RЎRїRµS†RїSЂRѕRµRyeS‚

RќR°RIS–S‰Rѕ S‡RёS‚R°S‚Rё S‰Rµ RѕRgRЅSѓ RyeRЅRёR¶RyeSѓ RїSЂRѕ R“RѕR»RѕRgRѕRјRѕSЂ?

R“RѕR»RѕRIRЅR° S‚RµR·R° R•RїRїR»R±RѕRј: RgR»SЏ RЎS‚R°R»S–RЅR°, "SѓRyeSЂR°S—RЅSЃSЊRyeRµ RїRёS‚R°RЅRЅSЏ" R±SѓR»Rѕ RѕRgRЅRѕS‡R°SЃRЅRѕ R·R°RiSЂRѕR·RѕSЋ SЏRye RїR»R°RЅR°Rј RyeRѕR»RµRyeS‚RёRIS–R·R°S†S–S— RЅR° SЃRµR»S–, S‚R°Rye S– R·R°RiSЂRѕR·RѕSЋ SЂRµRIR°RЅS€Sѓ RЅR°S†S–RѕRЅR°R»S–R·RјSѓ RI RјS–SЃS‚S–. R†S€R»RѕSЃSЏ RїSЂRѕ S‚RѕS‚R°R»SЊRЅSѓ RIS–R№RЅSѓ RЅR° R·RЅRёS‰RµRЅRЅSЏ RїSЂRѕS‚Rё RIRЅSѓS‚SЂS–S€RЅS–S… S– R·RѕRIRЅS–S€RЅS–S… RyeR°RїS–S‚R°R»S–SЃS‚RёS‡RЅRёS… RIRѕSЂRѕRiS–RI, SЏRye RISЃRµSЂRµRgRёRЅS– RЎRѕSЋR·Sѓ S‚R° RЅR°RIS–S‚SЊ RїR°SЂS‚S–S—, S‚R°Rye S– R·R° RјRµR¶R°RјRё. R•RїRїR»R±RѕRј R±R°S‡RёS‚SЊ RїSЂSЏRјRµ RїSЂRѕRgRѕRIR¶RµRЅRЅSЏ R±S–R»SЊS€RѕRIRёS†SЊRyeRѕS— RїRѕR»S–S‚RёRyeRё RIS–Rg 1917 SЂRѕRyeSѓ R№ RЅR°RIS–S‚SЊ SЏRye RїSЂRѕRgRѕRIR¶RµRЅRЅSЏ S‰Rµ S†R°SЂRёSЃS‚SЃSЊRyeRѕS— R»S–RЅS–S— R±RѕSЂRѕS‚SЊR±Rё R· SѓRyeSЂR°S—RЅSЃSЊRyeRёRј RЅR°S†S–RѕRЅR°R»S–R·RјRѕRј RgRѕ 1933-RiRѕ, RgRµ SѓRyeSЂR°S—RЅS–R·R°S†S–SЏ R±SѓR»R° R»RёS€Rµ S‚R°RyeS‚RёRyeRѕSЋ.

RЈRyeSЂR°S—RЅSЃSЊRyeRёR№ RїRµSЂRµRyeR»R°Rg RyeRЅRёR¶RyeRё R•RЅRЅ R•RїRїR»R±RѕRј "R§RµSЂRIRѕRЅRёR№ RiRѕR»RѕRg" SЃS‚R°RI RѕRgRЅS–S”SЋ R· RѕS‡S–RyeSѓRIR°RЅRёS… RЅRѕRIRёRЅRѕRye "RљRЅRёR¶RyeRѕRIRѕRiRѕ RђSЂSЃRµRЅR°R»Sѓ". R¦Rµ S–SЃS‚RѕSЂRёS‡RЅRµ RgRѕSЃR»S–RgR¶RµRЅRЅSЏ R±SѓR»Rѕ RЅR°RїRёSЃR°RЅRµ RgR»SЏ S€RёSЂRѕRyeRѕS— R·R°S…S–RgRЅRѕS— R°SѓRgRёS‚RѕSЂS–S—, R№ R°RIS‚RѕSЂRyeR° RїSЂRµR·RµRЅS‚SѓRIR°R»R° R№RѕRiRѕ SЏRye RI SѓRЅS–RIRµSЂSЃRёS‚RµS‚R°S…, S‚R°Rye S– RI RїRѕRїSѓR»SЏSЂRЅRёS… S‚RµR»RµRїSЂRѕRiSЂR°RјR°S… Sѓ RЎRЁRђ, RgRµ RїSЂRѕ R“RѕR»RѕRgRѕRјRѕSЂ RјR°R»Rѕ R·RЅR°SЋS‚SЊ RїRѕR·R° RyeR°S„RµRgSЂR°RјRё S–SЃS‚RѕSЂS–S— S– SѓRyeSЂR°S—RЅSЃSЊRyeRѕSЋ RgS–R°SЃRїRѕSЂRѕSЋ.

RЎRїRѕS‡R°S‚RyeSѓ "R§RµSЂRIRѕRЅRёR№ RiRѕR»RѕRg" RgR°S” S€RёSЂRѕRyeSѓ RyeR°SЂS‚RёRЅSѓ S‚RёRј, S…S‚Rѕ RјR°R»Rѕ R·RЅR°S” RїSЂRѕ S–SЃS‚RѕSЂS–SЋ RЈRyeSЂR°S—RЅRё, R° RyeRѕR»Rё RgRѕS…RѕRgRёS‚SЊ RgRѕ SЃR°RјRѕRiRѕ RїRёS‚R°RЅRЅSЏ RїSЂRѕ RiRѕR»RѕRg SЏRye RїSЂRёS‡RёRЅSѓ SЃRјRµSЂS‚S– RјS–R»SЊR№RѕRЅS–RI SЃRµR»SЏRЅ RI RЈRyeSЂR°S—RЅS–, S‚Rѕ RїRѕRgR°S” RgSѓR¶Rµ RIRёRIR°R¶RµRЅSѓ RїRѕR·RёS†S–SЋ Sѓ RIS–RgRїRѕRIS–RgSЊ RЅR° RgR°RIRЅS– RgRµR±R°S‚Rё RїSЂRѕ SЃSѓS‚SЊ R“RѕR»RѕRgRѕRјRѕSЂSѓ.

R’RёRyeRѕSЂRёSЃS‚RѕRISѓSЋS‡Rё R·RgRµR±S–R»SЊS€RѕRiRѕ RIR¶Rµ RѕRїSѓR±R»S–RyeRѕRIR°RЅS– RgR¶RµSЂRµR»R° S– S–SЃS‚RѕSЂRёS‡RЅS– RїSЂR°S†S–, R•RїRїR»R±RѕRј SЃRёRЅS‚RµR·SѓS” RIRµSЂSЃS–SЋ RїSЂRёS‡RёRЅ S– S…SЂRѕRЅRѕR»RѕRiS–SЋ RїRѕRgS–R№, SЏRyeR° RїS–RgSЃSѓRјRѕRISѓS” RgRѕSЃR»S–RgR¶RµRЅRЅSЏ R·SЂRѕR±R»RµRЅS– R· S‡R°SЃSѓ RIRёS…RѕRgSѓ "R–RЅRёRI SЃRyeRѕSЂR±RѕS‚Rё" RљRѕRЅRyeRIRµSЃS‚R°, RЅR°RїRёSЃR°RЅRѕSЋ R·R° SЃRїRѕRiR°RgR°RјRё, RgRѕ RIS–RgRyeSЂRёS‚S‚SЏ SЂR°RgSЏRЅSЃSЊRyeRёS… R°SЂS…S–RIS–RI.

RљRЅRёRiR° R•RїRїR»R±RѕRј RїSЂRѕRїRѕRЅSѓS” RїRµRIRЅRѕRiRѕ SЂRѕRgSѓ RїS–RgSЂSѓS‡RЅRёRye, R· S‡S–S‚RyeRѕ RїRѕSЃS‚R°RIR»RµRЅRёRјRё RїRёS‚R°RЅRЅSЏRјRё S– RIS–RgRїRѕRIS–RgSЏRјRё, S– RiRѕR»RѕRIRЅRµ – RїSЂRѕRїRѕRЅSѓS” RIS–RgRјRѕRIRёS‚RёSЃSЏ RIS–Rg RїSЂRѕSЃS‚RѕS— RјRѕRgRµR»S– R“RѕR»RѕRgRѕRјRѕSЂSѓ SЏRye R·RѕRIRЅS–S€RЅSЊRѕRiRѕ R·R»R° S– R·SЂRѕR·SѓRјS–S‚Rё R№RѕRiRѕ RIRЅSѓS‚SЂS–S€RЅSЋ R»RѕRiS–RyeSѓ, SЏRye RgS–SЏR»Rё RIR»R°SЃRЅRµ R»SЋRgRё RЅR° RјS–SЃS†SЏS….

R“RѕR»RѕRgRѕRјRѕSЂ – S†Rµ RЅRµ S–SЃS‚RµSЂRёS‡RЅRµ R±R°R¶R°RЅRЅSЏ RЎS‚R°R»S–RЅR° RIRёRЅRёS‰RёS‚Rё RISЃS–S…, S…S‚Rѕ RЅR°R·RёRIR°RI SЃRµR±Rµ SѓRyeSЂR°S—RЅS†SЏRјRё, R° RgRµSЂR¶R°RIRЅR° RїRѕR»S–S‚RёRyeR° S– SЂS–S€RµRЅRЅSЏ R±R°RiR°S‚SЊRѕS… R»SЋRgRµR№, SЏRyeS– SЃS‚RIRѕSЂSЋRIR°R»Rё RЅRѕRISѓ SЂR°RgSЏRЅSЃSЊRyeSѓ RЈRyeSЂR°S—RЅSѓ. R”R»SЏ RѕRgRЅRёS… S–SЃS‚RѕSЂRёRyeS–RI RiRѕR»RѕRg 1932-33 RјR°S” RyeR»R°SЃRѕRIRёR№ RIRёRјS–SЂ, R±RѕSЂRѕS‚SЊR±Sѓ R· RyeSѓSЂRyeSѓR»SЏRјRё, RgR»SЏ S–RЅS€RёS… – S†Rµ RIRёSЂS–S€RµRЅRЅSЏ SѓRyeSЂR°S—RЅSЃSЊRyeRѕRiRѕ RЅR°S†S–RѕRЅR°R»SЊRЅRѕRiRѕ RїRёS‚R°RЅRЅSЏ.

R•RїRїR»R±RѕRј R·RЅR°S…RѕRgRёS‚SЊ RIRgR°R»RёR№ R±R°R»R°RЅSЃ RјS–R¶ S†RёRјRё RїS–RgS…RѕRgR°RјRё S– RgSѓR¶Rµ RѕR±RµSЂRµR¶RЅRѕ RIRёR±RёSЂR°S” S‚RµSЂRјS–RЅRё, S‰RѕR± RЅRµ RїRѕS‚SЂR°RїRёS‚Rё RI RїR°SЃS‚RyeSѓ RISѓR·SЊRyeRѕRiRѕ RїRѕRЅSЏS‚S‚SЏ "RiRµRЅRѕS†RёRgSѓ" S– R·RIRµRgRµRЅRЅSЏ RISЃS–S”S— SЂR°RgSЏRЅSЃSЊRyeRѕS— RїRѕR»S–S‚RёRyeRё 1920-30S… RgRѕ RѕRgRIS–S‡RЅRѕS— RIRѕSЂRѕR¶RѕSЃS‚S– RgRѕ SѓRyeSЂR°S—RЅS†S–RI.

RGS–R±R° S‚R°Rye S‚SЂRµR±R° R±RѕSЂRѕS‚RёSЃSЏ R·R° S…R»S–R±? RЎRµR»SЏRЅRё RџRѕRїS–R»SЊRЅSЏRЅSЃSЊRyeRѕRiRѕ SЂR°R№RѕRЅSѓ R–RёS‚RѕRјRёSЂS‰RёRЅRё RIS‡RёRЅSЏSЋS‚SЊ R°RyeS‚Rё SЃR°R±RѕS‚R°R¶Sѓ S…R»S–R±RѕR·R°RiRѕS‚S–RIR»S–. RЎRµR»SЏRЅRё RџRѕRїS–R»SЊRЅSЏRЅSЃSЊRyeRѕRiRѕ SЂR°R№RѕRЅSѓ R–RёS‚RѕRјRёSЂS‰RёRЅRё RIS‡RёRЅSЏSЋS‚SЊ R°RyeS‚Rё SЃR°R±RѕS‚R°R¶Sѓ S…R»S–R±RѕR·R°RiRѕS‚S–RIR»S–

RќR° RјS–R№ RїRѕRiR»SЏRg, "R§RµSЂRIRѕRЅRёR№ RiRѕR»RѕRg" RgR°S” RјRѕR¶R»RёRIS–SЃS‚SЊ RiR»SЏRЅSѓS‚Rё RЅR° R·R°RiR°R»SЊRЅRµ SЂRѕR·SѓRјS–RЅRЅSЏ "SЂR°RgSЏRЅSЃSЊRyeRѕRiRѕ", S– S‡RµSЂRµR· RЅSЊRѕRiRѕ S‚R°RyeRѕR¶ RЅR° S‚Rµ, S‰Rѕ RјRё RјR°S”RјRѕ RЅR° SѓRIR°R·S–, RyeRѕR»Rё RiRѕRIRѕSЂRёRјRѕ RїSЂRѕ RЎS‚R°R»S–RЅR°, RљSЂRµRјR»SЊ, S‡Rё R RѕSЃS–SЋ SЏRye RIRѕSЂRѕRiS–RI.

R—R°RјS–SЃS‚SЊ "RїSЂRѕS‰R°S‚RёSЃSЏ R· SЂR°RgSЏRЅSЃSЊRyeRёRј RјRёRЅSѓR»RёRј", RЅR° S‡R°SЃS‚Rѕ R·R°RyeR»RёRyeR°SЋS‚SЊ RЅR°SЃ RїRѕR»S–S‚RёRyeRё, RIR°SЂS‚Rѕ SЃRїRѕS‡R°S‚RyeSѓ R·SЂRѕR·SѓRјS–S‚Rё, S‰Rѕ RјRё RјR°S”RјRѕ RЅR° SѓRIR°R·S– RїS–Rg "SЂR°RgSЏRЅSЃSЊRyeRёRј", S– RiRѕR»RѕRIRЅRµ – S‡RёRј SЃR°RјRµ R№RѕRiRѕ R·R°RјS–RЅSЋSЋS‚SЊ.

R“RѕR»RѕRIRЅR° S‚RµR·R° R•RїRїR»R±RѕRј R·RISѓS‡RёS‚SЊ R·RЅR°R№RѕRјRѕ: RgR»SЏ RЎS‚R°R»S–RЅR°, "SѓRyeSЂR°S—RЅSЃSЊRyeRµ RїRёS‚R°RЅRЅSЏ" R±SѓR»Rѕ RѕRgRЅRѕS‡R°SЃRЅRѕ R·R°RiSЂRѕR·RѕSЋ SЏRye RїR»R°RЅR°Rј RyeRѕR»RµRyeS‚RёRIS–R·R°S†S–S— RЅR° SЃRµR»S–, S‚R°Rye S– R·R°RiSЂRѕR·RѕSЋ SЂRµRIR°RЅS€Sѓ RЅR°S†S–RѕRЅR°R»S–R·RјSѓ RI RјS–SЃS‚S–, RISЃRµ R· S‡RёRј RIR¶Rµ SЃS‚RёRyeR°R»R°SЃSЏ SЂR°RgSЏRЅSЃSЊRyeR° RIR»R°RgR° RI 1920-S… SЂRѕRyeR°S…. R†S€R»RѕSЃSЏ RїSЂRѕ S‚RѕS‚R°R»SЊRЅSѓ RIS–R№RЅSѓ RЅR° R·RЅRёS‰RµRЅRЅSЏ RїSЂRѕS‚Rё RIRЅSѓS‚SЂS–S€RЅS–S… S– R·RѕRIRЅS–S€RЅS–S… RyeR°RїS–S‚R°R»S–SЃS‚RёS‡RЅRёS… RIRѕSЂRѕRiS–RI, SЏRye RISЃRµSЂRµRgRёRЅS– RЎRѕSЋR·Sѓ S‚R° RЅR°RIS–S‚SЊ RїR°SЂS‚S–S—, S‚R°Rye S– R·R° RјRµR¶R°RјRё.

R•RїRїR»R±RѕRј R±R°S‡RёS‚SЊ RїSЂSЏRјRµ RїSЂRѕRgRѕRIR¶RµRЅRЅSЏ R±S–R»SЊS€RѕRIRёS†SЊRyeRѕS— RїRѕR»S–S‚RёRyeRё RIS–Rg 1917 SЂRѕRyeSѓ R№ RЅR°RIS–S‚SЊ SЏRye RїSЂRѕRgRѕRIR¶RµRЅRЅSЏ S‰Rµ S†R°SЂRёSЃS‚SЃSЊRyeRѕS— R»S–RЅS–S— R±RѕSЂRѕS‚SЊR±Rё R· SѓRyeSЂR°S—RЅSЃSЊRyeRёRј RЅR°S†S–RѕRЅR°R»S–R·RјRѕRј RgRѕ 1933-RiRѕ, RgRµ SѓRyeSЂR°S—RЅS–R·R°S†S–SЏ R±SѓR»R° R»RёS€Rµ S‚R°RyeS‚RёRyeRѕSЋ.

RўR°RyeR° S‚SЏRiR»S–SЃS‚SЊ S– RIR»R°SЃRЅRµ RЅRµRјRёRЅSѓS‡S–SЃS‚SЊ RyeSЂRёRIR°RIRѕRiRѕ RIRёSЂS–S€RµRЅRЅSЏ "SѓRyeSЂR°S—RЅSЃSЊRyeRѕRiRѕ RїRёS‚R°RЅRЅSЏ" RgR»SЏ S–SЃS‚RѕSЂRёRyeS–RI R·R°R»RёS€R°S”S‚SЊSЃSЏ SЃRїS–SЂRЅRѕSЋ (RўRµSЂSЂS– RњR°SЂS‚S–RЅ RїRѕRyeR°R·SѓS” SѓRyeSЂR°S—RЅS–R·R°S†S–SЋ 1920-S… SЂRѕRyeS–RI SЏRye RЅR°S†S–RѕRЅR°R»SЊRЅRµ RIRёSЂS–RIRЅSЋRIR°RЅRЅSЏ RI SѓS‰RµSЂR± RЅR°RIS–S‚SЊ SѓRЅS–RIRµSЂSЃR°R»SЊRЅRѕSЃS‚S– SЂRѕSЃS–R№SЃSЊRyeRѕS—, RgRµ RЅR° RїS–RgRЅRµSЃRµRЅRЅSЏ RyeRѕSЂS–RЅRЅRѕS— RјRѕRIRё S– RyeSѓR»SЊS‚SѓSЂRё RgRѕ SЂS–RIRЅSЏ SЂRѕSЃS–R№SЃSЊRyeRѕS— R±SѓR»Rѕ RyeRёRЅSѓS‚Rѕ RISЃS– R·SѓSЃRёR»R»SЏ).

 RЎRїRёSЃRѕRye SЃS–R», R·R°RЅRµSЃRµRЅRёS… RЅR° "S‡RѕSЂRЅSѓ RgRѕS€RyeSѓ", RI RiR°R·RµS‚S– "R—RѕSЂSЏ" RIS–Rg 27 SЃS–S‡RЅSЏ 1933 SЂRѕRyeSѓ. R— S‚R°RyeRёRјRё SЃRµR»R°RјRё SЏRye RїRѕRyeR°SЂR°RЅRЅSЏ RїSЂRёRїRёRЅSЏR»R°SЃSЏ S‚RѕSЂRiS–RIR»SЏ, RїRѕSЃS‚R°S‡R°RЅRЅSЏ S‚RѕRIR°SЂR°RјRё, R° RIRѕRЅRё SЃR°RјS– RѕRїRёRЅSЏR»RёSЃSЏ Sѓ S„R°RyeS‚RёS‡RЅS–R№  S–R·RѕR»SЏS†S–S—

RўS–, S…S‚Rѕ S…RѕS‡Rµ RgR°S‚Rё RѕSЃS‚R°S‚RѕS‡RЅSѓ RјRѕSЂR°R»SЊRЅSѓ S– RїRѕR»S–S‚RёS‡RЅSѓ RѕS†S–RЅRyeSѓ RЎR RЎR , R· SЃR°RјRѕRiRѕ R·R°RgSѓRјSѓ RI 1917 SЂRѕRyeSѓ S– RgRѕ RѕSЃS‚R°RЅRЅSЊRѕRiRѕ RgRЅSЏ, RIRIR°R¶R°SЋS‚SЊ RЅRµRјRёRЅSѓS‡RёRј RїSЂRёS…S–Rg RЎS‚R°R»S–RЅ RїS–SЃR»SЏ R›RµRЅS–RЅR° S– S‡S–S‚RyeSѓ S‚SЏRiR»S–SЃS‚SЊ RјS–R¶ RЅRёRјRё, S‚RѕRјSѓ SЃRyeRёRgR°RЅRЅSЏ RїR°Rј’SЏS‚RЅRёRyeS–RI R›RµRЅS–RЅSѓ S‡R°SЃS‚Rѕ RIRIR°R¶R°S”S‚SЊSЃSЏ RIRёRїSЂR°RIRgR°RЅRёRј, R±Rѕ RIS–RЅ R±SѓRI RIS–RgRїRѕRIS–RgR°R»SЊRЅRёR№ S‚R°RyeRѕR¶ R·R° R·R»RѕS‡RёRЅRё 1930-S….

"R§RµSЂRIRѕRЅRёR№ RiRѕR»RѕRg" SѓRЅRёRyeR°S” S‚R°RyeRѕRiRѕ SѓR·R°RiR°R»SЊRЅRµRЅRЅSЏ SЂR°RgSЏRЅSЃSЊRyeRѕS— RїRѕR»S–S‚RёRyeRё 1920S…–30-S… S– RїRѕRyeR°R·SѓS”, SЏRye RIS–RgR±SѓRIR°R»RѕSЃSЏ RyeRѕRЅSЃS‚SЂSѓSЋRIR°RЅRЅSЏ RIRѕSЂRѕRiR° SЃR°RјRµ RIRyeS–RЅS†S– 1920-S…, Sѓ RyeRѕRЅS‚RµRyeSЃS‚S– RЅR°SЃS‚SѓRїSѓ S– SЃRїSЂRѕS‚RёRISѓ RЅR° S‚RµSЂRёS‚RѕSЂS–S— RЈRyeSЂR°S—RЅSЃSЊRyeRѕS— R RЎR .

R’RёRyeRѕSЂRёSЃS‚RѕRISѓSЋS‡Rё RIR¶Rµ RЅR°SЏRIRЅS– RgR¶RµSЂRµR»R°, R±R°RiR°S‚Rѕ R· SЏRyeRёS… S” RЅR°RIS–S‚SЊ RѕRЅR»R°R№RЅ (RЅR°RїSЂRёRyeR»R°Rg, R·R±S–SЂRyeR° RgRѕRyeSѓRјRµRЅS‚S–RI RїS–Rg SЂRµRgR°RyeS†S–S”SЋ RЇ. RџRёSЂRѕRiR°, RIRёRgR°RЅR° S‰Rµ Sѓ 1990 SЂRѕS†S–), R•RїRїR»R±RѕRј RїRѕRyeR°R·SѓS” R»RѕRiS–RyeSѓ RЎS‚R°R»S–RЅR° S‚R° RyeRµSЂS–RIRЅRёRyeS–RI RЈR RЎR , SЏRye RIRѕRЅRё R±R°S‡RёR»Rё SЃRёS‚SѓR°S†S–SЋ, RyeRѕR»Rё S†S–R»S– SЃRµR»R°, SЂR°R№RѕRЅRё S– RѕR±R»R°SЃS‚S– RїRѕS‚RµSЂRїR°R»Rё RIS–Rg RiRѕR»RѕRgSѓ.

R† SЏRyeS‰Rѕ RgR»SЏ RЎS‚R°R»S–RЅR° S†Rµ R±SѓR»Rё R°R±SЃS‚SЂR°RyeS‚RЅS– SЃRµR»R°, SЂR°R№RѕRЅRё S– RѕR±R»R°SЃS‚S–, RgRµ RI S†RёS„SЂR°S… RїSЂRѕSЏRIR»SЏR»RёSЃSЏ SЃRїSЂRѕS‚RёRI S– SЃR»R°R±RyeS–SЃS‚SЊ RїR°SЂS‚S–R№RЅRѕS— SЂRѕR±RѕS‚Rё, S‚Rѕ RїRѕ-SЂS–R·RЅRѕRјSѓ RїSЂRѕ R»SЋRgSЃSЊRyeS– SЃS‚SЂR°R¶RgR°RЅRЅSЏ, RїRѕR±R°S‡RµRЅS– RЅR° RIR»R°SЃRЅS– RѕS‡S–, RїRёS€SѓS‚SЊ RџRµS‚SЂRѕRISЃSЊRyeRёR№ (RiRѕR»RѕRIR° R¦RµRЅS‚SЂR°R»SЊRЅRѕRiRѕ R’RёRyeRѕRЅR°RIS‡RѕRiRѕ RљRѕRјS–S‚RµS‚Sѓ RЈR RЎR ), RљRѕSЃS–RѕSЂ (RiRѕR»RѕRIR° R¦Rљ RљRџ(R±)RЈ), R§SѓR±R°SЂ (RiRѕR»RѕRIR° R R°RgRЅR°SЂRyeRѕRјSѓ RЈR RЎR ), SЃRµRyeSЂRµS‚R°SЂS– RѕR±RyeRѕRјS–RI S‚R° SЂR°R№RyeRѕRјS–RI.

R‘R°RiR°S‚Rѕ R· RЅRёS… RIS–RgRyeSЂRёS‚Rѕ RIRёSЃR»RѕRIR»SЋRIR°R»RёSЃSЏ RїSЂRѕ R¶R°S…R»RёRIS– SЃRјRµSЂS‚S– S– RїSЂRѕSЃRёR»Rё RїSЂRѕ RЅR°RgR°RЅRЅSЏ RgRѕRїRѕRјRѕRiRё. R’ RyeRѕR¶RЅS–R№ S‚R°RyeS–R№ RgRѕRїRѕRIS–RgRЅS–R№ R·R°RїRёSЃS†S– – RјRѕS‚RѕSЂRѕS€RЅS– RyeR°SЂS‚RёRЅRё RїRѕRIS–R»SЊRЅRѕS— R·R°RiRёR±RµR»S– S– SЃS‚R°S‚RёSЃS‚RёRyeR° R¶RµSЂS‚RI. RџSЂRё S†SЊRѕRјSѓ, R±R°RiR°S‚Rѕ S…S‚Rѕ RїSЂRѕRgRѕRIR¶SѓRIR°RI RЅR°RїRѕR»SЏRiR°S‚Rё RЅR° R·R°R±RёSЂR°RЅRЅS– RISЂRѕR¶R°SЋ S– R±RѕSЂRѕS‚SЊR±Rё R· RyeR»R°SЃRѕRIRёRјRё RIRѕSЂRѕRiR°RјRё.

RћRgRёRЅ R· RѕSЂRiR°RЅS–R·R°S‚RѕSЂS–RI R’RµR»RёRyeRѕRiRѕ R“RѕR»RѕRgSѓ - SЃRµRyeSЂRµS‚R°SЂ R¦Rљ RљRџ(R±)RЈ RЎS‚R°RЅS–SЃR»R°RI RљRѕSЃS–RѕSЂ

R— RgRѕRyeSѓRјRµRЅS‚S–RI R·SЂRѕR·SѓRјS–R»Rѕ, S‰Rѕ R№S€R»RѕSЃSЏ RїSЂRѕ S†S–R»RµSЃRїSЂSЏRјRѕRIR°RЅSѓ R±RѕSЂRѕS‚SЊR±Sѓ SЂR°RgSЏRЅSЃSЊRyeRѕRiRѕ RyeRµSЂS–RIRЅRёS†S‚RIR° RISЃS–S… SЂS–RIRЅS–RI R· SѓRyeSЂR°S—RЅSЃSЊRyeRёRј RЅR°S†S–RѕRЅR°R»SЊRЅRёRј SЂSѓS…RѕRј S‚R° SЃRµR»SЏRЅSЃSЊRyeRѕSЋ RѕRїRѕR·RёS†S–S”SЋ RyeRѕR»RµRyeS‚RёRIS–R·R°S†S–S— RI RЈRyeSЂR°S—RЅS–.

RђR»Rµ SЏRye RїRѕRyeR°R·SѓS” R•RїRїR»R±RѕRј, S†Rµ R±SѓR»Rѕ S‡R°SЃS‚RёRЅRѕSЋ S€RёSЂRѕRyeRѕRiRѕ RЅR°SЃS‚SѓRїSѓ RЅR° RISЃRµ, S‰Rѕ R±SѓR»Rѕ RѕRiRѕR»RѕS€RµRЅRѕ R·R»RѕS‡RёRЅRѕRј RїSЂRѕS‚Rё RgRµSЂR¶R°RIRё S– RgRµSЂR¶R°RIRЅRѕS— RIR»R°SЃRЅRѕSЃS‚S–, SЏRyeS– SЃS‚R°R»Rё RѕSЃRЅRѕRIRѕSЋ RЅRѕRIRѕS— RgRµSЂR¶R°RIRЅRѕS— RyeSЂRёRјS–RЅR°R»SЊRЅRѕS— RїRѕR»S–S‚RёRyeRё 1930-S… SЂRѕRyeS–RI.

R•RїRїR»R±RѕRј RїSЂRѕRїRѕRЅSѓS” RIRёRIR°R¶RµRЅRµ S– RїSЂRёR№RЅSЏS‚RЅRµ RgR»SЏ R±S–R»SЊS€RѕSЃS‚S– RїSЂRѕS„RµSЃS–R№RЅRёS… S–SЃS‚RѕSЂRёRyeS–RI S‚SЂR°RyeS‚SѓRIR°RЅRЅSЏ RїRѕRgS–R№, SЏRyeRµ RјRѕR¶RЅR° RIRIR°R¶R°S‚Rё RїS–RgRIRµRgRµRЅRЅSЏRј RїRµRIRЅRѕS— RјRµR¶S– RїS–Rg R±RµR·RyeS–RЅRµS‡RЅRёRјRё RgRёSЃRyeSѓSЃS–SЏRјRё RїSЂRѕ RЎS‚R°R»S–RЅR° S– R№RѕRiRѕ R±R°S‡RµRЅRЅSЏ SѓRyeSЂR°S—RЅS†S–RI, R№RѕRiRѕ R±R°S‡RµRЅRЅSЏ "RIRѕSЂRѕR¶RѕS—" S– "SЂR°RgSЏRЅSЃSЊRyeRѕS—" RЈRyeSЂR°S—RЅRё S– SѓRyeSЂR°S—RЅS†S–RI.

RђR»Rµ RI S–SЃS‚RѕSЂRёS‡RЅRёS…, R° S‚RёRј R±S–R»SЊS€Rµ RїRѕR»S–S‚RёS‡RЅRёS… RgRёSЃRyeSѓSЃS–SЏS… RїSЂRѕ R“RѕR»RѕRgRѕRјRѕSЂ, RїRѕRЅSЏS‚S‚SЏ S…S‚Rѕ S” SѓRyeSЂR°S—RЅS†RµRј R·R°SЂR°R· RЅRµRјRёRЅSѓS‡Rµ RIRїR»RёRIR°S” RЅR° SЂRµRyeRѕRЅSЃS‚SЂSѓRyeS†S–SЋ S‚RѕRiRѕS‡R°SЃRЅRѕRiRѕ SѓSЏRIR»RµRЅRЅSЏ, SЏRye R±R°S‡RёR»Rё SЃRїS–RIRIS–RgRЅRѕS€RµRЅRЅSЏ SѓRyeSЂR°S—RЅSЃSЊRyeRѕRiRѕ S– SЂR°RgSЏRЅSЃSЊRyeRѕRiRѕ RI 1930-S… SЂRѕRyeR°S….

RђRIS‚RѕSЂRyeR° RЅRµ S€SѓRyeR°S” SЏRyeRѕRiRѕSЃSЊ RЅRѕRIRѕRiRѕ RgRѕRyeSѓRјRµRЅS‚Sѓ RI SЃRµRyeSЂRµS‚RЅRёS… R°SЂS…S–RIR°S…, SЏRyeRёR№ R±Rё RїRѕRyeR°R·R°RI "RїSЂRёS…RѕRIR°RЅSѓ S–SЃS‚RёRЅSѓ", RїSЂRѕ S‚Rµ, SЏRye "RЅR°SЃRїSЂR°RIRgS–" RgSѓRјR°RI RЎS‚R°R»S–RЅR° S– SЏRyeS– R±SѓR»Rё R№RѕRiRѕ RЅR°RјS–SЂRё. R† S…RѕS‡ RЎS‚R°R»S–RЅ S‚SЂR°RgRёS†S–R№RЅRѕ S” RyeR»SЋS‡RѕRIRѕSЋ S„S–RiSѓSЂRѕSЋ, R°R»Rµ RIR¶Rµ R·SЂRѕR·SѓRјS–R»Rѕ, S‰Rѕ S–SЃS‚RѕSЂRёRyeR°Rј RїRѕS‚SЂS–R±RЅRѕ SЂSѓS…R°S‚RёSЃSЏ RgR°R»S– S– RїRµSЂRµSЃS‚R°S‚Rё RyeRѕRЅS†RµRЅS‚SЂSѓRIR°S‚RёSЃSЏ RЅR° S‚RѕRјSѓ, SЏRye SЃR°Rј RїSЂR°S†SЋRIR°R»R° RїRѕR»S–S‚RёS‡RЅR° SѓSЏRIR° RЎS‚R°R»S–RЅR° S– RI S‡RѕRјSѓ R±SѓRI R№RѕRiRѕ R·R°RgSѓRј.

RGS‚Rѕ R±SѓR»Rё R¶RµSЂS‚RIR°RјRё RЎS‚R°R»S–RЅR°, RїSЂRѕ SЏRyeRёS… SЃR°RјRµ "SѓRyeSЂR°S—RЅS†S–RI" R№RgRµS‚SЊSЃSЏ, RyeRѕR»Rё RјRё RiRѕRIRѕSЂRёRјRѕ, S‰Rѕ R“RѕR»RѕRgRѕRјRѕSЂ R±SѓRI RiRµRЅRѕS†RёRgRѕRј SѓRyeSЂR°S—RЅSЃSЊRyeRѕRiRѕ RЅR°SЂRѕRgSѓ – S†S– S‚SЂR°RgRёS†S–R№RЅS– RїRёS‚R°RЅRЅSЏ RIS–RgRѕR±SЂR°R¶R°SЋS‚SЊ RїRѕR»S–S‚RёS‡RЅS– S–RgRµS— S‚RёS…, S…S‚Rѕ RgRёSЃRyeSѓS‚SѓS”, RѕRgSЂR°R·Sѓ RїSЂRѕRµRyeS‚SѓSЋS‡Rё S†S– RїRѕRЅSЏS‚S‚SЏ RЅR° 1930-S‚S– SЂRѕRyeRё.

RGR°SЂRyeS–RISЏRЅRё R±S–R»SЏ S‚S–R»R° SЃRµR»SЏRЅRёRЅR° RЅR° RѕRgRЅS–R№ R· RISѓR»RёS†S– SЃS‚RѕR»RёS†S– RЈRЎR R . R¤RѕS‚Rѕ RђR»RµRyeSЃR°RЅRgSЂR° R’S–RЅRµSЂR±RµSЂRiRµSЂR°, 1933 SЂS–Rye.

R•RїRїR»R±RѕRј RЅRµ RIS–RgRyeRёRgR°S” RїRѕRЅSЏS‚S‚SЏ RiRµRЅRѕS†RёRgSѓ, R°R»Rµ R»RёS€Rµ SЏRye RјRѕSЂR°R»SЊRЅRѕS— S– RїRѕR»S–S‚RёS‡RЅRѕS— RyeR°S‚RµRiRѕSЂS–S—, R° RЅRµ RїSЂR°RIRѕRIRѕS—, SЏRyeRµ S†Rµ RїSЂRѕRїRѕRЅSѓSЋS‚SЊ SѓRyeSЂR°S—RЅSЃSЊRyeS– RїRѕR»S–S‚RёRyeRё, RїRѕS‡RёRЅR°SЋS‡Rё RIS–Rg R®S‰RµRЅRyeR°. RџRѕRЅSЏS‚S‚SЏ RiRµRЅRѕS†RёRgSѓ RјR°S” SЃRIRѕSЋ S–SЃS‚RѕSЂS–SЋ R№ RѕR±RјRµR¶SѓS”, SЂRѕR±RёS‚SЊ RµRyeSЃRyeR»SЋR·RёRIRЅRёRј SЃS‚SЂR°R¶RgR°RЅRЅSЏ S‚S–R»SЊRyeRё RѕRgRЅS–S”S— RiSЂSѓRїRё RЅR°SЃRµR»RµRЅRЅSЏ S– SЃRїSЂRѕS‰SѓS” RїRёS‚R°RЅRЅSЏ RIRёRЅRё, RIRёRЅRѕSЃSЏS‡Rё RЅR°R·RѕRIRЅS– RIRёRyeRѕRЅR°RIS†S–RI R·R»RѕS— RIRѕR»S– RIRµSЂS…RѕRIRЅRѕRiRѕ RїSЂR°RIRёS‚RµR»SЏ.

"R§RµSЂRIRѕRЅRёR№ RiRѕR»RѕRg" RїRѕRyeR°R·SѓS”, S‰Rѕ RјRѕR¶RЅR° RїRѕS‡R°S‚Rё RgRѕRјRѕRIR»SЏS‚RёSЃSЏ RїSЂRѕ RїRѕRЅSЏS‚S‚SЏ, S‡S–S‚RyeRѕ RЅR°R·RёRIR°S‚Rё S– RѕR±SѓRјRѕRIR»SЋRIR°S‚Rё S—S…, R° RЅRµ R·R°RїRµRyeR»Rѕ RIS–RgSЃS‚RѕSЋRIR°S‚Rё, S‰Rѕ S” S‚S–R»SЊRyeRё RѕRgRЅR° S–SЃS‚RёRЅR° S– S„RѕSЂRјSѓR»R° R“RѕR»RѕRgRѕRјRѕSЂSѓ – RIRёRЅRёS‰RµRЅRЅSЏ SѓRyeSЂR°S—RЅS†S–RI.

RџS–SЃR»SЏ RyeRЅRёR¶RyeRё R•RїRїR»R±RѕRј RјRѕR¶RЅR° RЅR°SЂRµS€S‚S– RIRёR№S‚Rё RїRѕR·R° RїR»RѕS‰RёRЅSѓ "SѓRyeSЂR°S—RЅSЃSЊRyeRѕSЃS‚S–" RiRѕR»RѕRgSѓ, RїSЂRёRЅR°R№RјRЅS–, S…RѕS‡RµS‚SЊSЃSЏ SѓSЏRIRёS‚Rё, S‰Rѕ RgR°R»S– S–SЃS‚RѕSЂRёRyeR°Rј RIR¶Rµ RЅRµRјR°S” SЃRµRЅSЃSѓ SЃRїRµSЂRµS‡R°S‚RёSЃSЏ RїSЂRѕ S‚Rµ RЅR°SЃRyeS–R»SЊRyeRё R“RѕR»RѕRgRѕRјRѕSЂ R±SѓRI "SѓRyeSЂR°S—RЅSЃSЊRyeRёR№" S‡Rё "SЃRµR»SЏRЅSЃSЊRyeRёR№".

R“RѕR»RѕRg SЏRye RIRѕSЂRѕRiR° SѓSЏRIRёS‚Rё RgSѓR¶Rµ RIR°R¶RyeRѕ – S‚RѕRјSѓ SЏRye S– R±SѓRgSЊ-SЏRyeRёR№ RIRѕSЂRѕRi RIS–RЅ RїRµSЂSЃRѕRЅS–S„S–RyeSѓS”S‚SЊSЃSЏ RI RgRµRјRѕRЅR°, R§SѓR¶RѕRiRѕ, RЎS‚R°R»S–RЅR°, SЂR°RgSЏRЅSЃSЊRyeRµ S‡Rё SЂRѕSЃS–R№SЃSЊRyeRµ. RќR° RїRѕS‡R°S‚RyeSѓ 1930-S… SЂRѕRyeS–RI S–R· RјS–R»SЊR№RѕRЅS–RI R·RѕRISЃS–Rј SЂS–R·RЅRёS… SЃRµR»SЏRЅ, R· RgSѓR¶Rµ SЂS–R·RЅRёRј RgRѕSЃS‚R°S‚RyeRѕRј, RyeS–R»SЊRyeS–SЃS‚SЋ R·RµSЂRЅR° S– S…SѓRgRѕR±Rё, S– RgSѓR¶Rµ SЂS–R·RЅRёRјRё S–RgRµSЏRјRё S– SѓSЏRIR»RµRЅRЅSЏRјRё RїSЂRѕ S‚Rµ, S‰Rѕ S‚R°RyeRµ SЂR°RgSЏRЅSЃSЊRyeR° RIR»R°RgR° S– RyeRѕR»RµRyeS‚RёRIRЅRµ RiRѕSЃRїRѕRgR°SЂSЃS‚RIRѕ, RyeRѕRЅSЃS‚SЂSѓSЋS”S‚SЊSЃSЏ RѕR±SЂR°R· RyeR»R°SЃRѕRIRѕRiRѕ RIRѕSЂRѕRiR°.

R— S‚RёSЃSЏS‡ S‚RёS…, S…S‚Rѕ RјR°R»Rё RgSѓR¶Rµ SЂS–R·RЅS– S–RgRµS—, S‰Rѕ RѕR·RЅR°S‡R°S” R±SѓS‚Rё SѓRyeSЂR°S—RЅS†RµRј RI RЈR RЎR , SЃS‚RIRѕSЂSЋS”S‚SЊSЃSЏ RѕR±SЂR°R· R·SЂR°RgRЅRёRyeR°, R·R°RiSЂRѕR·R° SЂRѕR·RyeRѕR»Sѓ S– SЃRїS–RIRїSЂR°S†S– R· RјS–R¶RЅR°SЂRѕRgRЅRёRј R°RЅS‚RёSЂR°RgSЏRЅSЃSЊRyeRёRј S„SЂRѕRЅS‚RѕRј. RќRµ RјRµRЅS€ RѕS‚SЂSѓR№RЅRёRј S– SЂSѓR№RЅS–RIRЅRёRј S” R±R°R¶R°RЅRЅSЏ SЃS‚RIRѕSЂSЋRIR°S‚Rё RIRѕSЂRѕRiS–RI Sѓ RјRёRЅSѓR»RѕRјSѓ S– RїSЂRѕRµRyeS‚SѓRIR°S‚Rё S—S… RЅR° S‚RµRїRµSЂS–S€RЅS” – R±R°S‡RёS‚Rё RI RџSѓS‚S–RЅS– RЎS‚R°R»S–RЅR° S– R±R°S‡RёS‚Rё S‚RµRїRµSЂS–S€RЅS– RїRѕRgS–S— RI RgR·RµSЂRyeR°R»S– SЂR°RgSЏRЅSЃSЊRyeRѕS— S–SЃS‚RѕSЂS–S— 1930-S… SЂRѕRyeS–RI.

RўRѕRgS– S†Rµ RЅR°RiR°RgSѓS” R±R°R¶R°RЅRЅSЏ RџSѓS‚S–RЅR° R±R°S‡RёS‚Rё SЃRµR±Rµ RЎS‚R°R»S–RЅRёRј, SЏRye RЎS‚R°R»S–RЅ R±R°S‡RёRI SЃRµR±Rµ R†RIR°RЅRѕRј R“SЂS–R·RЅRёRј. R†SЃS‚RѕSЂS–SЋ R“RѕR»RѕRgRѕRјRѕSЂSѓ RgSѓR¶Rµ RIR°R¶R»RёRIRѕ SЂRѕR·SѓRјS–S‚Rё SЏRye RI SѓRyeSЂR°S—RЅSЃSЊRyeRѕRјSѓ, S‚R°Rye R№ Sѓ SЃRIS–S‚RѕRIRѕRјSѓ RyeRѕRЅS‚RµRyeSЃS‚S– S–SЃS‚RѕSЂS–S— RЅR°SЃRёR»R»SЏ S– SЂRѕR·RїRѕRgS–R»Sѓ SЂRµSЃSѓSЂSЃS–RI – S†Rµ S–SЃS‚RѕSЂS–SЏ RїRѕR·R±R°RIR»RµRЅRЅSЏ R»SЋRgRµR№ S—R¶S– RyeRѕR»RёSЃSЊ S– R·R°SЂR°R· S‡RµSЂRµR· S–RgRµRѕR»RѕRiS–S‡RЅS– RјR°RЅS–RїSѓR»SЏS†S–S— S– S„S–RЅR°RЅSЃRѕRIS– SЂRѕR·SЂR°S…SѓRЅRyeRё.

R§RµSЂRµR· SЃS‚SЂR°S€RЅRёR№ RgRѕSЃRIS–Rg 1932–33 SЂRѕRyeS–RI RјRѕR¶RЅR° S€SѓRyeR°S‚Rё RIS–RgRїRѕRIS–RgS– RїSЂRѕ RgRµSЂR¶R°RISѓ, RїSЂRёSЂRѕRgSѓ RЅR°SЃRёR»SЊSЃS‚RIR° S– RIR»R°RgRё, S–RgRµRѕR»RѕRiS–S— RЅRµRЅR°RIRёSЃS‚S– S– RЅR°SЃRёR»SЊSЃS‚RIR°, SЏRye RISЂRµS€S‚S– S—R¶R° SЃS‚R°S” R·R±SЂRѕS”SЋ. R† S†S– RIS–RgRїRѕRIS–RgS– RЅRµ R»RёS€Rµ RI S–RgRµSЏS… RЎS‚R°R»S–RЅR° S‡Rё R›RµRЅS–RЅR°.

RЇRye S„SѓRЅRyeS†S–RѕRЅSѓS” RgRµSЂR¶R°RIR° SЏRye R°RїR°SЂR°S‚ RIR»R°RgRё S– RЅR°SЃRёR»R»SЏ, S‡RёRј RIS–RgSЂS–R·RЅSЏS”S‚SЊSЃSЏ SѓRyeSЂR°S—RЅSЃSЊRyeR° RgRµSЂR¶R°RIR° RIS–Rg SЂR°RgSЏRЅSЃSЊRyeRѕS— – S†Rµ RyeR»SЋS‡RѕRIRµ RїRёS‚R°RЅRЅSЏ, R·R°SЂR°RgRё SЏRyeRѕRiRѕ RїRѕS‚SЂS–R±RЅRѕ RїRѕRIRµSЂS‚R°S‚RёSЃSЏ RgRѕ S–SЃS‚RѕSЂS–S— R“RѕR»RѕRgRѕRјRѕSЂSѓ.  

RЈ SЃRIRѕS—R№ RѕS†S–RЅS†S– RїRѕR»S–S‚RёRyeRё RїR°Rј’SЏS‚S– RїSЂRѕ R“RѕR»RѕRgRѕRјRѕSЂ RѕSЃS‚R°RЅRЅS–S… RgRµSЃSЏS‚RёR»S–S‚SЊ R•RїRїR»R±RѕRј SЃS‚SЂRёRјR°RЅRѕ RyeSЂRёS‚RёRyeSѓS” S‚RёS…, S…S‚Rѕ S–RЅSЃS‚SЂSѓRјRµRЅS‚R°R»S–R·SѓS” S–SЃS‚RѕSЂS–SЋ RgR»SЏ RЅRѕRIRѕRiRѕ RЅR°S†S–S”S‚RIRѕSЂRµRЅRЅSЏ R№ RIS–RgRyeRёRgR°S” SѓRЅS–RyeR°R»SЊRЅS–SЃS‚SЊ S– RїRµSЂS€RѕRѕSЃRЅRѕRISѓ SЃR°RјRµ RЅR°S†S–RѕRЅR°R»SЊRЅRѕS— RѕR·RЅR°RyeRё R“RѕR»RѕRgRѕRјRѕSЂSѓ.

RџSЂRѕRgRѕRIR¶SѓRIR°S‚Rё RїRѕR»S–S‚RёRyeSѓ R®S‰RµRЅRyeR° S– RЅR°RїRѕR»SЏRiR°S‚Rё RЅR° RiRµRЅRѕS†RёRgS– R· RЅRµRїSЂR°RIRgRѕRїRѕRgS–R±RЅRёRјRё S†RёS„SЂR°RјRё – S†Rµ RѕR·RЅR°S‡R°S” SЃRїSЂRѕS‰SѓRIR°S‚Rё S‚SЂR°RiRµRgS–SЋ, SЂRѕR±RёS‚Rё S—S— RїSЂRѕSЃS‚Rѕ S–RЅSЃS‚SЂSѓRјRµRЅS‚RѕRј S‚RµRїRµSЂS–S€RЅSЊRѕS— S–RЅS„RѕSЂRјR°S†S–R№RЅRѕS— RIS–R№RЅRё RЅR° RIRЅSѓS‚SЂS–S€RЅSЊRѕRјSѓ S– R·R°RyeRѕSЂRgRѕRЅRЅRѕRјSѓ S„SЂRѕRЅS‚S–.

RџRѕR»S–S‚RёRyeR° RїR°Rј’SЏS‚S–, SЏRyeR° R·RIRѕRgRёS‚SЊ RI RѕRgRЅRµ SЂRѕSЃS–R№SЃSЊRyeRёR№ S–RјRїRµSЂSЃSЊRyeSѓ S– SЂR°RgSЏRЅSЃSЊRyeSѓ RїRѕR»S–S‚RёRyeSѓ, S– S‚R°RyeRёRј S‡RёRЅRѕRј SЂRѕR±RёS‚SЊ RISЃS–S… RјRµSЂS‚RIRёS…, R¶RёRIRёS… S– RЅRµRЅR°SЂRѕRgR¶RµRЅRёS… SѓRyeSЂR°S—RЅS†S–RI R¶RµSЂS‚RIR°RјRё RѕRgRIS–S‡RЅRѕRiRѕ SЂRѕSЃS–R№SЃSЊRyeRѕRiRѕ RyeRѕR»RѕRЅS–R°R»S–R·RјSѓ SЂRѕR±RёS‚SЊ R· S–SЃS‚RѕSЂS–S— RїSЂRѕSЃS‚Sѓ RyeR°SЂS‚RёRЅRyeSѓ, RgRµ RIR¶Rµ RЅRµ S‚SЂRµR±R° SЃS‚R°RIRёS‚Rё R·R°RїRёS‚R°RЅSЊ, R° RIS–RgSЂR°R·Sѓ SЏSЃRЅRѕ, S…S‚Rѕ "SЃRIRѕS—" S– "S‡SѓR¶S–".

R§Rё R±SѓR»Rё SѓRyeSЂR°S—RЅS†SЏRјRё RџRµS‚SЂRѕRISЃSЊRyeRёR№ S– RјS–R»SЊR№RѕRЅRё S‚RёS…, S…S‚Rѕ SЃS‚RIRѕSЂSЋRIR°RI SЂR°RgSЏRЅSЃSЊRyeSѓ RЈRyeSЂR°S—RЅSѓ R· 1922 SЂRѕRyeSѓ – RIS–RgRїRѕRIS–RgSЊ R·RgR°S”S‚SЊSЃSЏ RѕS‡RµRIRёRgRЅRѕSЋ, S– S‚S–R»SЊRyeRё RЅR°R№R·R°RїRµRyeR»S–S€RёRј RgRµRyeRѕRјSѓRЅS–R·R°S‚RѕSЂR°Rј S…RѕS‚S–R»RѕSЃSЏ R± RЅR°R·RIR°S‚Rё S—S… "SЂR°RgSЏRЅSЃSЊRyeRёRјRё" S‡Rё RЅR°RIS–S‚SЊ "SЃRѕRIS”S†SЊRyeRёRјRё", R° RЅRµ SѓRyeSЂR°S—RЅSЃSЊRyeRёRјRё RgS–SЏS‡R°RјRё.

RќR°R№RIRёS‰Rµ RyeRµSЂS–RIRЅRёS†S‚RIRѕ RЈRЎR R  S– RЎR RЎR  RI 1930-S…: R›R°R·R°SЂ RљR°RiR°RЅRѕRIRёS‡, R™RѕSЃRёRї RЎS‚R°R»S–RЅ, RџR°RIR»Rѕ RџRѕSЃS‚RёS€RµRI S‚R° RљR»RёRј R’RѕSЂRѕS€RёR»RѕRI

RђR»Rµ S‡Rё S” S€R°RЅSЃ R·R°SЂR°R· R·RјS–RЅRёS‚Rё S‚S– R°RїR°SЂR°S‚Rё RIR»R°RgRё R№ RЅR°SЃRёR»R»SЏ, SЏRyeS– RЅR°Rј RgS–SЃS‚R°R»RёSЃSЏ RIS–Rg SЂR°RgSЏRЅSЃSЊRyeRѕS— RgRµSЂR¶R°RIRё, S‡Rё RISЃRµ R·R°RyeS–RЅS‡RёS‚SЊSЃSЏ R»RёS€Rµ SЂRѕR·R±RёRIR°RЅRЅSЏRј RїR°Rј’SЏS‚RЅRёRyeS–RI R›RµRЅS–RЅSѓ – S†Rµ RїRёS‚R°RЅRЅSЏ R·R°R»RёS€R°S”S‚SЊSЃSЏ RIS–RgRyeSЂRёS‚RёRј.  

RЎRїRѕRgS–RIR°SЋSЃSЏ, S‰Rѕ RЅR°SЂRµS€S‚S– RїS–SЃR»SЏ "R§RµSЂRIRѕRЅRѕRiRѕ RiRѕR»RѕRgSѓ" SЃS‚R°RЅRµ R·SЂRѕR·SѓRјS–R»Rѕ, S‰Rѕ RiRѕRIRѕSЂRёS‚Rё RїSЂRѕ R“RѕR»RѕRgRѕRјRѕSЂ RI RїR»RѕS‰RёRЅS– "SѓRyeSЂR°S—RЅSЃSЊRyeRѕRiRѕ" – "SЂRѕSЃS–R№SЃSЊRyeRѕRiRѕ" RїRёS‚R°RЅRЅSЏ – S†Rµ R»RёS€Rµ RIRёRyeRѕSЂRёSЃS‚RѕRISѓRIR°S‚Rё S‚SЂR°RiRµRgS–SЋ, SЏRyeR° RIS–RgR±SѓR»R°SЃSЏ 85 SЂRѕRyeS–RI S‚RѕRјSѓ SЏRye R·R°SЃS–R± RїSЂRѕRїR°RiR°RЅRgRё S‚R° S–RЅS„RѕSЂRјR°S†S–R№RЅRѕS— RIS–R№RЅRё.

"R§RµSЂRIRѕRЅRёR№ RiRѕR»RѕRg" RЅRµ S‚R°Rye S†S–RyeR°RIRёR№ S–SЃS‚RѕSЂRёRyeR°Rј, SЏRyeS– R± S…RѕS‚S–R»Rё RїRѕR±R°S‡RёS‚Rё RЅRѕRIRёR№ RїRѕRiR»SЏRg RЅR° RїRѕRgS–S— S– RgRѕRyeSѓRјRµRЅS‚Rё, R°R»Rµ RјRѕR¶Rµ SЃS‚R°S‚Rё RyeRѕSЂRёSЃRЅRёRј SЃR»RѕRIRЅRёRyeRѕRј RgR»SЏ SѓRyeSЂR°S—RЅSЃSЊRyeRѕRiRѕ RїRѕR»S–S‚RёS‡RЅRѕRiRѕ RїRѕR»SЏ. RўR°RyeS– RїRѕRїSѓR»SЏSЂRЅS– RyeRЅRёR¶RyeRё RїRѕRyeR°R·SѓSЋS‚SЊ, S‰Rѕ S–SЃS‚RѕSЂS–SЏ RЅRµ RјR°S” R±SѓS‚Rё RїRѕR»RµRј RgR»SЏ RїRѕR»S–S‚RёS‡RЅRѕRiRѕ RµRyeR·RѕSЂS†RёR·RјSѓ S– RїRѕRїSѓR»S–R·RјSѓ. RЇRyeS‰Rѕ R·RјS–SЃS‚RёS‚Rё SѓRIR°RiSѓ R· S–RјRµRЅ, S‚Rѕ RјRѕR¶RЅR° RїRѕR±R°S‡RёS‚Rё, S‰Rѕ R№RgRµS‚SЊSЃSЏ RїSЂRѕ S‚RµS…RЅRѕR»RѕRiS–S— RIR»R°RgRё, SЏRyeS– RїRѕRЅRµRIRѕR»SЋSЋS‚SЊ S– R·RЅRёS‰SѓSЋS‚SЊ.

RџSЂRѕRgRѕRIR¶SѓRIR°S‚Rё SЃS‚RIRѕSЂSЋRIR°S‚Rё S–SЃS‚RѕSЂRёS‡RЅS– RјS–S„S–RI RїSЂRѕ RїRѕRgRIRёRiRё RiRµSЂRѕS—RI S– R·R»RѕS‡RёRЅRё RIRѕSЂRѕRiS–RI, RIRµR»RёS‡RЅRѕ R·R°R№RјR°S‚RёSЃSЏ RЅR°S†S–S”S‚RIRѕSЂRµRЅRЅSЏRј RI SЃS‚RёR»S– RGR†RG SЃS‚RѕR»S–S‚S‚SЏ – R·RЅR°S‡RёS‚SЊ RIS–RgRyeRёRgR°S‚Rё RgRµRјRѕRyeSЂR°S‚RёS‡RЅRёR№ RїRѕS‚RµRЅS†S–R°R» RѕSЃS‚R°RЅRЅS–S… SЂRѕRyeS–RI, SЏRyeS– RїRѕRyeR°R·SѓSЋS‚SЊ, S‰Rѕ SѓRyeSЂR°S—RЅSЃSЊRyeRµ SЃSѓSЃRїS–R»SЊSЃS‚RIRѕ RјRѕR¶Rµ S–SЃRЅSѓRIR°S‚Rё R±RµR· RјS–S„S–RI S– RїSЂRёR№RјR°S‚Rё SЃRyeR»R°RgRЅSѓ SЂRµR°R»SЊRЅS–SЃS‚SЊ RїSЂR°RIRgRё RїSЂRѕ RјRёRЅSѓR»Rµ, R° RЅRµ RyeRѕRЅSЃS‚SЂSѓSЋRIR°S‚Rё RIRѕSЂRѕRiS–RI, Sѓ RgSѓSЃS– SЂR°RgSЏRЅSЃSЊRyeRѕS— S–RgRµRѕR»RѕRiS–S—.

R§RёS‚R°R№S‚Rµ S‚R°RyeRѕR¶:

R§RµSЂRIRѕRЅRёR№ RiRѕR»RѕRg. R’S–RgRiSѓRye RђSЃRyeRѕR»SЊRgR° R›RѕR·RёRЅSЃSЊRyeRѕRiRѕ

RЈ RiR°R»RµSЂRµS— RЎRµRЅR°S‚Sѓ R‘SЂR°R·RёR»S–S— RgRµRјRѕRЅSЃS‚SЂSѓRIR°R»Rё RIRёSЃS‚R°RIRyeSѓ RїSЂRѕ R“RѕR»RѕRgRѕRјRѕSЂ

RЁS‚R°S‚ RњS–SЃSЃSѓSЂS– RIRёR·RЅR°RI R“RѕR»RѕRgRѕRјRѕSЂ RiRµRЅRѕS†RёRgRѕRј RїSЂRѕS‚Rё SѓRyeSЂR°S—RЅS†S–RI

RќR° RљRёS—RIS‰RёRЅS– RЅRµRIS–RgRѕRјS– SЃRїR°R»RёR»Rё RјRµRјRѕSЂS–R°R» R¶RµSЂS‚RIR°Rј R“RѕR»RѕRgRѕRјRѕSЂSѓ

100 RyeRЅRёRi RќRµR·R°R»RµR¶RЅRѕSЃS‚S–. "R†SЃS‚RѕSЂRёS‡RЅR° RїSЂR°RIRgR°" SЂRµRyeRѕRјRµRЅRgSѓS”

RџRµSЂRµR»S–Rye RIRёRgR°RЅSЊ, SЏRyeS– RIRёR№S€R»Rё R·R° S‡R°SЃS–RI RЅRµR·R°R»RµR¶RЅRѕSЃS‚S– S– SЏRyeS– RgR°SЋS‚SЊ RјRѕR¶R»RёRIS–SЃS‚SЊ RїS–R·RЅR°S‚Rё S–SЃS‚RѕSЂS–SЋ RЈRyeSЂR°S—RЅRё, R„RISЂRѕRїRё, RЅR°S€RёS… SЃSѓSЃS–RgS–RI, RѕRyeSЂRµRјRёS… R»SЋRgRµR№ S– SЏRIRёS‰. R† SЏRyeS– SЂRѕR±R»SЏS‚SЊ S†Rµ R· SЂS–R·RЅRёS… RїRµSЂSЃRїRµRyeS‚RёRI. RџRµRIRЅS–, S‰Rѕ S‡R°SЃ, RIRёS‚SЂR°S‡RµRЅRёR№ RЅR° S‡RёS‚R°RЅRЅSЏ RЅRµ R±SѓRgRµ RIS‚SЂR°S‡RµRЅRёRј.

RЈRyeSЂR°S—RЅS†S–. RќR°R№RЅRµS‰R°SЃR»RёRIS–S€R° RЅR°S†S–SЏ S‡RѕS‚RёSЂSЊRѕS… RyeRѕRЅS‚RёRЅRµRЅS‚S–RI

RЈRyeSЂR°S—RЅS†S– vЂ” RЅR°R№RЅRµS‰R°SЃR»RёRIS–S€R° RЅR°S†S–SЏ R„RISЂRѕRїRё, RѕR±RѕS… RђRјRµSЂRёRye S‚R° RђRISЃS‚SЂR°R»S–S—. RўR°RyeRёRј S” RїS–RgSЃSѓRјRѕRye RЅR°S€RѕRiRѕ SЂRѕR·RIRёS‚RyeSѓ RЅR°RїRµSЂRµRgRѕRgRЅS– 28-S— SЂS–S‡RЅRёS†S– RќRµR·R°R»RµR¶RЅRѕSЃS‚Rё. RЇRye SѓRyeSЂR°S—RЅS†S– R·RјS–RЅSЋRIR°R»RёSЃSЏ RїSЂRѕS‚SЏRiRѕRј SЂRѕRyeS–RI RќRµR·R°R»RµR¶RЅRѕSЃS‚S–? R§RѕRјSѓ RјRё RIRїSЂRёS‚SѓR» RЅRµ RїRѕRјS–S‡R°S”RјRѕ, S‰Rѕ RЅR°SЃRїSЂR°RIRgS– RЈRyeSЂR°S—RЅR° vЂ” RЅRµ RЈRiR°RЅRgR°!?

RЈRyeSЂR°S—RЅSЃSЊRyeRёR№ RїR°SЂR°Rg Sѓ SЃS‚RѕR»RёS†S– R RѕSЃS–S—

RњSЂS–SЏ? RќS– vЂ“ S†Rµ RIR¶Rµ R±SѓR»Rѕ. R† RЅRµ RѕRgRёRЅ SЂR°R·. RџRѕR±SѓS‚SѓS” RgSѓRјRyeR°, S‰Rѕ RI RЅR°S€S–R№ S–SЃS‚RѕSЂS–S— RјR°R»Rѕ SЃRIS–S‚R»RёS… SЃS‚RѕSЂS–RЅRѕRye S– RїRµSЂRµRјRѕRi. R“SЂR°RЅRgS–RѕR·RЅRёR№ SѓRyeSЂR°S—RЅSЃSЊRyeRёR№ RIS–R№SЃSЊRyeRѕRIRёR№ RїR°SЂR°Rg RI SЃS‚RѕR»RёS†S– R RѕSЃS–S—: SЏRye S†Rµ R±SѓR»Rѕ?

RћRјRµR»SЏRЅ RљRѕRIS‡ vЂ” SЃRISЏS‰RµRЅRёRye, RїR°S‚SЂS–RѕS‚ S‚R° RїSЂR°RIRµRgRЅRёRye

"RљRѕRIS‡, SЏRyeRёR№ RgRѕSЃRyeRѕRЅR°R»Rѕ R·RЅR°RI RЅS–RјRµS†SЊRyeSѓ RјRѕRISѓ, RyeSЂRёRyeRЅSѓRI RgRѕ RЅS–RјRµS†SЊRyeRёS… SЃRѕR»RgR°S‚S–RI, S‰RѕR± RgRѕRїSѓSЃS‚RёR»Rё R№RѕRiRѕ RgRѕ SЃRёRЅR°RiRѕRiRё. RћSЃS‚R°RЅRЅS– RѕRЅS–RјS–R»Rё RIS–Rg R·RgRёRISѓRIR°RЅRЅSЏ S– RїSѓSЃS‚RёR»Rё R№RѕRiRѕ, R° RѕS‚RµS†SЊ RyeRёRЅSѓRISЃSЏ RIRёRЅRѕSЃRёS‚Rё R»SЋRgRµR№ S–R· RїR°R»R°SЋS‡RѕS— SЃRёRЅR°RiRѕRiRё. RЎRµSЂRµRg S–RЅS€RёS…, SЏRyeRёS… RISЂSЏS‚SѓRIR°RI Rѕ. RљRѕRIS‡, R±SѓRI SЂR°R±RёRЅ Rј. R‘RµR»R· RђR°SЂRѕRЅ R RѕRyeRµR°S…".