeS–RI RЅRёR·RyeR° RјRµSЂRµR¶RµRIRёS… «RѕRyeSЃR°RјRёS‚RѕRIRёS…» SЂRµRIRѕR»SЋS†S–R№ R·RјRµR»R° SЂR°RgSЏRЅSЃSЊRyeRёR№ R»R°Rg Sѓ S†S–R№ S‡R°SЃS‚RёRЅS– SЃRIS–S‚Sѓ, R° 1991 SЂRѕS†S– SѓRїR°RI S– SЃR°Rј R R°RgSЏRЅSЃSЊRyeRёR№ RЎRѕSЋR·.

 
R’R°S†R»R°RISЃSЊRyeR° RїR»RѕS‰R° RI RџSЂR°R·S–. R’R°S†R»R°RI R“R°RIRµR» RїS–Rg S‡R°SЃ RћRyeSЃR°RјRёS‚RѕRIRѕS— SЂRµRIRѕR»SЋS†S–S— 1989 SЂRѕRyeSѓ
S„RѕS‚Rѕ: DЌtk

R›RёS€Rµ RI RљRёS‚R°S— S†SЋ S…RIRёR»SЋ RIRgR°R»RѕSЃSЏ R·SѓRїRёRЅRёS‚Rё S‚R°RЅRyeR°RјRё.

RЈ R—R°S…S–RgRЅS–R№ R„RISЂRѕRїS– RїRѕS‡R°R»RѕSЃSЏ RїRµSЂS€Rµ RI S—S— S–SЃS‚RѕSЂS–S— RјRёSЂRЅRµ R·R»RёS‚S‚SЏ Sѓ RЅR°RgRgRµSЂR¶R°RIRЅS– SЃS‚SЂSѓRyeS‚SѓSЂRё: RIS–Rg SЃRїS–R»RyeRё RISѓRiS–R»R»SЏ S‚R° SЃS‚R°R»S– (1952 SЂS–Rye) RgRѕ SЃSЊRѕRiRѕRgRЅS–S€RЅSЊRѕRiRѕ R„RISЂRѕSЃRѕSЋR·Sѓ. R„RISЂRѕSЃRѕSЋR· SЃS‚R°RI RїRµSЂS€RёRј RѕR±’S”RgRЅR°RЅRЅSЏRј SЃRIS–S‚RѕRIRѕRiRѕ SЂS–RIRЅSЏ, R·R±SѓRgRѕRIR°RЅRѕRiRѕ R·R° RјRµSЂRµR¶RµRIRёRј, R° RЅRµ S–S”SЂR°SЂS…S–S‡RЅRёRј RїSЂRёRЅS†RёRїRѕRј.

RќR° RїSЂRёRyeR»R°RgS– R·R°RїSЂRѕRIR°RgR¶RµRЅRЅSЏ SЃRїS–R»SЊRЅRѕS— RIR°R»SЋS‚Rё R¤RµSЂRiSЋSЃRѕRЅ RїRѕRyeR°R·SѓS” SЃRyeR»R°RgRЅSѓ S–SЃS‚RѕSЂS–SЋ S†SЊRѕRiRѕ RїSЂRѕS†RµSЃSѓ.

R RѕR·RїRѕRIS–RgR°SЋS‡Rё RїSЂRѕ R°S‚R°RyeRё 11 RIRµSЂRµSЃRЅSЏ 2001 SЂRѕRyeSѓ, R°RIS‚RѕSЂ RgRµRјRѕRЅSЃS‚SЂSѓS” SЏRye S‚RёRїRѕR»RѕRiS–SЋ SЃSѓS‡R°SЃRЅRёS… S‚RµSЂRѕSЂRёSЃS‚RёS‡RЅRёS… RјRµSЂRµR¶, RЅR°R·RIR°RЅRёS… RЅRёRј «R°RЅS‚RёSЃRѕS†S–R°R»SЊRЅRёRјRё», S‚R°Rye S– RЅRµR·RiSЂR°R±RЅS–SЃS‚SЊ SЃS‚R°RЅRgR°SЂS‚RЅRѕS— RIS–RgRїRѕRIS–RgS– S–S”SЂR°SЂS…S–S— (R°SЂRјS–S— RЎRЁRђ) RЅR° RIRёRyeR»RёRyeRё RјRµSЂRµR¶S– (RђR»SЊ-RљR°S—RgRё).

R›RёS€Rµ 2007 SЂRѕRyeSѓ RIS–R№SЃSЊRyeRѕRIS– R·SЂRѕR·SѓRјS–R»Rё, S‰Rѕ Sѓ R±RµS‚RѕRЅRЅRёS… RgR¶SѓRЅRiR»SЏS… RїRѕS‚SЂS–R±RЅR° RјRµSЂRµR¶R° RgR»SЏ RїRµSЂRµRјRѕRiRё RЅR°Rg RјRµSЂRµR¶RµSЋ.

RЈS‚S–Rј, SЃR°RјR° RїRѕ SЃRѕR±S– «RјRµSЂRµR¶RµRIS–SЃS‚SЊ» RЅRµ S” SЃRёRЅRѕRЅS–RјRѕRј RµS„RµRyeS‚RёRIRЅRѕSЃS‚S– S‡Rё RЅR°RgS–R№RЅRѕSЃS‚S– – RїSЂRѕR±R»RµRјRё S„S–RЅR°RЅSЃRѕRIRёS… RјRµSЂRµR¶ R¤RµSЂRiSЋSЃRѕRЅ S–R»SЋSЃS‚SЂSѓS” SЃRIS–S‚RѕRIRѕSЋ RyeSЂRёR·RѕSЋ 2008 SЂRѕRyeSѓ.

RђS‚R°RyeR° RЅR° RЎRIS–S‚RѕRIRёR№ S‚RѕSЂRiRѕRIRёR№ S†RµRЅS‚SЂ, 9 RIRµSЂRµSЃRЅSЏ 2011 SЂRѕRyeSѓ, RќSЊSЋ-R™RѕSЂRye
RђS‚R°RyeR° RЅR° RЎRIS–S‚RѕRIRёR№ S‚RѕSЂRiRѕRIRёR№ S†RµRЅS‚SЂ, 9 RIRµSЂRµSЃRЅSЏ 2011 SЂRѕRyeSѓ, RќSЊSЋ-R™RѕSЂRye
R¤RѕS‚Rѕ: REUTERS/Sara K. Schwittek

***

RGRGR† SЃS‚RѕR»S–S‚S‚SЏ RїRѕR·RЅR°S‡RёR»RѕSЃSЏ RїR°SЂR°RgRѕRyeSЃR°R»SЊRЅRёRјRё S‚RµRЅRgRµRЅS†S–SЏRјRё RЅR° R·R±R»RёR¶RµRЅRЅSЏ RјRµSЂRµR¶ S‚R° S–S”SЂR°SЂS…S–R№.

R”RµSЂR¶R°RIR° SЃS‚R°S” RISЃRµ R±S–R»SЊS€ R·R°R±SЋSЂRѕRyeSЂR°S‚RёR·RѕRIR°RЅRѕSЋ. RЈ RЎRЁRђ RyeRѕRgRµRyeSЃ S„RµRgRµSЂR°R»SЊRЅRёS… R°RyeS‚S–RI 1970 SЂRѕRyeSѓ RЅR°SЂR°S…RѕRISѓRIR°RI 44 S‚RёSЃSЏS‡S– SЃS‚RѕSЂS–RЅRѕRye. Rђ R·R° RЅR°SЃS‚SѓRїRЅS– 40 SЂRѕRyeS–RI RIS–RЅ RIRёSЂS–SЃ RЅR° 100 S‚RёSЃSЏS‡ SЃS‚RѕSЂS–RЅRѕRye.

R‘R°RЅRye RђRЅRiR»S–S— SЃS‚RѕR»S–S‚S‚SЏ S‚RѕRјSѓ RIRёRgR°RIR°RI RѕRgRЅSѓ S‰RѕSЂS–S‡RЅSѓ RgRѕRїRѕRIS–RgSЊ, Sѓ 2016 SЂRѕS†S– – 80.

RџSЂRёS‡RёRЅR° – Sѓ RЅR°RјR°RiR°RЅRЅS– R·R°R»R°RiRѕRgRёS‚Rё SѓSЃS– RЅR°SЏRIRЅS– RїSЂRѕR±R»RµRјRё R·R° RgRѕRїRѕRјRѕRiRѕSЋ SѓS…RIR°R»RµRЅRЅSЏ RgRѕRgR°S‚RyeRѕRIRёS…, S‰Rµ RgRµS‚R°R»SЊRЅS–S€RёS… RїSЂR°RIRёR» S‚R° S–RЅSЃS‚SЂSѓRyeS†S–R№. «R RµRiSѓR»SЏS‚RѕSЂRЅR° RµRїS–RgRµRјS–SЏ» RѕS…RѕRїRёR»R° SѓRIRµSЃSЊ RgRµRјRѕRyeSЂR°S‚RёS‡RЅRёR№ SЃRIS–S‚.

R— S–RЅS€RѕRiRѕ R±RѕRyeSѓ – RјRµSЂRµR¶S– RЅR°S‡RµR±S‚Rѕ RgRѕSЃSЏRiR»Rё RЅRµR±R°S‡RµRЅRѕRiRѕ SЂR°RЅS–S€Rµ SЂRѕR·RyeRIS–S‚Sѓ: Web 2.0, Linux, Google, R’S–RyeS–RїRµRgS–SЏ S–, RЅR°SЂRµS€S‚S–, Facebook.

RђR»Rµ S– S‚SѓS‚ SѓR¶Rµ RIRёRЅRёRyeR»Rё S„R°RyeS‚RёS‡RЅS– RјRѕRЅRѕRїRѕR»S–S—. R—’SЏRIRёR»R°SЃSЏ R±RµR·RgRѕRЅRЅR° RїSЂS–SЂRIR° Sѓ RgRѕS…RѕRgR°S… RIR»R°SЃRЅRёRyeS–RI S‚R° RїSЂR°S†S–RIRЅRёRyeS–RI RyeRѕRјRїR°RЅS–R№, R° RyeRѕSЂRёSЃS‚SѓRIR°S‡S– RјRµSЂRµR¶ – RїRµSЂRµS‚RIRѕSЂRёR»RёSЃSЏ RЅR° RЅR°R№RIRёRiS–RgRЅS–S€RёR№ S‚RѕRIR°SЂ.

R† S…RѕS‡R° RЅRµ S–SЃRЅSѓS” RїRµSЂRµRyeRѕRЅR»RёRIRёS… RgRѕRyeR°R·S–RI, S‰Rѕ SЂRѕR·RIRёS‚RѕRye RIS–SЂS‚SѓR°R»SЊRЅRёS… RјRµSЂRµR¶ RїSЂRёR·RIS–RI RgRѕ R·R°RЅRµRїR°RgSѓ SЂRµR°R»SЊRЅRёS…, R°R»Rµ S‚R°RyeRѕR¶ RIR°R¶RyeRѕ R·R°RїRµSЂRµS‡RёS‚Rё, S‰Rѕ Sѓ SЂRѕR·RIRёRЅRµRЅRёS… SЃSѓSЃRїS–R»SЊSЃS‚RIR°S… RIR¶Rµ RgSЂSѓRiRµ RgRµSЃSЏS‚RёR»S–S‚S‚SЏ R·SЂRѕSЃS‚R°S” SЃRѕS†S–R°R»SЊRЅR° S‚R° RїRѕR»S–S‚RёS‡RЅR° RїRѕR»SЏSЂRёR·R°S†S–SЏ, SЂRёSЃR°RјRё S‡RѕRiRѕ S”:

«SЃRyeRѕSЂRѕS‡RµRЅRЅSЏ RyeR»SЋS‡RѕRIRёS… RgRёSЃRyeSѓSЃS–R№RЅRёS… RјRµSЂRµR¶ R°RјRµSЂRёRyeR°RЅS†S–RI, S‰Rѕ S‚RµRїRµSЂ RїRѕSЂS–RIRЅSЏRЅRѕ R· RјRёRЅSѓR»RёRјRё S‡R°SЃR°RјRё RјS–SЃS‚SЏS‚SЊ RјRµRЅS€RµRЅRµSЂRѕRgRёS‡S–RI, R° S‚R°RyeRѕR¶ R·R°RЅRµRїR°Rg S‚SЂR°RgRёS†S–R№RЅRёS… RјRµSЂRµR¶RµRIRёS… S–RЅSЃS‚RёS‚SѓS†S–R№, R·RѕRyeSЂRµRјR° S‚RёS…, S‰Rѕ RyeRѕRЅS†RµRЅS‚SЂSѓRIR°R»RёSЃSЏ RЅR°RIRyeRѕR»Rѕ S†RµSЂRyeRѕRI S‚R° RјS–SЃS†RµRIRёS… RIRѕR»RѕRЅS‚RµSЂSЃSЊRyeRёS… RѕR±S”RgRЅR°RЅSЊ».

R‘RёS‚RISѓ RјRµSЂRµR¶ R· S–S”SЂR°SЂS…S–SЏRјRё Sѓ RЅR°S€S– RgRЅS– R¤RµSЂRiSЋSЃRѕRЅ SѓRЅR°RѕS‡RЅSЋS” S‡RµSЂRµR· R»R°RЅS†SЋR¶RѕRye: S‚RIS–S‚S‚RµSЂRЅRѕ-S„RµR№SЃR±SѓS‡RЅS– SЂRµRIRѕR»SЋS†S–S— RIS–Rg RўSѓRЅS–SЃSѓ RgRѕ RЈRyeSЂR°S—RЅRё – RiR»RёR±RѕRyeRµ SЃS‚RµR¶RµRЅRЅSЏ R·R° RѕRЅR»R°R№RЅ-RїSЂRѕSЃS‚RѕSЂRѕRј R· R±RѕRyeSѓ R°RјRµSЂRёRyeR°RЅSЃSЊRyeRёS… SЃRїRµS†SЃR»SѓR¶R± S– S—S…RЅS” RIRёRyeSЂRёS‚S‚SЏ (PRISMvsWikiLeaks) – RјRµSЂRµR¶S– R†R”R†R› RЅR° RЎS…RѕRgS– S‚R° Sѓ R·R°S…S–RgRЅRёS… RyeSЂR°S—RЅR°S…. R† RїRµSЂRµRјRѕRiRё R¶RѕRgRЅRѕS— R·S– SЃS‚RѕSЂS–RЅ R°RIS‚RѕSЂSѓ RїRѕRyeRё RЅRµ RIRёRgRЅRѕ!

R‘R°SЂRёRyeR°RgRЅS– R±RѕS— RЅR° RњR°R№RgR°RЅS– RќRµR·R°R»RµR¶RЅRѕSЃS‚S–, 18 R»SЋS‚RѕRiRѕ 2014 SЂRѕRyeSѓ
R‘R°SЂRёRyeR°RgRЅS– R±RѕS— RЅR° RњR°R№RgR°RЅS– RќRµR·R°R»RµR¶RЅRѕSЃS‚S–, 18 R»SЋS‚RѕRiRѕ 2014 SЂRѕRyeSѓ
R¤RѕS‚Rѕ: RњSЃS‚RёSЃR»R°RI R§RµSЂRЅRѕRI

RџSЂRѕS‚Rµ RѕS‡RµRIRёRgRЅRёRјRё S” R·R°RiSЂRѕR·Rё RїRѕR»S–S‚RёS‡RЅRѕRiRѕ RїRѕRїSѓR»S–R·RјSѓ (R‘SЂRµRyeR·S–S‚) S‚R° S„RµR№RyeRѕRIRёS… RЅRѕRIRёRЅ, RїS–RgR¶RёRIR»RµRЅS– R·R°R»RµR¶RЅS–SЃS‚SЋ R»SЋRgRµR№ RIS–Rg SЃRѕS†RјRµSЂRµR¶ S‚R° SЃRјR°SЂS‚S„RѕRЅS–RI.

RЈ RIRёSЃRЅRѕRIRyeR°S… R°RIS‚RѕSЂ SЂS–S€SѓS‡Rµ R·R°RїRµSЂRµS‡SѓS” RѕRїS‚RёRјS–SЃS‚R°Rј, SЏRyeS– RIR±R°S‡R°SЋS‚SЊ Sѓ SЂRѕR·RIRёS‚RyeSѓ RјRµSЂRµR¶ R·R°RїRѕSЂSѓRyeSѓ RїRѕSЂSЏRgRyeSѓ Sѓ SЃRIS–S‚S–. R’S–RЅ RїRѕRyeR»RёRyeR°S”S‚SЊSЃSЏ RЅR° RЅRёR·RyeSѓ RїSЂRёRyeR»R°RgS–RI SѓR¶RёRIR°RЅRЅSЏ S—S… RЅR° R»RёS…Rѕ:

«RЅRµSЂRµRiSѓR»SЊRѕRIR°RЅS– RјRµSЂRµR¶S– RЅRµ R»RёS€Rµ RЅRµ R·RјRµRЅS€SѓSЋS‚SЊ RЅRµSЂS–RIRЅS–SЃS‚SЊ, R° R№ SЃRїSЂRёS‡RёRЅSЏSЋS‚SЊ RIS–R№RЅRё, SЂRµRIRѕR»SЋS†S–S—, RiS–RїRµSЂS–RЅS„R»SЏS†S–SЋ S‚R° S–RЅS€S– S„RѕSЂRјRё RµRyeSЃRїSЂRѕRїSЂS–R°S†S–S—».

RќRѕRIS– S–RЅS‚RµSЂRЅRµS‚-RyeRѕSЂRїRѕSЂR°S†S–S— SЃRїRѕRIS–RgSѓSЋS‚SЊ SЂS–RIRЅS–SЃS‚SЊ, R°R»Rµ S” S–S”SЂR°SЂS…S–S‡RЅRёRјRё RјRѕRЅRѕRїRѕR»S–SЏRјRё, R° S—S…RЅS– RIR»R°SЃRЅRёRyeRё S‚R°Rye SЃR°RјRѕ R»SЋR±R»SЏS‚SЊ R±R°RiR°S‚SЃS‚RIRѕ, SЏRye S– SЃS‚R°SЂS– «RIRѕRIRyeRё R· R’RѕR»R»-SЃS‚SЂRёS‚».

R—R°RiR°R»SЊRЅR° RyeRѕRјRї’SЋS‚RµSЂRёR·R°S†S–SЏ RIS–RgRyeSЂRёRIR°S” RЅRѕRIS– RјRѕR¶R»RёRIRѕSЃS‚S– RgR»SЏ S‚RµSЂRѕSЂRёR·RјSѓ S– RyeS–R±RµSЂR°S‚R°Rye, R° S‚R°RyeRѕR¶ «S‚SЂR°RЅSЃR»SЏS†S–S— RISЃS–S… SЂS–R·RЅRѕRIRёRgS–RI RјR°RЅS–R№ S– RїR°RЅS–Rye», RЅRµ RyeR°R¶SѓS‡Rё RIR¶Rµ RїSЂRѕ RIS–RgS‡SѓS‚RЅSѓ S†RµRЅR·SѓSЂSѓ RїS–Rg RIRёRiR»SЏRgRѕRј «SЃS‚R°RЅRgR°SЂS‚S–RI SЃRїS–R»SЊRЅRѕS‚Rё».

R”RµS‚R°R»SЊRЅRѕ SЂRѕR·S–R±SЂR°RЅRёR№ R°RIS‚RѕSЂRѕRј S– RyeRёS‚R°R№SЃSЊRyeRёR№ RїSЂRёRyeR»R°Rg RIRёRyeRѕSЂRёSЃS‚R°RЅRЅSЏ RјRµSЂRµR¶ RgR»SЏ RїRѕR±SѓRgRѕRIRё SЃRїSЂR°RIR¶RЅSЊRѕRiRѕ S‚RѕS‚R°R»S–S‚R°SЂRёR·RјSѓ S–R· RїRѕSЃS‚S–R№RЅRёRј SЃS‚RµR¶RµRЅRЅSЏRј S‚R° «SЃRѕS†S–R°R»SЊRЅRёRј SЂRµR№S‚RёRЅRiR°RјRё» RiSЂRѕRјR°RgSЏRЅ.

RћS‚R¶Rµ, R·R° R¤RµSЂRiSЋSЃRѕRЅRѕRј, SѓS‚RѕRїS–SЏ R·R°RiR°R»SЊRЅRѕS— SЂS–RIRЅRѕSЃS‚S– Sѓ RјRµSЂRµR¶R°S… R·R°RIR¶RgRё R·R°R»RёS€R°S‚RёRјRµS‚SЊSЃSЏ S„R°RЅS‚R°R·S–S”SЋ.

«RЎS‚R°R»R° RјRѕR¶R»RёRIRѕSЋ RїRѕSЏRIR° RЅRѕRIRёS… SЂRѕR·R»RѕRiRёS… RјRµSЂRµR¶, R°R»Rµ, SЏRye S– RјRµSЂRµR¶S– RјRёRЅSѓR»RѕRiRѕ, RIRѕRЅRё S–S”SЂR°SЂS…S–S‡RЅS– R·R° SЃRIRѕS”SЋ SЃS‚SЂSѓRyeS‚SѓSЂRѕSЋ: RЅRµRIRµR»RёRyeR° RyeS–R»SЊRyeS–SЃS‚SЊ RЅR°RgR·RIRёS‡R°R№RЅRѕ RїRѕRI’SЏR·R°RЅRёS… S…R°R±S–RI RIRёRIRёS‰SѓS”S‚SЊSЃSЏ RЅR°Rg RјR°SЃRѕSЋ R»RµRgSЊ-R»RµRgSЊ SЃRїRѕR»SѓS‡RµRЅRёS… RISѓR·R»S–RI.

R† S‚Rµ, S‰Rѕ S†SЋ RјRµSЂRµR¶Sѓ RјRѕR¶SѓS‚SЊ RIRёRyeRѕSЂRёSЃS‚R°S‚Rё RyeRѕSЂSѓRјRїRѕRIR°RЅS– RѕR»S–RiR°SЂS…Rё S‡Rё SЂRµR»S–RiS–R№RЅS– S„R°RЅR°S‚RёRyeRё, S‰RѕR± SЂRѕR·RїRѕS‡R°S‚Rё RЅRѕRISѓ, RЅRµRїRµSЂRµRgR±R°S‡SѓRIR°RЅSѓ RIS–R№RЅSѓ Sѓ RyeS–R±RµSЂRїSЂRѕSЃS‚RѕSЂS–, – SѓR¶Rµ RЅRµ RїSЂRѕSЃS‚Rѕ RїSЂRёRјR°SЂRЅR° RјRѕR¶R»RёRIS–SЃS‚SЊ…

RЈSЂRѕRye S–SЃS‚RѕSЂS–S— RїRѕR»SЏRiR°S” Sѓ S‚RѕRјSѓ, S‰Rѕ RgRѕRIS–SЂRёS‚Rё RјRµSЂRµR¶R°Rј SѓRїSЂR°RIR»SЏS‚Rё SЃRIS–S‚RѕRј – S†Rµ SЂRµS†RµRїS‚ R°RЅR°SЂS…S–S—: Sѓ RЅR°R№RyeSЂR°S‰RѕRјSѓ SЂR°R·S–RI RIR»R°RgR° RѕRїRёRЅRёS‚SЊSЃSЏ RI SЂSѓRyeR°S… S–R»SЋRјS–RЅR°S‚S–RI, R°R»Rµ S‰Rµ R±S–R»SЊS€Rµ S€R°RЅSЃS–RI, S‰Rѕ RI SЂSѓRyeR°S… SЏRyeRѕR±S–RЅS†S–RI».

RќS–R» R¤RµSЂRiSЋSЃRѕRЅ
RќS–R» R¤RµSЂRiSЋSЃRѕRЅ

RќR° R·R°RyeS–RЅS‡RµRЅRЅSЏ R¤RµSЂRiSЋSЃRѕRЅ RїRѕRIRµSЂS‚R°S”S‚SЊSЃSЏ RgRѕ S–SЃS‚RѕSЂS–S— RЎS–S”RЅRё, Sѓ SЏRyeS–R№ RIR»R°RgRЅR° RIRµR¶R° RўRѕSЂSЂRµ-RgRµR»SЊ-RњR°RЅRgR¶R° SЃSѓSЃS–RgRёS‚SЊ S–R· SЂRёRЅRyeRѕRIRѕ-RiSЂRѕRјR°RgSЃSЊRyeRѕSЋ RїR»RѕS‰RµSЋ RџSЏS†S†R°-RgRµR»SЊ-RљR°RјRїRѕ, S‰RѕR± RЅR°RiR°RgR°S‚Rё:

«… RЅR°RїSЂSѓRiR° RјS–R¶ SЂRѕR·R»RѕRiRёRјRё RјRµSЂRµR¶R°RјRё R№ S–S”SЂR°SЂS…S–S‡RЅRёRјRё SѓSЃS‚SЂRѕSЏRјRё S‚R°Rye SЃR°RјRѕ RgR°RIRЅSЏ, SЏRye S– R»SЋRgSЃS‚RIRѕ.

R’RѕRЅR° S–SЃRЅSѓS” RЅRµR·R°R»RµR¶RЅRѕ RIS–Rg S‚RµS…RЅS–S‡RЅRѕRiRѕ SЃS‚R°RЅSѓ, S…RѕS‡R° S‚RµS…RЅRѕR»RѕRiS–S— RјRѕR¶SѓS‚SЊ RIRїR»RёRIR°S‚Rё RЅR° S‚Rµ, RyeRѕS‚SЂS– R· RЅRёS… RјR°S‚RёRјSѓS‚SЊ RїRµSЂRµRIR°RiSѓ…

RўRµS…RЅRѕR»RѕRiS–S— R·’SЏRIR»SЏSЋS‚SЊSЃSЏ S– R·RЅRёRyeR°SЋS‚SЊ. Rђ SЃRIS–S‚ R·R°R»RёS€R°S”S‚SЊSЃSЏ SЃRIS–S‚RѕRј RїR»RѕS‰ S– RIRµR¶».

RЇRye RIS–RgR±SѓRIR°R»RёSЃSЏ RїR°SЂR»R°RјRµRЅS‚SЃSЊRyeS– RIRёR±RѕSЂRё RI R“R°R»RёS‡RёRЅS– 100 SЂRѕRyeS–RI S‚RѕRјSѓ?

R’RёR±RѕSЂS‡RёR№ RyeRѕRgRµRyeSЃ, SЏRyeRёR№ RїRѕS‡R°RI RgS–SЏS‚Rё RI RЈRyeSЂR°S—RЅS– R· RїRѕS‡R°S‚RyeSѓ 2020 SЂRѕRyeSѓ, SЃSѓS‚S‚S”RIRѕ R·RјS–RЅSЋS” RїSЂRёRЅS†RёRї RiRѕR»RѕSЃSѓRIR°RЅRЅSЏ, RїRµSЂRµRIRµRgRµRЅRЅSЏ RiRѕR»RѕSЃS–RI Sѓ RјR°RЅRgR°S‚Rё, RЅR°SЂS–R·RyeSѓ RѕRyeSЂSѓRiS–RI, S‰Rѕ, R·RIS–SЃRЅRѕ, RЅRµ RѕRјRёRЅRµ S– R›SЊRIS–RIS‰RёRЅSѓ. R¦Rµ RIRёRyeR»RёRyeR°S” RїRµRIRЅS– S–SЃS‚RѕSЂRёS‡RЅS– RїR°SЂR°R»RµR»S– R· 1907 SЂRѕRyeRѕRј, RyeRѕR»Rё RI RђRISЃS‚SЂRѕ-RЈRiRѕSЂS‰RёRЅS– RIS–RgR±SѓR»R°SЃSЏ RIRёR±RѕSЂS‡R° SЂRµS„RѕSЂRјR°, SЏRyeR° SЃSѓS‚S‚S”RIRѕ R·RјS–RЅRёR»R° RїSЂR°RIRёR»R° RIRёR±RѕSЂS–RI Sѓ R“R°R»RёS‡RёRЅS–. RўRѕRgS– RIRёRyeRѕSЂRёSЃS‚RѕRISѓRIR°R»R°SЃSЏ RIRёRyeR»SЋS‡RЅRѕ RјR°R¶RѕSЂRёS‚R°SЂRЅR° RIRёR±RѕSЂS‡R° SЃRёSЃS‚RµRјR°, SЏRyeR° RIS–RgS‚RµRїRµSЂ RЅRµ RIRёRyeRѕSЂRёSЃS‚RѕRISѓS”S‚SЊSЃSЏ RI RЈRyeSЂR°S—RЅS– RїS–Rg S‡R°SЃ RїR°SЂR»R°RјRµRЅS‚SЃSЊRyeRёS… S– RјS–SЃS†RµRIRёS… RIRёR±SЂS–RI RgRѕ SЂR°Rg S–R· RyeS–R»SЊRyeS–SЃS‚SЋ RIRёR±RѕSЂS†S–RI R±S–R»SЊS€Rµ SЏRye 90 S‚RёSЃSЏS‡ RѕSЃS–R±

RђRyeSѓR»R° RїRµSЂR° Sѓ RїS–RgRїS–R»R»S–. R”Rѕ RgRЅSЏ RЅR°SЂRѕRgR¶RµRЅRЅSЏ RџRµS‚SЂR° R¤RµRgSѓRЅR°-"RџRѕR»S‚R°RIRё"

RќR° RїRѕS€SѓRye S– R»S–RyeRIS–RgR°S†S–SЋ RѕRgRЅS–S”S— R»SЋRgRёRЅRё Sѓ 1951 SЂRѕS†S– V«SЃRѕRIS”S‚RёV» RyeRёRЅSѓR»Rё 4 574 RѕS„S–S†RµSЂS–RI S– SЃRѕR»RgR°S‚S–RI, S–R· RЅRёS… vЂ“ 60 S–RЅSЃS‚SЂSѓRyeS‚RѕSЂS–RI S–R· 110 SЃR»SѓR¶R±RѕRIRѕ-SЂRѕR·S€SѓRyeRѕRIRёRјRё SЃRѕR±R°RyeR°RјRё, 500 RyeSѓSЂSЃR°RЅS‚S–RI RЅR°RIS‡R°R»SЊRЅRѕRiRѕ R·R°RiRѕRЅSѓ RњR“R‘, 230 R°RIS‚RѕRјR°S€RёRЅ. RљRёRј R±SѓRI R»RµRiRµRЅRgR°SЂRЅRёR№ V«RџRѕR»S‚R°RIR°V», S‰Rѕ RЅR° R№RѕRiRѕ RїRѕS€SѓRyeRё SЃRїRѕSЂSЏRgRёR»Rё RyeS–R»SЊRyeR° RїRѕR»RyeS–RI S‡RµRyeS–SЃS‚S–RI?

R“RѕRgRёRЅR° RїR°RїSѓRiRё. R”S–S‚Rё RїRёS€SѓS‚SЊ RЎS‚R°R»S–RЅSѓ

R§R°RїSЃSЊRyeRёR№ S‡SѓRI, SЏRye S‚SѓS‚ RyeR°R¶SѓS‚SЊ: "RўRѕ S‡RѕSЂS‚ RgRѕSЂRѕRiRѕSЋ S–RgRµ". RќS–R±RёS‚Rѕ, SЏRyeS‰Rѕ RyeRёRЅSѓS‚Rё Sѓ RIRёS…RѕSЂ SЃRѕRyeRёSЂRѕSЋ vЂ” RїRѕS‚RµS‡Rµ RyeSЂRѕRI. R”RёRIRЅS– S‚SѓS‚ R·R°R±RѕR±RѕRЅRё. RЈS‡RѕSЂR° S‚S– "S‡RѕSЂS‚Rё" RIRёR»RёSЃSЏ RїRѕRїS–Rg RЅRѕRiR°RјRё S– RїRµSЂRµR±S–RiR°R»Rё RgRѕSЂRѕRiSѓ R·R±SѓRgR¶RµRЅRёRј S– SѓSЃRјS–S…RЅRµRЅRёRј RyeRѕR»RµRiR°Rј R§R°RїSЃSЊRyeRѕRiRѕ. R’S–RЅ R·R°R·RgSЂRёRI S‰R°SЃS‚SЋ RyeRѕR»RµRi, SЏRyeS– RIR¶Rµ RїS–S€R»Rё R·R° RyeRѕR»SЋS‡RёR№ RgSЂS–S‚ S– S‚R°R±S–SЂRЅS– RјSѓSЂRё Sѓ RgR°R»RµRyeRёR№, S€RёSЂRѕRyeRёR№ SЃRIS–S‚.

R‘SЂR°S‚Rё RЁRµRїS‚RёS†SЊRyeS– S– S”RISЂRµR№SЃSЊRyeRёR№ RЅR°SЂRѕRg. R§R°SЃS‚RёRЅR° R†

RћRgRЅRёRј S–R· RIR°RiRѕRјRёS… RµRїS–R·RѕRgS–RI Sѓ R¶RёS‚S‚S”RїRёSЃS– RњRёS‚SЂRѕRїRѕR»RёS‚R° RђRЅRgSЂRµSЏ RЁRµRїS‚RёS†SЊRyeRѕRiRѕ, SЏRye S– RI R¶RёS‚S‚S”RїRёSЃS– R№RѕRiRѕ RјRѕR»RѕRgS€RѕRiRѕ R±SЂR°S‚R° R±R». SЃRIS‰RјS‡. RљR»RёRјRµRЅS‚S–SЏ vЂ” RџSЂR°RIRµRgRЅRёRyeR° RќR°SЂRѕRgS–RI RЎRIS–S‚Sѓ, S” S—S…RЅSЏ SѓS‡R°SЃS‚SЊ Sѓ RїRѕSЂSЏS‚SѓRЅRyeSѓ RiR°R»RёS†SЊRyeRёS… S”RISЂRµS—RI Sѓ S‡R°SЃRё R“RѕR»RѕRyeRѕSЃS‚Sѓ. R‘S–R»SЊS€S–SЃS‚SЊ S–RЅS„RѕSЂRјR°S†S–S— S‡RµSЂRїR°S”RјRѕ R·S– SЃRїRѕRiR°RgS–RI RѕS‡RµRIRёRgS†S–RI, RџRѕSЂSЏS‚SѓRЅRѕRye S”RISЂRµS—RI vЂ” SЃRїS–R»SЊRЅR° SЃRїSЂR°RIR° R±SЂR°S‚S–RI, SЏRye S– RgS–SЏR»SЊRЅS–SЃS‚SЊ, SЃRїSЂSЏRјRѕRIR°RЅR° RЅR° RїRѕRiR°S€RµRЅRЅSЏ R°RЅS‚RёSЃRµRјS–S‚SЃSЊRyeRёS… RЅR°SЃS‚SЂRѕS—RI Sѓ S‚RѕRgS–S€RЅSЊRѕRјSѓ SЃSѓSЃRїS–R»SЊSЃS‚RIS–, S…RѕS‡R° R±S–R»SЊS€S–SЃS‚SЊ RgRѕRyeSѓRјRµRЅS‚S–RI RїS–RgRїRёSЃR°RЅR° SЃR°RјRёRј RњRёS‚SЂRѕRїRѕR»RёS‚RѕRј. RџR°SЂR°RgRѕRyeSЃ Sѓ S‚RѕRјSѓ, S‰Rѕ Rѕ. RљR»RёRјRµRЅS‚S–R№ RЁRµRїS‚RёS†SЊRyeRёR№ R±SѓRI RIRёR·RЅR°RЅRёR№ V«RџSЂR°RIRµRgRЅRёRyeRѕRј RЅR°SЂRѕRgS–RI SЃRIS–S‚SѓV» R·R° RїRѕSЂSЏS‚SѓRЅRѕRye S”RISЂRµS—RI Sѓ S‡R°SЃRё R“RѕR»RѕRyeRѕSЃS‚Sѓ, RЅR°S‚RѕRјS–SЃS‚SЊ R·R°SЃR»SѓRiR°Rј RњRёS‚SЂRѕRїRѕR»RёS‚R° RђRЅRgSЂRµSЏ Sѓ S‚R°RyeRѕRјSѓ RIRёR·RЅR°RЅRЅS– R±SѓR»Rѕ RIS–RgRјRѕRIR»RµRЅRѕ.