RЎRїRµS†RїSЂRѕRµRyeS‚

"RњRѕR»RёS‚RIR° R·R° RIR»R°RgSѓ". RљRЅRёR¶RyeR° RїSЂRѕ S‚Rµ, SЏRye SѓRyeSЂR°S—RЅS†S– RѕRїS–RyeSѓRIR°R»RёSЃSЏ S”RISЂRµSЏRјRё

RЇRyeS‰Rѕ RgSѓR¶Rµ RyeRѕSЂRѕS‚RyeRѕ, S†SЏ RyeRЅRёR¶RyeR° vЂ“ RїSЂRѕ S‚Rµ, SЏRye SѓRyeSЂR°S—RЅS†S– RѕRїS–RyeSѓRIR°R»RёSЃSЏ S”RISЂRµSЏRјRё S– RIR±RёRIR°R»Rё S”RISЂRµS—RI. RџSЂRё S‡RѕRјSѓ RIS–RgRїRѕRIS–RgR°R»SЊRЅS–SЃS‚SЊ R·R° RIR±RёRISЃS‚RIR° R±SѓR»R° RїRѕRyeR»R°RgRµRЅR° SЃR°RјRµ RЅR° S‚RёS… SѓRyeSЂR°S—RЅS†S–RI, S…S‚Rѕ RѕRїS–RyeSѓRIR°RISЃSЏ S”RISЂRµR№SЃSЊRyeRѕSЋ SЃRїSЂR°RIRѕSЋ RI RЈRyeSЂR°S—RЅS–.

R©Rѕ S‡RёS‚R°S”RјRѕ? RљRЅRёRiR° R“RµRЅSЂS– RђR±SЂR°RјSЃRѕRЅR° "RњRѕR»RёS‚RIR° R·R° RIR»R°RgSѓ. RЈRyeSЂR°S—RЅS†S– S‚R° S”RISЂRµS— RI SЂRµRIRѕR»SЋS†S–R№RЅSѓ RgRѕR±Sѓ 1917-1920" - RљRёS—RI, "R”SѓS… S– R›S–S‚RµSЂR°", 2017.

 

RЎR°Rј R“RµRЅSЂS– RђR±SЂR°RјSЃRѕRЅ SЃS‚RIRµSЂRgR¶SѓS”, S‰Rѕ S†SЏ RyeRЅRёR¶RyeR° RgRѕSЃR»S–RgR¶SѓS” RЅR°RgR·RIRёS‡R°R№RЅSѓ RЅRµRIRgR°S‡Sѓ. R”RѕSЃRIS–Rg S‚RIRѕSЂRµRЅRЅSЏ S”RISЂRµR№SЃSЊRyeRѕS— RЅR°S†S–RѕRЅR°R»SЊRЅRѕS— R°RIS‚RѕRЅRѕRјS–S— R·R° S‡R°SЃS–RI RЈRќR  – R±SѓRI RgRѕSЃRIS–RgRѕRј "RїRµSЂS€RѕRiRѕ RїRѕRIRЅRѕRiRѕ R·R°RgRѕRIRѕR»RµRЅRЅSЏ S”RISЂRµR№SЃSЊRyeRёS… RЅR°S†S–RѕRЅR°R»SЊRЅRёS… RIRёRјRѕRi". RЈRyeSЂR°S—RЅSЃSЊRyeS– S”RISЂRµS— RI RЈRќR  "RѕS‚SЂRёRјR°R»Rё S‚R°RyeS– RїSЂRёRIS–R»RµS— RјRµRЅS€RёRЅRё, S‰Rѕ RЅR°RIS–S‚SЊ RїRµSЂRµRIR°R¶R°R»Rё RїRѕRgS–R±RЅS– RїSЂR°RIR° RјRµRЅS€RёRЅ Sѓ R—R°S…S–RgRЅS–R№ R„RISЂRѕRїS– S‚R° RђRјRµSЂRёS†S–".

"RњRµRgRѕRIRёR№ RјS–SЃSЏS†SЊ" RјS–R¶ SѓRyeSЂR°S—RЅS†SЏRјRё S– S”RISЂRµSЏRјRё RI RЈRќR  S‚SЂRёRIR°RI SЂS–Rye. RџRѕS‚S–Rј "S‰RѕSЃSЊ RїS–S€R»Rѕ RЅRµ S‚R°Rye". RЇRyeS‰Rѕ Sѓ 1917 SЂRѕS†S– S–SЃS‚RѕSЂRёRyeRё RЅR°SЂR°S…RѕRISѓSЋS‚SЊ 63 R°RЅS‚RёS”RISЂRµR№SЃSЊRyeS– RїRѕRiSЂRѕRјRё, Sѓ 1918 – 46, S‚Rѕ Sѓ 1919 SЂRѕS†S– S„S–RyeSЃSѓSЋS‚SЊ 1172 RїRѕRiSЂRѕRјRё.

RџSЂRѕSЃRyeSѓSЂS–RISЃSЊRyeRёR№ RїRѕRiSЂRѕRј

15 R»SЋS‚RѕRiRѕ 1919 SЂRѕRyeSѓ RїRѕS‡RёRЅR°S”S‚SЊSЃSЏ RѕRgRёRЅ S–R· RЅR°R№SЃS‚SЂR°S€RЅS–S€RёS… R°RЅS‚RёS”RISЂRµR№SЃSЊRyeRёS… RїRѕRiSЂRѕRјS–RI S‚RѕRiRѕ S‡R°SЃSѓ. R’RЅRѕS‡S– RјS–SЃS†RµRIS– R±S–R»SЊS€RѕRIRёRyeRё RїS–RgS–R№RјR°SЋS‚SЊ RїRѕRISЃS‚R°RЅRЅSЏ RїSЂRѕS‚Rё R”RёSЂRµRyeS‚RѕSЂS–S—. 22-SЂS–S‡RЅRёR№ RѕS‚R°RјR°RЅ R†RIR°RЅ RЎRµRјRµSЃRµRЅRyeRѕ R±SѓRyeRIR°R»SЊRЅRѕ R·R° RїR°SЂSѓ RiRѕRgRёRЅ RїSЂRёRgSѓS€RёRI SЃRїSЂRѕR±Sѓ RїRѕRISЃS‚R°RЅRЅSЏ.

R—RgR°RIR°R»RѕSЃSЏ, RџSЂRѕSЃRyeSѓSЂS–RI RјRѕR¶Rµ RјRёSЂRЅRѕ SЃRїR°S‚Rё RїS–SЃR»SЏ RyeS–R»SЊRyeRѕS… RiRѕRgRёRЅ RЅRµSЃRїRѕRyeRѕSЋ S– S€R°R»RµRЅRѕS— SЃS‚SЂS–R»SЏRЅRёRЅRё. RђR»Rµ S†Rµ R±SѓR»R° RyeRѕSЂRѕS‚RyeR° RїRµSЂRµRgRјRѕRIR° RgRѕ SЂS–R·R°RЅRёRЅRё.

RџSЂRѕSЃRyeSѓSЂS–RI. RЎS‚R°SЂR° RїRѕS€S‚S–RIRyeR°

R†RIR°RЅ RЎRµRјRµSЃRµRЅRyeRѕ SЂR°R·RѕRј S–R· SЃRIRѕS—Rј R·R°RiRѕRЅRѕRј RїSЂRёR±SѓRIR°S” RgRѕ RџSЂRѕSЃRyeSѓSЂRѕRIR° RЅR° SЃR°RјRѕRјSѓ RїRѕS‡R°S‚RyeSѓ RјS–SЃSЏS†SЏ. 6 R»SЋS‚RѕRiRѕ RЎRµRјRµSЃRµRЅRyeRѕ RIRёRgR°S” RЅR°RyeR°R·, SЏRyeRёR№ RѕR±S–S†SЏRI RјR°R»Rѕ RgRѕR±SЂRѕRiRѕ RјS–SЃS†RµRIRёRј RјRµS€RyeR°RЅS†SЏRј:

"RџSЂRѕRїRѕRЅSѓSЋ RЅR°SЃRµR»RµRЅRЅSЋ RїSЂRёRїRёRЅRёS‚Rё SЃRIRѕS— R°RЅR°SЂS…S–S‡RЅS– RIRёR±SѓS…Rё, R±Rѕ R· RIR°RјRё Sѓ RјRµRЅRµ RgRѕSЃRёS‚SЊ SЃRёR» R±RѕSЂRѕS‚RёSЃSЏ; S†Rµ R±S–R»SЊS€Rµ RISЃSЊRѕRiRѕ R·R°SѓRIR°R¶SѓSЋ R¶RёRgR°Rј".

RЇRye R·R°R·RЅR°S‡R°S” R“RµRЅSЂS– RђR±SЂR°RјSЃRѕRЅ, RЎRµRјRµSЃRµRЅRyeRѕ R±SѓRI RїSЂR°RIRёR№ RI S‚RѕRјSѓ, S‰Rѕ RI RјS–SЃS‚S– RgS–R№SЃRЅRѕ RIRµR»R°SЃSЏ RgS–SЏR»SЊRЅS–SЃS‚SЊ RїSЂRѕS‚Rё R”RёSЂRµRyeS‚RѕSЂS–S—. RђR»Rµ S‚R°RyeR° RgS–SЏR»SЊRЅS–SЃS‚SЊ R±SѓR»R° RјS–RЅS–RјR°R»SЊRЅRѕ RїRѕRI’SЏR·R°RЅR° S–R· S”RISЂRµR№SЃSЊRyeRѕSЋ RiSЂRѕRјR°RgRѕSЋ RџSЂRѕSЃRyeSѓSЂRѕRIR°.

RњS–SЃS†RµRIRёR№ R±S–R»SЊS€RѕRIRёS†SЊRyeRёR№ RѕSЃRµSЂRµRgRѕRye RѕR±SЂR°RI RџSЂRѕSЃRyeSѓSЂS–RI RјS–SЃS†RµRј RїRѕS‡R°S‚RyeSѓ RїRѕRISЃS‚R°RЅRЅSЏ, SЏRyeRµ RјR°R»Rѕ RѕS…RѕRїRёS‚Rё SѓSЃSЋ RџRѕRgS–R»SЊSЃSЊRyeSѓ RiSѓR±RµSЂRЅS–SЋ. R‘S–R»SЊS€RѕRIRёRyeRё R±SѓR»Rё RїRµSЂRµRyeRѕRЅR°RЅS–, S‰Rѕ RїRѕRISЃS‚R°RЅRЅSЏ RIRјRёS‚SЊ RїRѕS€RёSЂRёS‚SЊSЃSЏ RџRѕRgS–R»R»SЏRј.

R’RёRiR»SЏRgR°S” RЅR° S‚Rѕ, S‰Rѕ RЎRµRјRµSЃRµRЅRyeRѕ R·R°R·RgR°R»RµRiS–RgSЊ RgRѕRIS–RgR°RISЃSЏ RїSЂRѕ RїR»R°RЅRё R·R°RyeRѕR»RѕS‚RЅRёRyeS–RI.

RќR°SЃS‚R°S” 15 R»SЋS‚RѕRiRѕ. R’S–RgSЂR°R·Sѓ RїRѕ RѕRїS–RIRЅRѕS‡S– R±S–R»SЊS€RѕRIRёRyeR°Rј RIRgR°S”S‚SЊSЃSЏ R·R°RiS–S‚SѓRIR°S‚Rё RIRѕSЏRyeS–RI 15-RiRѕ R‘S–R»RiRѕSЂRѕRgSЃSЊRyeRѕRiRѕ S‚R° 8-RiRѕ RџRѕRgS–R»SЊSЃSЊRyeRѕRiRѕ RїRѕR»RyeS–RI, S‰Rѕ RyeRIR°SЂS‚RёSЂSѓRIR°R»Rё Sѓ RџSЂRѕSЃRyeSѓSЂRѕRIS–, SЂRѕR·RїRѕS‡R°S‚Rё RїRѕRISЃS‚R°RЅRЅSЏ S– RЅR°RїR°SЃS‚Rё RЅR° S–RЅS€S– RIS–R№SЃSЊRyeRѕRIS– R·’S”RgRЅR°RЅRЅSЏ, S‰Rѕ SЂRѕR·RјS–SЃS‚RёR»RёSЃSЏ Sѓ RµS€RµR»RѕRЅR°S… RїRѕR±R»RёR·Sѓ SЃS‚R°RЅS†S–S—.

R›RѕSЏR»SЊRЅS– RgRѕ R”RёSЂRµRyeS‚RѕSЂS–S— SЃRёR»Rё R·R° RyeS–R»SЊRyeR° RiRѕRgRёRЅ RIS‰RµRЅS‚ SЂRѕR·R±RёRIR°SЋS‚SЊ SЃRёR»Rё R·R°RyeRѕR»RѕS‚RЅRёRyeS–RI. RњS–SЃS†RµRIRёS… RјRµS€RyeR°RЅS†S–RI RIRЅRѕS‡S– SЂRѕR·R±SѓRgRёR»R° S€R°R»RµRЅR° SЃS‚SЂS–R»SЏRЅRёRЅR°. RђR»Rµ R±SѓSЂS…R»RёRIR° RЅS–S‡ RїSЂRёRЅRµSЃR»R° S‡SѓRgRѕRIRёR№ S– SЃRїRѕRyeS–R№RЅRёR№ SЂR°RЅRѕRye.

RњS–SЃS‚RѕRј RїSЂRѕR»RµS‚S–R»Rё S‡SѓS‚RyeRё, S‰Rѕ RIS–Rg RїRѕRiSЂRѕRјS–RI RџSЂRѕSЃRyeSѓSЂS–RI RISЂSЏS‚SѓRIR°R»Rѕ RgR°RIRЅS” R±R»R°RiRѕSЃR»RѕRIRµRЅRЅSЏ S…R°SЃRёRgSЃSЊRyeRѕRiRѕ SЂRµR±Rµ.

RЎRµRјRµSЃRµRЅRyeRѕ R·RIRёRЅSѓRIR°S‚RёRI Sѓ RїRѕS‡R°S‚RyeSѓ RїRѕRISЃS‚R°RЅRЅSЏ RјS–SЃS†RµRIRёS… S”RISЂRµS—RI. R’R»R°S€S‚SѓRIR°RI SЃRISЏS‚RyeSѓRIR°RЅRЅSЏ RїRµSЂRµRјRѕRiRё S– RI SЃSѓRїSЂRѕRIRѕRgS– RѕSЂRyeRµSЃS‚SЂSѓ RїR°SЂR°RgSѓRIR°RI RiRѕR»RѕRIRЅRѕSЋ RISѓR»RёS†RµSЋ RјS–SЃS‚R°. R S–RIRЅRѕ Rѕ RgSЂSѓRiS–R№ RgRЅSЏ SЃRѕR»RgR°S‚Rё SЂRѕR·S–R№S€R»RёSЃSЏ Sѓ RїRѕS€SѓRyeR°S… S”RISЂRµS—RI. RџRѕS‡R°RISЃSЏ RїRѕRiSЂRѕRј. 

 R–RµSЂS‚RIRё RџSЂRѕSЃRyeSѓSЂS–RISЃSЊRyeRѕRiRѕ RїRѕRiSЂRѕRјSѓ

R‘SѓRI S€R°R±R°S‚. R‘R°RiR°S‚Rѕ S…S‚Rѕ RIS–RgRїRѕS‡RёRIR°RI RIRgRѕRјR° RїS–SЃR»SЏ RѕR±S–RgSѓ. RЎRIS–RgS‡RµRЅRЅSЏ RїRµSЂRµRgR°SЋS‚SЊ RyeSЂRёRIR°RIS– RїRѕRgSЂRѕR±RёS†S– SЂS–R·R°RЅRёRЅRё:

"R’ R±SѓRgRёRЅRyeSѓ R‘R»RµS…RјR°RЅR° RIR±RёS‚Rѕ S€S–SЃS‚SЊRѕS… RѕSЃS–R±; RI RѕRgRЅS–S”S— R»SЋRgRёRЅRё RIS–Rg SѓRgR°SЂSѓ RiRѕR»RѕRIR° SЂRѕR·RyeRѕR»RѕR»R°SЃSЏ RЅR°RgRIRѕS”".

R”RµS…S‚Rѕ R· SѓRyeSЂR°S—RЅS†S–RI RЅR°RјR°RiR°RISЃSЏ R·SѓRїRёRЅRёS‚Rё SЂRѕR·RїSЂR°RISѓ.

R§RѕR»RѕRIS–Rye RЅR° RїSЂS–R·RIRёS‰Rµ RљRѕS‡RµSЂRѕRISЃSЊRyeRёR№ RIRёR±S–Ri RЅR° RISѓR»RёS†SЋ, RIS…RѕRїRёRI RgRёS‚RёRЅSѓ, SЏRyeR° S‚S–RyeR°R»R° RIS–Rg RїRѕRiSЂRѕRјRЅRёRyeS–RI S– RЅR°RјR°RiR°RISЃSЏ R·SѓRїRёRЅRёS‚Rё S—S… RyeSЂRёRyeRѕRј: "RGSЂRёSЃS‚RёSЏRЅRё, S‰Rѕ R¶ RIRё SЂRѕR±RёS‚Rµ?!" R™RѕRiRѕ SЂR°R·RѕRј S–R· RgRёS‚RёRЅRѕSЋ RIR±RёR»Rё RЅR° RјS–SЃS†S–.

RЎRµSЂRµRg RїRѕRiSЂRѕRјRЅRёRyeS–RI R±SѓRI S– RIS–RgSЃS‚SѓRїRЅRёRye – S”RISЂRµR№, S‰Rѕ R·RјS–RЅRёRI RїSЂS–R·RIRёS‰Rµ R R°S…RјR°RЅ RЅR° R R°S…RјRµRЅRµRЅRyeR°. RЎRIS–S‚ S‡R°SЃRѕRј RЅRµ S” S‡RѕSЂRЅRѕ-R±S–R»RёRј.

RџSЂRѕSЃRyeSѓSЂS–RISЃSЊRyeRёR№ RїRѕRiSЂRѕRј S‚SЂRёRIR°RI S‚SЂRё RiRѕRgRёRЅRё. RџSЂRѕ R·RIS–SЂSЃS‚RIR° RI RјS–SЃS‚S– R”RёSЂRµRyeS‚RѕSЂS–SЋ RїRѕRIS–RgRѕRјRёRI SѓRyeSЂR°S—RЅSЃSЊRyeRёR№ RyeRѕRјS–SЃR°SЂ RўR°SЂR°RЅRѕRIRёS‡.

R”RёSЂRµRyeS‚RѕSЂS–SЏ S€RIRёRgRyeRѕ RIS–RgSЂRµR°RiSѓRIR°R»R° S‚RµR»RµRiSЂR°RјRѕ S–R· RIRёRјRѕRiRѕSЋ RїSЂRёRїRёRЅRёS‚Rё R·RIS–SЂSЃS‚RIR°.

RћS‚R°RјR°RЅ R†RIR°RЅ RЎRµRјRµSЃRµRЅRyeRѕ RЅR° R»S–R¶RyeSѓ Sѓ RїSЂRѕSЃRyeSѓSЂS–RISЃSЊRyeS–R№ R»S–RyeR°SЂRЅS–

RЎRµRјRµSЃRµRЅRyeRѕ RЅR°RyeR°R·R°RI RїSЂRѕSЃSѓSЂRјRёS‚Rё SЃRёRiRЅR°R» RЅR° R·R±S–SЂ. RџRѕRiSЂRѕRј RїSЂRёRїRёRЅRёRISЃSЏ.

RџRёS€SѓS‚SЊ, S‰Rѕ RїSЂRѕSЃRyeSѓSЂS–RISЃSЊRyeRёR№ RїRѕRiSЂRѕRј R±SѓRI RЅRµS‚RёRїRѕRIRёRј: RgSѓR¶Rµ R¶RѕSЂSЃS‚RѕRyeRёRј, R· RIRµR»RёRyeRѕSЋ RyeS–R»SЊRyeS–SЃS‚SЋ RIR±RёRISЃS‚RI.

R›RёS€Rµ S‚SЂRё S–RЅS€S– S–R· R·R°RgRѕRyeSѓRјRµRЅS‚RѕRIR°RЅRёS… RїRѕRiSЂRѕRјS–RI R±SѓR»Rё RЅR°SЃS‚S–R»SЊRyeRё R¶ RyeSЂRёRIR°RIRёRјRё.

RЎRµRјRµSЃRµRЅRyeRѕ RЅS–R±RёS‚Rѕ RIRёRgR°RI RЅR°RyeR°R· SЃR°RјRµ RIR±RёRIR°S‚Rё S– RЅR°RїRѕR»SЏRiR°RI, S‰RѕR± SЃRѕR»RgR°S‚Rё SѓS‚SЂRёRјSѓRIR°R»RёSЃSЏ RIS–Rg RiSЂR°R±SѓRЅRyeSѓ.

R—R° S‚SЂRё RiRѕRgRёRЅRё RїRѕRiSЂRѕRјSѓ Sѓ RџSЂRѕSЃRyeSѓSЂRѕRIS– RIR±RёR»Rё RјR°R№R¶Rµ 1500 RѕSЃS–R± – 10% S”RISЂRµR№SЃSЊRyeRѕRiRѕ RЅR°SЃRµR»RµRЅRЅSЏ RјS–SЃS‚R°.

RњR°SЃS€S‚R°R± RЅR°SЃRёR»SЊSЃS‚RIR° Sѓ S†S– SЂRѕRyeRё S‚SЊRјSЏRЅS–S” S‚S–R»SЊRyeRё RЅR° S‚R»S– RїS–R·RЅS–S€RёS… RyeR°S‚R°SЃS‚SЂRѕS„ RGRG SЃS‚RѕR»S–S‚S‚SЏ: RїRѕRiSЂRѕRјRё 1919 SЂRѕRyeSѓ R·R°R±SЂR°R»Rё RјR°R№R¶Rµ 31 S‚RёSЃSЏS‡Sѓ R¶RёS‚S‚S–RI. R—R°RiR°R»SЊRЅSѓ RyeS–R»SЊRyeS–SЃS‚SЊ R¶RµSЂS‚RI R°RЅS‚RёS”RISЂRµR№SЃSЊRyeRёS… RїRѕRiSЂRѕRјS–RI RїSЂRѕS‚SЏRiRѕRј 1917-20 SЂRѕRyeS–RI RѕS†S–RЅSЋSЋS‚SЊ Sѓ 50-60 S‚RёSЃSЏS‡.

R©RѕSЃSЊ RїS–S€R»Rѕ RЅRµ S‚R°Rye

RЎRµRјRµSЃRµRЅRyeR° RїRѕS‚S–Rј SЂRѕR·SЃS‚SЂS–R»SЏSЋS‚SЊ RїS–Rg R§RѕSЂS‚RyeRѕRIRёRј. R”RѕSЃS‚RµRјRµRЅRЅRѕ RЅRµRIS–RgRѕRјRѕ R·R° SЏRyeRёS… RѕR±SЃS‚R°RIRёRЅ S– R·R° SЏRyeRёRјRё SЃR°RјRµ R·RIRёRЅSѓRIR°S‡RµRЅRЅSЏRјRё. R¦Rµ R±SѓRI R»RёS€Rµ RѕRgRёRЅ S–R· RµRїS–R·RѕRgS–RI Sѓ RїRѕS‚SѓR¶RЅS–R№ S…RIRёR»S– RЅR°SЃRёR»SЊSЃS‚RIR°, SЏRyeR° RїSЂRѕRЅRµSЃR»R°SЃSЏ S‚SЂSЊRѕRјR° RїSЂRёS„SЂRѕRЅS‚RѕRIRёRјRё RiSѓR±RµSЂRЅS–SЏRјRё: RџRѕRgS–R»SЊSЃSЊRyeRѕSЋ, R’RѕR»RёRЅSЃSЊRyeRѕSЋ S– RљRёS—RISЃSЊRyeRѕSЋ.

RџSЂRѕS‚Rµ S–SЃS‚RѕSЂS–SЏ RЈRyeSЂR°S—RЅSЃSЊRyeRѕS— SЂRµRIRѕR»SЋS†S–S— RїRѕS‡R°R»R°SЃSЏ S–R· SЃRїSЂRѕR±Rё RЅR°R»R°RiRѕRgRёS‚Rё SЃRїS–RIR¶RёS‚S‚SЏ RјS–R¶ S”RISЂRµSЏRјRё S– SѓRyeSЂR°S—RЅS†SЏRјRё. 

RљRЅRёRiR° R“RµRЅSЂS– RђR±SЂR°RјSЃRѕRЅR° "RњRѕR»RёS‚RIR° R·R° RIR»R°RgSѓ. RЈRyeSЂR°S—RЅS†S– S‚R° S”RISЂRµS— RI SЂRµRIRѕR»SЋS†S–R№RЅSѓ RgRѕR±Sѓ 1917-1920"  

RќR° SѓRyeSЂR°S—RЅSЃSЊRyeRёS… R·RµRјR»SЏS… R¶RёR»Rё 60% SѓSЃS–S… S”RISЂRµS—RI R RѕSЃS–R№SЃSЊRyeRѕS— S–RјRїRµSЂS–S—. R¦Rµ – 17% SѓSЃS–S… S”RISЂRµS—RI SЃRIS–S‚Sѓ.

R„RISЂRµR№SЃSЊRyeRµ RЅR°SЃRµR»RµRЅRЅSЏ RџR°R»RµSЃS‚RёRЅRё S‚RѕRgS– RѕS†S–RЅSЋRIR°R»Rё RїSЂRёR±R»RёR·RЅRѕ Sѓ 60 S‚RёSЃSЏS‡, RI RЈRyeSЂR°S—RЅS– RјRµS€RyeR°R»Rѕ RјR°R№R¶Rµ 2 RјS–R»SЊR№RѕRЅRё S”RISЂRµS—RI – Sѓ 30 SЂR°R·S–RI R±S–R»SЊS€Rµ.

RЎRїR°R»R°S…Rё RЅR°SЃRёR»SЊSЃS‚RIR° SЃS‚RѕSЃRѕRIRЅRѕ S”RISЂRµR№SЃSЊRyeRѕS— RјRµRЅS€RёRЅRё RIS–RgR±SѓRIR°R»RёSЃSЏ R·R° S‡R°SЃS–RI RGRјRµR»SЊRЅRёS‡S‡RёRЅRё Sѓ SЃRµSЂRµRgRёRЅS– XVII SЃS‚RѕR»S–S‚S‚SЏ.

RќR°SЃS‚SѓRїRЅRёR№ SЃRїR°R»R°S… RЅRµRЅR°RIRёSЃS‚S– RIRёR±SѓS…R°S” Sѓ 1768 SЂRѕS†S– RїS–Rg S‡R°SЃ RїRѕRISЃS‚R°RЅRЅSЏ R†RIR°RЅR° R“RѕRЅS‚Rё. Rђ RїRѕS‚S–Rј – RјR°R№R¶Rµ 120 SЂRѕRyeS–RI RIS–RgRЅRѕSЃRЅRѕRiRѕ SЃRїRѕRyeRѕSЋ.

RџS–SЃR»SЏ RIR±RёRISЃS‚RIR° Sѓ R±RµSЂRµR·RЅS– 1881 SЂRѕRyeSѓ RћR»RµRyeSЃR°RЅRgSЂR° R†R† R°RЅS‚RёS”RISЂRµR№SЃSЊRyeRµ RЅR°SЃRёR»R»SЏ SЃS‚R°S” S‚SЂRёRIRѕR¶RЅRёRј SЃRёRјRїS‚RѕRјRѕRј RЅR° SѓRyeSЂR°S—RЅSЃSЊRyeS–R№ RµS‚RЅRѕR»S–RЅRiRIS–SЃS‚RёS‡RЅS–R№ S‚RµSЂRёS‚RѕSЂS–S—.

RљS–R»SЊRyeS–SЃS‚SЊ S”RISЂRµS—RI, SѓR±RёS‚RёS… Sѓ RїRѕRiSЂRѕRјR°S…, Sѓ 1881-84 SЂRѕRyeR°S… RѕR±R»S–RyeRѕRISѓRIR°R»R°SЃSЏ RgRµSЃSЏS‚RyeR°RјRё, Sѓ 1903-06 SЂRѕRyeR°S… – S‚RёSЃSЏS‡R°RјRё, Sѓ 1919 – RgRµSЃSЏS‚RyeR°RјRё S‚RёSЃSЏS‡.

RџS–SЃR»SЏ SЂRµS„RѕSЂRј RћR»RµRyeSЃR°RЅRgSЂR° R†R† S‰RѕSЃSЊ R·RјS–RЅRёR»RѕSЃSЏ Sѓ SЃS‚RѕSЃSѓRЅRyeR°S… RјS–R¶ SѓRyeSЂR°S—RЅS†SЏRјRё S– S”RISЂRµSЏRјRё, S‰Rѕ RїSЂRёR·RIRµR»Rѕ RgRѕ RIRёR±SѓS…Sѓ RyeRѕRЅS„R»S–RyeS‚Sѓ.

R RµS„RѕSЂRјRё 1860-S… SЂRѕRyeS–RI Sѓ R RѕSЃS–R№SЃSЊRyeS–R№ R†RјRїRµSЂS–S— RїSЂRёRјSѓSЃRёR»Rё S€RIRёRgS€Rµ SЂSѓS…R°S‚RёSЃSЏ S‚RµRyeS‚RѕRЅS–S‡RЅS– RїR»RёS‚Rё SЃSѓSЃRїS–R»SЊSЃS‚RIR°. RЎRёSЃS‚RµRјR° SЂRѕR·R±R°R»R°RЅSЃSѓRIR°R»R°SЃSЏ S– R±SѓR»R° RїSЂRёSЂRµS‡RµRЅR° RЅR° RyeSЂRёR·Sѓ.

RњRµRЅS€RёRЅRё S‡R°SЃS‚Rѕ RIRёRyeRѕSЂRёSЃS‚RѕRISѓSЋS‚SЊ RЅRµR·R°R№RЅSЏS‚S– R±S–R»SЊS€S–SЃS‚SЋ RµRyeRѕRЅRѕRјS–S‡RЅS– RЅS–S€S–. RњRµRЅS€RёRЅRё RјSѓSЃSЏS‚SЊ R±SѓS‚Rё R±S–R»SЊS€ RјRѕR±S–R»SЊRЅRёRјRё S– R±S–R»SЊS€ R°RyeS‚RёRIRЅRёRјRё R·R° R±S–R»SЊS€S–SЃS‚SЊ. R† S†Rµ RgR»SЏ RЅRёS… RЅRµ R·R°RIR¶RgRё RgRѕR±SЂRµ R·R°RyeS–RЅS‡SѓS”S‚SЊSЃSЏ.

RќR° SЂSѓR±RµR¶S– RGR†RG S‚R° RGRG SЃS‚RѕR»S–S‚SЊ SѓRyeSЂR°S—RЅS†S– R»RёS€R°SЋS‚SЊSЃSЏ RїRµSЂRµRIR°R¶RЅRѕ SЃRµR»SЏRЅSЃSЊRyeRѕSЋ RЅR°S†S–S”SЋ. RњS–SЃS‚R° R·SЂRѕSЃS‚R°SЋS‚SЊ R·R°RIRgSЏRyeRё R°RyeS‚RёRIRЅRѕSЃS‚S– RјRµRЅS€RѕSЃS‚RµR№. R—R° 20 SЂRѕRyeS–RI RIS–Rg 1897 RgRѕ 1917 RЅR°SЃRµR»RµRЅRЅSЏ RљRёS”RIR° R·R±S–R»SЊS€RёR»RѕSЃSЏ Sѓ RgRIR° SЂR°R·Rё – R· 247 S‚RёSЃSЏS‡ RgRѕ RїS–RIRјS–R»SЊR№RѕRЅR° RјRµS€RyeR°RЅS†S–RI.

R—R° S†Rµ RgRIR°RgS†SЏS‚RёR»S–S‚S‚SЏ RyeS–R»SЊRyeS–SЃS‚SЊ RIRµR»RёRyeRѕSЂRѕSЃS–RI Sѓ RљRёS”RIS– RїRѕRgRIRѕS—R»R°SЃSЏ, S”RISЂRµS—RI – RїRѕS‚SЂRѕS—R»R°SЃSЏ. RљS–R»SЊRyeS–SЃS‚SЊ SѓRyeSЂR°S—RЅS†S–RI R·R±S–R»SЊS€RёR»R°SЃSЏ RЅR° 60%. RњS–SЃS‚R° RЈRyeSЂR°S—RЅRё S‡R°SЃS‚Rѕ RїRµSЂRµS‚RIRѕSЂSЋRIR°R»RёSЃSЏ RЅR° SЂRѕSЃS–R№SЃSЊRyeRѕ-RїRѕR»SЊSЃSЊRyeRѕ-S”RISЂRµR№SЃSЊRyeS– RѕSЃS‚SЂRѕRIRё RїRѕSЃRµSЂRµRg SѓRyeSЂR°S—RЅSЃSЊRyeRѕRiRѕ RјRѕSЂSЏ.

RЈ S‚RѕRјSѓ R¶ RљRёS”RIS– Sѓ 1917 SЂRѕS†S– SѓRyeSЂR°S—RЅS†S–RI R±SѓR»Rѕ R±R»RёR·SЊRyeR° 16%. R„RISЂRµS—RI Sѓ SЃS‚RѕR»RёS†S– RЈRќR  R±SѓR»Rѕ S‚SЂRѕS…Rё R±S–R»SЊS€Rµ – RјR°R№R¶Rµ 19%. RџRѕR»RѕRIRёRЅSѓ RyeRёS—RISЃSЊRyeRѕRiRѕ RЅR°SЃRµR»RµRЅRЅSЏ SЃRyeR»R°RgR°R»Rё SЂRѕSЃS–SЏRЅRё. RЎR°RјRµ S‚R°RyeRёR№ RЅR°S†S–RѕRЅR°R»SЊRЅRёR№ SЃRyeR»R°Rg RgRѕR·RIRѕR»SЏRI S‚RѕRgS–S€RЅS–Rј RgRѕS‚RµRїRЅRёRyeR°Rј RЅR°R·RёRIR°S‚Rё RЈRќR  – SЂRµSЃRїSѓR±R»S–RyeRѕSЋ R±RµR· SЃS‚RѕR»RёS†S–.

RЈRyeSЂR°S—RЅS†S– RI RљRёS”RIS– Sѓ 1897 SЂRѕS†S– – S†Rµ RїRµSЂRµRIR°R¶RЅRѕ SЂRѕR±S–S‚RЅRёRyeRё (42%), SЃR»SѓR¶R±RѕRIS†S– (23%) S‚R° RїSЂRёSЃR»SѓRiR° (15%).

R„RISЂRµS— Sѓ RљRёS”RIS– – S†Rµ RЅR°SЃR°RјRїRµSЂRµRg RїS–RgRїSЂRёS”RјS†S– (RјR°R№R¶Rµ 30%), SЃR»SѓR¶R±RѕRIS†S– (27%) S‚R° RїSЂRµRgSЃS‚R°RIRЅRёRyeRё "RIS–R»SЊRЅRёS… RїSЂRѕS„RµSЃS–R№" (12,6%).

RђR»Rµ S‚R°RyeR° SЃRёS‚SѓR°S†S–SЏ SЃS‚RѕSЃSѓRIR°R»R°SЃSЏ RљRёS”RIR°. R—R°RiR°R»SЊRЅR° SЃRёS‚SѓR°S†S–SЏ R·RЅR°S‡RЅRѕ SЂS–R·RЅRёR»R°SЃSЏ RIS–Rg RyeRёS—RISЃSЊRyeRѕS—.

73% SѓRyeSЂR°S—RЅS†S–RI Sѓ R RѕSЃS–R№SЃSЊRyeS–R№ S–RјRїRµSЂS–S— Sѓ 1897 SЂRѕS†S– R±SѓR»Rё R·R°R№RЅSЏS‚S– Sѓ SЃS–R»SЊSЃSЊRyeRѕRјSѓ RiRѕSЃRїRѕRgR°SЂSЃS‚RIS–, S‚SЂRѕS…Rё R±S–R»SЊS€Rµ 10% - RїRµSЂRµR±SѓRIR°R»Rё RЅR° RgRµSЂR¶R°RIRЅS–R№ SЃR»SѓR¶R±S–.      

RќR°S‚RѕRјS–SЃS‚SЊ S”RISЂRµS—RI RјR°R№R¶Rµ RЅRµ R±SѓR»Rѕ RI SЃS–R»SЊSЃSЊRyeRѕRјSѓ RiRѕSЃRїRѕRgR°SЂSЃS‚RIS– (RјRµRЅS€Rµ 3%), R±S–R»SЊS€S–SЃS‚SЊ RїSЂR°S†SЋRIR°R»R° Sѓ RїSЂRѕRјRёSЃR»RѕRIRѕSЃS‚S– (35,47%) S‚R° R·R°R№RјR°R»R°SЃSЏ S‚RѕSЂRiS–RIR»RµSЋ (RјR°R№R¶Rµ 30%), 16,55% S”RISЂRµR№SЃSЊRyeRѕRiRѕ RЅR°SЃRµR»RµRЅRЅSЏ – RїRµSЂRµR±SѓRIR°R»Rё RЅR° RgRµSЂR¶SЃR»SѓR¶R±S–.

97% SЃS–R»SЊSЃSЊRyeRѕRiRѕ RЅR°SЃRµR»RµRЅRЅSЏ RЈRyeSЂR°S—RЅRё R±SѓR»Rё SѓRyeSЂR°S—RЅS†SЏRјRё. RЈ RјS–SЃSЊRyeRѕRјSѓ RїSЂRѕSЃS‚RѕSЂS– RgRѕRјS–RЅSѓRIR°R»Rё R°R±Rѕ S”RISЂRµS—, R°R±Rѕ SЂRѕSЃS–SЏRЅRё. RЈ RgRµSЏRyeRёS… RјS–SЃS‚R°S… "RїRѕR»S–S†S–SЏ S– RISЃS– SѓSЂSЏRgRЅRёRyeRё R· SЂRѕR±S–S‚RЅRёRyeR°RјRё R±SѓR»Rё S”RISЂRµSЏRјRё".

RџSЂRё S‡RѕRјSѓ RїRѕR»RѕRIRёRЅR° RISЃS–S… S”RISЂRµS—RI R±SѓR»Rё RїRёSЃRµRјRЅRёRјRё, R° SЃRµSЂRµRg SѓRyeSЂR°S—RЅS†S–RI – R»RёS€Rµ 20%.

 R“RµRЅSЂS– RђR±SЂR°RјSЃRѕRЅ

R”RёRЅR°RјS–S‡RЅS– RµRyeRѕRЅRѕRјS–S‡RЅS– S– SЃSѓSЃRїS–R»SЊRЅS– R·RјS–RЅRё RїRѕS‡R°S‚RyeSѓ RGRG SЃS‚RѕR»S–S‚S‚SЏ RЅRµ RјRѕRiR»Rё RЅRµ SЃRїSЂRёS‡RёRЅRёS‚Rё RyeRѕRЅS„R»S–RyeS‚Sѓ. RўSѓS‚ R±SѓRI RЅR°RјS–S€R°RЅRёR№ RIRёR±SѓS…RѕRIRёR№ RyeRѕRyeS‚RµR№R»SЊ R· SЂS–R·RЅRёS… RїSЂRёS‡RёRЅ, S‚R°RyeRѕR¶ S– SЃRѕS†S–RѕRyeSѓR»SЊS‚SѓSЂRЅRёS….

R“RµRЅSЂS– RђR±SЂR°RјSЃRѕRЅ RїRёS€Rµ RїSЂRѕ R·R°RјRyeRЅRµRЅS–SЃS‚SЊ S– SЃR°RјRѕRgRѕSЃS‚R°S‚RЅS–SЃS‚SЊ S”RISЂRµR№SЃSЊRyeRѕS— RyeSѓR»SЊS‚SѓSЂRё RЅR° SѓRyeSЂR°S—RЅSЃSЊRyeRёS… S‚RµSЂRµRЅR°S…:

"R R°R·RѕRј S–R· S‚SЂRёRIR°R»RѕSЋ S‚R° SЃSѓRјRЅRѕSЋ S–SЃS‚RѕSЂS–S”SЋ RїRµSЂRµSЃR»S–RgSѓRIR°RЅRЅSЏ S†Rµ R·RјSѓS€SѓRIR°R»Rѕ S”RISЂRµS—RI SЃS‚R°RIRёS‚RёSЃSЏ RgRѕ RЅRµS”RISЂRµS—RI S–R· RїS–RgRѕR·SЂRѕSЋ, R° S‡R°SЃRѕRј S– R· RїSЂRµR·RёSЂSЃS‚RIRѕRј. (…)

RќR°RIRµRgSѓ R»RёS€Rµ RѕRgRёRЅ RїSЂRёRyeR»R°Rg: SЂR°RЅRyeRѕRIR° R»S–S‚SѓSЂRiS–SЏ RIRyeR»SЋS‡R°S” R±R»R°RiRѕSЃR»RѕRIRµRЅRЅSЏ R· RIRёSЃR»RѕRIR»RµRЅRЅSЏRј RIRgSЏS‡RЅRѕSЃS‚S– R·R° S‚Rµ, S‰Rѕ "RЅRµ RЅR°SЂRѕRgRёRISЃSЏ RЅRµ S”RISЂRµS”Rј".

R†SЃRЅSѓS” R±R°RiR°S‚Rѕ S‚R°R»RјSѓRgRёS‡RЅRёS… RїRѕSЏSЃRЅRµRЅSЊ, S‰Rѕ SЂRѕR±R»SЏS‚SЊ RјRѕR»RёS‚RISѓ RїSЂRёR№RЅSЏS‚RЅS–S€RѕSЋ RgR»SЏ SЃSѓS‡R°SЃRЅRѕRiRѕ SЃRїSЂRёR№RЅSЏS‚S‚SЏ, R°R»Rµ R№RјRѕRIS–SЂRЅRѕ, S‰Rѕ RїRµSЂRµSЃS–S‡RЅRёR№ S”RISЂRµR№ R· RЈRyeSЂR°S—RЅRё SЂRѕR·SѓRјS–RI S†S– SЃR»RѕRIR° RgRѕRIRѕR»S– R±RµR·RїRѕSЃRµSЂRµRgRЅSЊRѕ S– RїSЂSЏRјRѕR»S–RЅS–R№RЅRѕ".

RџRѕR¶RёRIRЅRµ SЃRµSЂRµRgRѕRIRёS‰Rµ S–R· RIR·R°S”RјRЅRѕS— RЅRµRgRѕRIS–SЂRё, SѓRїRµSЂRµRgR¶RµRЅSЊ, SЃSѓRїRµSЂRµS‡RЅRѕSЃS‚S– RµRyeRѕRЅRѕRјS–S‡RЅRёS… S–RЅS‚RµSЂRµSЃS–RI S– SЃRѕS†S–R°R»SЊRЅRёS… SЂRѕR»RµR№ RЅR° RїRѕS‡R°S‚RyeSѓ RGRG SЃS‚RѕR»S–S‚S‚SЏ R±SѓR»Rѕ RїSЂRёRїSЂR°RIR»RµRЅRµ S‡RѕSЂRЅRѕSЃRѕS‚RµRЅRЅRѕSЋ RїSЂRѕRїR°RiR°RЅRgRѕSЋ.

R’S–R№RЅR° R¶ R·R°RIR¶RgRё RїSЂRёR·RIRѕRgRёS‚SЊ RgRѕ RјRѕSЂR°R»SЊRЅRѕS— RgRµRiSЂR°RgR°S†S–S— SЃSѓSЃRїS–R»SЊSЃS‚RI.

RќRµ RIRёSЃS‚R°S‡R°R»Rѕ S–SЃRyeSЂRё.

"RњRµRgRѕRIRёR№ RјS–SЃSЏS†SЊ"

R RµRIRѕR»SЋS†S–SЏ RїSЂRёR·RIRµR»R° RgRѕ R·RјS–RЅRё SЂRѕR»RµR№. RЈRyeSЂR°S—RЅS†S– RїRѕS‡R°R»Rё RїSЂRёRјS–SЂSЏS‚Rё RЅR° SЃRµR±Rµ SЂRѕR»SЊ RiRѕSЃRїRѕRgR°SЂSЏ RЅR° SЃRIRѕS—R№ R·RµRјR»S–. R— RѕR±’S”RyeS‚R° S–RјRїRµSЂSЃSЊRyeRѕRiRѕ RyeRѕR»RѕRЅS–R°R»S–R·RјSѓ SѓRyeSЂR°S—RЅS†S– RїRµSЂRµS‚RIRѕSЂRёR»RёSЃSЏ RЅR° SЃSѓR±’S”RyeS‚. R’RµR»RёRyeRѕSЂRѕSЃRё S–R· R·RgRёRISѓRIR°RЅRЅSЏRј R·RЅR°R№S€R»Rё SЃRµR±Rµ RI RЅRѕRIS–R№ SЂRѕR»S– RЅR°S†S–RѕRЅR°R»SЊRЅRѕS— RјRµRЅS€RѕSЃS‚S–.

RЈRyeSЂR°S—RЅS†S– SЃS‚R°R»Rё RIR»R°RgRѕSЋ. R† RјSѓSЃRёR»Rё RIR·SЏS‚Rё RїS–Rg SЃRIRѕSЋ RѕRїS–RyeSѓ S– R·R°S…RёSЃS‚ S– SЂRѕSЃS–SЏRЅ, S– RїRѕR»SЏRyeS–RI, S– S”RISЂRµS—RI.

R›S–RgRµSЂRё RЈRyeSЂR°S—RЅSЃSЊRyeRѕS— SЂRµRIRѕR»SЋS†S–S— SЂRѕR·SѓRјS–R»Rё RIR°R¶R»RёRIS–SЃS‚SЊ RјS–R¶RЅR°S†S–RѕRЅR°R»SЊRЅRёS… RIR·R°S”RјRёRЅ Sѓ SЂRµSЃRїSѓR±R»S–S†S–. RЎRїRѕS‡R°S‚RyeSѓ R±SѓR»Rѕ SЃS‚RIRѕSЂRµRЅRѕ RIS–RgRїRѕRIS–RgRЅRµ R“RµRЅRµSЂR°R»SЊRЅRµ SЃRµRyeSЂRµS‚R°SЂSЃS‚RIRѕ, R° RїRѕS‚S–Rј – RѕRyeSЂRµRјS– RјS–RЅS–SЃS‚RµSЂSЃS‚RIR°.

RџRµSЂS€RёR№ SЃRyeR»R°Rg RїRµSЂS€RѕRiRѕ SѓSЂSЏRgSѓ RЈRќR 

 RЈ S†RµRЅS‚SЂS– RЅRёR¶RЅSЊRѕRiRѕ SЂSЏRgSѓ - R“RѕR»RѕRIR° RЎRµRyeSЂRµS‚R°SЂS–R°S‚Sѓ R’RѕR»RѕRgRёRјRёSЂ R’RёRЅRЅRёS‡RµRЅRyeRѕ, RїSЂR°RIRѕSЂSѓS‡ RIS–Rg RЅSЊRѕRiRѕ - RiRµRЅRµSЂR°R»SЊRЅRёR№ SЃRµSЂRµS‚R°SЂ RјS–R¶RЅR°S†S–RѕRЅR°R»SЊRЅRёS… SЃRїSЂR°RI RЎRµSЂRiS–R№ R„S„SЂRµRјRѕRI

 

R”RµSЏRyeS– SѓRyeSЂR°S—RЅSЃSЊRyeS– RїRѕR»S–S‚RёRyeRё RїSЂRёR№RЅSЏR»Rё S”RISЂRµR№SЃSЊRyeSѓ R°RIS‚RѕRЅRѕRјS–SЋ R·R° RїRѕR»S–S‚RёS‡RЅSѓ RїR»R°S‚S„RѕSЂRјSѓ S‰Rµ RgRѕ S‚RѕRiRѕ, SЏRye RЅR° RЅRµS— RїSЂRёSЃS‚R°R»Rё SЃR°RјS– S”RISЂRµR№SЃSЊRyeS– RїR°SЂS‚S–S—.

RЈRyeSЂR°S—RЅSЃSЊRyeR° RїRѕR»S–S‚RёS‡RЅR° RgSѓRјRyeR° RїRѕS‡R°S‚RyeSѓ RGRG SЃS‚RѕR»S–S‚S‚SЏ SЃS„RѕSЂRјSѓRIR°R»R°SЃSЏ RїS–Rg RIRїR»RёRIRѕRј RњRёS…R°R№R»R° R”SЂR°RiRѕRјR°RЅRѕRIR° S– RIRёSЂR°R·RЅRѕ SЂSѓS…R°R»R°SЃSЏ RgRѕ RiR°SЂRјRѕRЅS–R№RЅRѕS— SЃRїS–RIRїSЂR°S†S– R· RЅR°S†S–RѕRЅR°R»SЊRЅRёRјRё RјRµRЅS€RёRЅR°RјRё.

RњRёS…R°R№R»Rѕ R“SЂSѓS€RµRISЃSЊRyeRёR№, SЏRye S–SЃS‚RѕSЂRёRye RїSЂRёRgS–R»SЏRI R±R°RiR°S‚Rѕ SѓRIR°RiRё S‚RёSЃSЏS‡RѕR»S–S‚RЅS–R№ S”RISЂRµR№SЃSЊRyeS–R№ RїSЂRёSЃSѓS‚RЅRѕSЃS‚S– RI RЈRyeSЂR°S—RЅS–. RЇRye RiRѕR»RѕRIR° RЈRyeSЂR°S—RЅSЃSЊRyeRѕS— R¦RµRЅS‚SЂR°R»SЊRЅRѕS— R R°RgRё R“SЂSѓS€RµRISЃSЊRyeRёR№ RIS–RgSЃS‚RѕSЋRIR°RI S‚RѕR»RµSЂR°RЅS‚RЅRёR№ RїS–RgS…S–Rg RgRѕ RјRµRЅS€RёRЅ.

RџRѕR»S–S‚RёS‡RЅRµ RyeRµSЂS–RIRЅRёS†S‚RIRѕ RЈRyeSЂR°S—RЅSЃSЊRyeRѕS— SЂRµRIRѕR»SЋS†S–S— SѓSЃRIS–RgRѕRјR»SЋRIR°R»Rѕ RЅRµRѕR±S…S–RgRЅS–SЃS‚SЊ RїRѕSЂRѕR·SѓRјS–RЅRЅSЏ S–R· S”RISЂRµR№SЃSЊRyeRёRј RЅR°SЃRµR»RµRЅRЅSЏRј, R° SЂR°RgRёRyeR°R»SЊRЅS–S€S– RiRѕR»RѕSЃRё R·R°R»RёS€R°R»RёSЃSЊ R»RµRgSЊ S‡SѓS‚RЅRёRјRё. R•RЅS‚SѓR·S–R°R·Rј RїRµSЂS€RёS… RјS–SЃSЏS†S–RI SЂRµRIRѕR»SЋS†S–S— RїSЂRёRiR»SѓS€R°RI R±SѓRgSЊ-SЏRyeS– R°RЅS‚RёSЃRµRјS–S‚SЃSЊRyeS– RiRѕR»RѕSЃRё.

R“RµRЅSЂS– RђR±SЂR°RјSЃRѕRЅ RIRёSЂS–R·RЅSЏS” S‚SЂRё RiRѕR»RѕRIRЅS– RїSЂRёS‡RёRЅRё SѓRyeSЂR°S—RЅSЃSЊRyeRѕS— RїS–RgS‚SЂRёRјRyeRё S”RISЂRµR№SЃSЊRyeRѕS— R°RIS‚RѕRЅRѕRјS–S—.

RџRѕ-RїRµSЂS€Rµ, SѓS‚RѕRїS–S‡RЅS– SѓSЏRIR»RµRЅRЅSЏ SЃRѕS†S–R°R»S–SЃS‚S–RI RїSЂRѕ RgRµRјRѕRyeSЂR°S‚RёS‡RЅRёR№ SЂR°R№, Sѓ SЏRyeRѕRјSѓ SЂRѕR±S–S‚RЅRёS‡S– RyeR»R°SЃRё RISЃS–S… RЅR°S†S–R№ RїSЂR°S†SЋRIR°R»Rё R± Sѓ RiR°SЂRјRѕRЅS–S— RЅR°Rg RїRѕR±SѓRgRѕRIRѕSЋ RgRµRјRѕRyeSЂR°S‚RёS‡RЅRѕRiRѕ SЃRѕS†S–R°R»S–SЃS‚RёS‡RЅRѕRiRѕ RјR°R№R±SѓS‚RЅSЊRѕRiRѕ.

RџRѕ-RgSЂSѓRiRµ, RїRµSЂRµRIR°R¶RЅRѕ SЃRµR»SЏRЅSЃSЊRyeRёRј SѓRyeSЂR°S—RЅS†SЏRј R±SЂR°RyeSѓRIR°R»Rѕ RIR»R°SЃRЅRѕS— R±SѓSЂR¶SѓR°R·S–S—.

 R’RѕR»RѕRgRёRјRёSЂ R’RёRЅRЅRёS‡RµRЅRyeRѕ

R“RµRЅSЂS– RђR±SЂR°RјSЃRѕRЅ S†RёS‚SѓS” R’RѕR»RѕRgRёRјRёSЂR° R’RёRЅRЅRёS‡RµRЅRyeR°, RїRµSЂS€RѕRiRѕ RiRѕR»RѕRISѓ RїRµSЂS€RѕRiRѕ SѓSЂSЏRgSѓ RЈRќR :

"…S‚SЂRµR±R° S‚RёSЃSЏS‡S– RgRѕSЃRIS–RgS‡RµRЅRёS…, RѕSЃRIS–S‡RµRЅRёS… S– RЅR°S†S–RѕRЅR°R»SЊRЅRѕ-SЃRIS–RgRѕRјRёS… R»SЋRgRµR№, S‰RѕR± RЅRёRјRё R·R°SЃR°RgRёS‚Rё RISЃS– SѓSЂSЏRgRѕRIS– RїRѕSЃR°RgRё, RISЃS– S–RЅSЃS‚RёS‚SѓS†S–S—, RїRѕS‡RёRЅR°SЋS‡Rё R· RјS–RЅS–SЃS‚RµSЂSЃS‚RI S– RyeS–RЅS‡R°SЋS‡Rё RїRёSЃR°SЂS‡SѓRyeR°RјRё RI RyeR°RЅS†RµR»SЏSЂS–SЏS….

R”Rµ R¶ RIRѕRЅRё S‚S– R»SЋRgRё, RgRµ RIRѕRЅRё RјRѕRiR»Rё RIR·SЏS‚RёSЃSЏ, RyeRѕR»Rё RјRё RЅRµ RјR°R»Rё SЃRIRѕS”S— S€RyeRѕR»Rё, RyeRѕR»Rё RЅRµ RјR°R»Rё RЅS–SЏRyeRѕS— RјRѕR¶R»RёRIRѕSЃS‚S– RјR°S‚Rё SЃRIRѕSЋ RјR°SЃRѕRISѓ S–RЅS‚RµR»S–RiRµRЅS†S–SЋ, R· SЏRyeRѕS— RјRѕR¶RЅR° R±SѓR»Rѕ R± RIRёR±SЂR°S‚Rё S‚RёS… S– RgRѕSЃRIS–RgS‡RµRЅRёS…, RѕSЃRIS–S‡RµRЅRёS… S– RЅR°S†S–RѕRЅR°R»SЊRЅRѕ-SЃRIS–RgRѕRјRёS… R»SЋRgRµR№.

RќSѓ, S…R°R№ R±Rё S‰Rµ RЅR° RјS–RЅS–SЃS‚SЂS–RI RIRёSЃS‚R°S‡RёR»Rѕ, - R° RgR°R»S–?"

R”RёSЃR±R°R»R°RЅSЃRё Sѓ RѕSЃRIS–S‚S– S– SЃS„RµSЂS– RµRyeRѕRЅRѕRјS–S‡RЅRѕS— R·R°R№RЅSЏS‚RѕSЃS‚S– RIR·R°S”RјRЅRѕ RgRѕRїRѕRIRЅSЋRIR°R»Rё SѓRyeSЂR°S—RЅS†S–RI S– S”RISЂRµS—RI, S– RїS–RgS€S‚RѕRIS…SѓRIR°R»Rё RgRѕ SЃRїS–RIRїSЂR°S†S–.

RЈRyeSЂR°S—RЅS†S– S‚R°RyeRѕR¶ SЂRѕR·SѓRјS–R»Rё, S‰Rѕ R±S–R»SЊS€S–SЃS‚SЊ RїRѕR»SЏRyeS–RI S– RIRµR»RёRyeRѕSЂRѕSЃS–RI SЃRIRѕS— RїRѕRiR»SЏRgRё SЃRїSЂSЏRјRѕRISѓRIR°R»Rё RЅR° R·R°S…S–Rg, S‡Rё RїS–RIRЅS–S‡, RgRѕ SЃRIRѕS—S… RјRµS‚SЂRѕRїRѕR»S–R№. R’ SЃRIRѕS—S… RgRµSЂR¶R°RIRЅRёS†SЊRyeRёS… R°SЃRїS–SЂR°S†S–SЏS… RїRѕR»SЏRyeRё S‚R° SЂRѕSЃS–SЏRЅRё RЅRµ R±SѓR»Rё S‚R°RyeRёRјRё RїSЂRёS…RёR»SЊRЅRёRјRё RgRѕ S–RgRµS— SѓRyeSЂR°S—RЅSЃSЊRyeRѕS— SЂRµSЃRїSѓR±R»S–RyeRё, SЏRye S”RISЂRµS—.

R„RISЂRµS— R¶ R»RёS€R°R»RёSЃSЏ RјRµRЅS€RёRЅRѕSЋ, RgRµ R± RIRѕRЅRё RЅRµ R¶RёR»Rё. Rђ S‚RѕRјSѓ R±R°R¶R°R»Rё RISЃS‚R°RЅRѕRIRёS‚Rё RgRѕR±SЂS– RIS–RgRЅRѕSЃRёRЅRё S–R· SѓRyeSЂR°S—RЅSЃSЊRyeRѕSЋ RIR»R°RgRѕSЋ.

RќR°SЂRµS€S‚S–, S”RISЂRµR№SЃSЊRyeR° RЅR°S†S–RѕRЅR°R»SЊRЅR° R°RIS‚RѕRЅRѕRјS–SЏ SЃRїSЂRѕS‰SѓRIR°R»R° R¦RµRЅS‚SЂR°R»SЊRЅS–R№ R R°RgS– RIR·R°S”RјRёRЅRё S–R· RўRёRјS‡R°SЃRѕRIRёRј SѓSЂSЏRgRѕRј RI RџRµS‚RµSЂR±SѓSЂR·S–. RўR°RyeS– RgS–S— RЈR¦R  "RIR±RёRIR°R»Rё RgRIRѕS… R·R°R№S†S–RI": R·RЅRµS€RyeRѕRgR¶SѓRIR°R»Rё R·R°RЅRµRїRѕRyeRѕS”RЅRЅSЏ RџRµS‚RµSЂR±SѓSЂRiR° RgRѕR»RµSЋ RјRµRЅS€RѕSЃS‚RµR№ S‚R° RїRµSЂRµS‚SЏRiSѓRIR°R»R° RїSЂRёS…RёR»SЊRЅS–SЃS‚SЊ RјRµRЅS€RѕSЃS‚RµR№ RЅR° SѓRyeSЂR°S—RЅSЃSЊRyeRёR№ R±S–Rye.

R†SЃS‚RѕSЂS–SЏ SЃS‚RIRѕSЂRµRЅRЅSЏ S”RISЂRµR№SЃSЊRyeRѕS— RЅR°S†S–RѕRЅR°R»SЊRЅRѕS— R°RIS‚RѕRЅRѕRјS–S— RI RЈRќR  R·R°SЃR»SѓRiRѕRISѓS” RЅR° RѕRyeSЂRµRјRёR№ SЂRѕR·S€RёSЂRµRЅRёR№ RјR°S‚RµSЂS–R°R», RЅS–R¶ RyeS–R»SЊRyeR° R°R±R·R°S†S–RI Sѓ RyeRЅRёR¶RyeRѕRIRѕRјSѓ RѕRiR»SЏRgS–.

RўRѕRјSѓ S‚SѓS‚ – R»RёS€Rµ RјRѕR·R°S—RyeR° S†S–RyeR°RIRёS… S„R°RyeS‚S–RI, SЏRyeS– R·RiR°RgSѓS” R“RµRЅSЂS– RђR±SЂR°RјSЃRѕRЅ Sѓ SЃRIRѕS—R№ RyeRЅRёR¶S†S–.

R S–R·RЅS– S”RISЂRµR№SЃSЊRyeS– RїRѕR»S–S‚RёS‡RЅS– RїR°SЂS‚S–S— RјR°R»Rё SЂS–R·RЅRµ R±R°S‡RµRЅRЅSЏ SЃRIRѕS”S— SѓS‡R°SЃS‚S– RI SѓRyeSЂR°S—RЅSЃSЊRyeRѕRјSѓ RїRѕR»S–S‚RёS‡RЅRѕRјSѓ R¶RёS‚S‚S–. RЎS–RѕRЅS–SЃS‚Rё RїRѕR±RѕSЋRIR°R»RёSЃSЏ, S‰Rѕ R·R°R°RЅRiR°R¶RѕRIR°RЅS–SЃS‚SЊ RgRѕ SѓRyeSЂR°S—RЅSЃSЊRyeRѕRiRѕ RїSЂRѕRµRyeS‚Sѓ RIS–RgRIRѕR»S–RyeR°S‚RёRјRµ SЃRёR»Rё S– SѓRIR°RiSѓ RIS–Rg SЃS‚RIRѕSЂRµRЅRЅSЏ RIR»R°SЃRЅRѕRiRѕ RїSЂRѕRµRyeS‚Sѓ Sѓ RџR°R»RµSЃS‚RёRЅS–. R„RISЂRµR№SЃSЊRyeS– R°RЅS‚RёRyeR»RµSЂS–RyeR°R»Rё R· R‘SѓRЅRgSѓ RїRѕSЃS‚S–R№RЅRѕ SЃRїRµSЂRµS‡R°R»RёSЃSЏ S–R· SЃS–RѕRЅS–SЃS‚R°RјRё. R„RISЂRµR№SЃSЊRyeS– SЃRѕS†S–R°R»S–SЃS‚Rё RЅRµ R·R°RIR¶RgRё RїRѕRiRѕRgR¶SѓRIR°R»RёSЃSЏ RїSЂR°S†SЋRIR°S‚Rё S–R· S”RISЂRµR№SЃSЊRyeRёRјRё RЅRµ-SЃRѕS†S–R°R»S–SЃS‚R°RјRё.

R’R»S–S‚RyeSѓ 1917 SЂRѕRyeSѓ Sѓ RњR°R»S–R№ R R°RgS– – RїRѕSЃS‚S–R№RЅRѕ RgS–SЋS‡RѕRјSѓ RїSЂRѕS‚RѕRїR°SЂR»R°RјRµRЅS‚S– – S”RISЂRµR№SЃSЊRyeS– RїR°SЂS‚S–S— RјR°R»Rё S‡RIRµSЂS‚SЊ RјS–SЃS†SЊ: 50 R· 199. R’RѕRЅRё R±SѓR»Rё RїRѕRgS–R»RµRЅS– RјS–R¶ 5 S”RISЂRµR№SЃSЊRyeRёRјRё RїR°SЂS‚S–SЏRјRё: SЃS–RѕRЅS–SЃS‚R°RјRё, R‘SѓRЅRgRѕRј, R¤R°SЂRµR№RЅS–RyeS‚Rµ, RџRѕR°R»RµR№-R¦S–RѕRЅ S‚R° R¤RѕR»RyeSЃRїR°SЂS‚RµR№.

RЈ RљRёS—RISЃSЊRyeS–R№ RјS–SЃSЊRyeS–R№ RgSѓRјS– RIR»S–S‚RyeSѓ 1917 SЂRѕRyeSѓ SѓRyeSЂR°S—RЅSЃSЊRyeS– RїR°SЂS‚S–S— R±SѓR»Rё RїSЂRµRgSЃS‚R°RIR»RµRЅS– RЈRyeSЂR°S—RЅSЃSЊRyeRёRј SЃRѕS†S–R°R»S–SЃS‚RёS‡RЅRёRј R±R»RѕRyeRѕRј, SЏRyeRёR№ RѕS‚SЂRёRјR°RI R»RёS€Rµ 20% RјS–SЃS†SЊ RјS–SЃSЊRyeRѕS— RgSѓRјRё. R‘R»RѕRye SЂRѕSЃS–R№SЃSЊRyeRёS… S– S”RISЂRµR№SЃSЊRyeRёS… SЃRѕS†S–R°R»S–SЃS‚S–RI R·S–R±SЂR°RI R±S–R»SЊS€Rµ S‚SЂRµS‚RёRЅRё – 35% RјS–SЃS†SЊ, R° S–S‰Rµ 10% RјS–SЃS†SЊ RјR°R»R° SЂRµS€S‚R° S”RISЂRµR№SЃSЊRyeRёS… RїR°SЂS‚S–R№.

 RўSЂRµS‚S–R№ RЈRЅS–RIRµSЂSЃR°R» R¦RµRЅS‚SЂR°R»SЊRЅRѕS— R R°RgRё RјRѕRIRѕSЋ S—RgRёS€ (S„SЂR°RiRјRµRЅS‚)

RўSЂRµS‚S–R№ RЈRЅS–RIRµSЂSЃR°R» R¦RµRЅS‚SЂR°R»SЊRЅRѕS— R R°RgRё, S‰Rѕ RїSЂRѕRiRѕR»RѕS€SѓRIR°RI SѓRyeSЂR°S—RЅSЃSЊRyeSѓ SЂRµSЃRїSѓR±R»S–RyeSѓ, R±SѓRI RЅR°RgSЂSѓRyeRѕRIR°RЅRёR№ 4 RјRѕRIR°RјRё: SѓRyeSЂR°S—RЅSЃSЊRyeRѕSЋ, SЂRѕSЃS–R№SЃSЊRyeRѕSЋ, RїRѕR»SЊSЃSЊRyeRѕSЋ S‚R° S—RgRёS€.

RЈ RiSЂSѓRgRЅS– 1917 SЂRѕRyeSѓ RI RѕR±S–Ri R±SѓR»Rё RIRёRїSѓS‰RµRЅS– SѓRyeSЂR°S—RЅSЃSЊRyeS– RyeR°SЂR±RѕRIR°RЅS†S–. RќRѕRјS–RЅR°R» RЅR° SЂRµRIRµSЂSЃS– R±SѓRI RїRѕR·RЅR°S‡RµRЅRёR№ SЂRѕSЃS–R№SЃSЊRyeRѕSЋ, RїRѕR»SЊSЃSЊRyeRѕSЋ S‚R° RЅR° S—RgRёS€.

RџRµSЂS€R° SѓRyeSЂR°S—RЅSЃSЊRyeR° RїR°RїRµSЂRѕRIR° R±R°RЅRyeRЅRѕS‚R° RЅRѕRјS–RЅR°R»RѕRј 100 RyeR°SЂR±RѕRIR°RЅS†S–RI. RђRIS‚RѕSЂ R“. RќR°SЂR±SѓS‚. RџRµSЂRµR±SѓRIR°R»R° RI RѕR±S–RiSѓ R· 23 RiSЂSѓRgRЅSЏ (R·R° SЃS‚. SЃS‚.) 1917 SЂ. RgRѕ 1 R»RёSЃS‚RѕRїR°RgR° 1918 SЂ. R”R¶RµSЂRµR»Rѕ

R”RћRљR›RђR”RќR†RЁR•: 

R“SЂRѕS€S– SЂRµRIRѕR»SЋS†S–S—. RGS‚Rѕ, RyeRѕR»Rё S– SЏRye RЅR°RgSЂSѓRyeSѓRIR°RI RїRµSЂS€S– RiSЂRѕS€S– SЂRµSЃRїSѓR±R»S–RyeRё

 

RЈR¦R  RїS–RgRiRѕS‚SѓRIR°R»R° RїSЂRѕRµRyeS‚ R—R°RyeRѕRЅSѓ RїSЂRѕ RЅR°S†S–RѕRЅR°R»SЊRЅRѕ-RїRµSЂSЃRѕRЅR°R»SЊRЅSѓ R°RIS‚RѕRЅRѕRјS–SЋ, SЏRyeR° RiR°SЂR°RЅS‚SѓRIR°R»R° RїSЂR°RIR° RЅR°S†S–RѕRЅR°R»SЊRЅRёS… RјRµRЅS€RёRЅ. RџRµSЂRµRgR±R°S‡R°R»R°SЃSЏ RїRѕSЏRIR° RѕRyeSЂRµRјRѕRiRѕ RјS–RЅS–SЃS‚SЂR° R· S”RISЂRµR№SЃSЊRyeRёS… SЃRїSЂR°RI. RќRёRј SЃS‚R°RI RњRѕS€Rµ R—S–R»SЊR±RµSЂS„R°SЂR±.

RЈ SЃS–S‡RЅS– 1918 SЂRѕRyeSѓ S”RISЂRµR№SЃSЊRyeS– RїR°SЂS‚S–S— RIS–RgRјRѕRIRёR»RёSЃSЏ RiRѕR»RѕSЃSѓRIR°S‚Rё R·R° R§RµS‚RIRµSЂS‚RёR№ RЈRЅS–RIRµSЂSЃR°R», S‰Rѕ RїSЂRѕRiRѕR»RѕS€SѓRIR°RI RЅRµR·R°R»RµR¶RЅS–SЃS‚SЊ RЈRќR . R‘SѓRЅRgS–RIS†S– RїSЂRѕRiRѕR»RѕSЃSѓRIR°R»Rё RїSЂRѕS‚Rё, RџRѕR°R»RµR№-R¦S–RѕRЅ S– R¤RѕR»RyeSЃRїR°SЂS‚RµR№ SѓS‚SЂRёRјR°R»RёSЃSЏ. RЎS–RѕRЅS–SЃS‚Rё RЅRµ R·’SЏRIRёR»RёSЃSЏ RЅR° RiRѕR»RѕSЃSѓRIR°RЅRЅSЏ. R§R°S€R° SѓRyeSЂR°S—RЅRѕ-S”RISЂRµR№SЃSЊRyeRѕRiRѕ RїRѕSЂRѕR·SѓRјS–RЅRЅSЏ S‚SЂS–SЃRЅSѓR»R°.

"RљRѕR»Rё R¶ S”RISЂRµR№SЃSЊRyeS– RїRѕR»S–S‚RёRyeRё RIS–RgRјRѕRIRёR»RёSЃSЏ RiRѕR»RѕSЃSѓRIR°S‚Rё R·R° R§RµS‚RIRµSЂS‚RёR№ RЈRЅS–RIRµSЂSЃR°R», S‰Rѕ RїSЂRѕRiRѕR»RѕSЃRёRI RЈRyeSЂR°S—RЅSѓ RЅRµR·R°R»RµR¶RЅRѕSЋ RgRµSЂR¶R°RIRѕSЋ, RyeRѕSЂRѕS‚RyeRёR№ RјRµRgRѕRIRёR№ RјS–SЃSЏS†SЊ RјS–R¶ RgRIRѕRјR° RЅR°S†S–SЏRјRё SЃRyeS–RЅS‡RёRISЃSЏ," - RїRёS€Rµ R“RµRЅSЂS– RђR±SЂR°RјSЃRѕRЅ.

RЈ RїRѕR»RѕRЅS– RIR·R°S”RјRЅRёS… SѓRїRµSЂRµRgR¶RµRЅSЊ S– RyeRѕR»RµRyeS‚RёRIRЅRёS… RIS–RgRїRѕRIS–RgR°R»SЊRЅRѕSЃS‚RµR№

RЈRyeSЂR°S—RЅSЃSЊRyeR° RIR»R°RgR° R·R°R»RёS€RёR»R° RљRёS—RI 7 R»SЋS‚RѕRiRѕ 1918 SЂRѕRyeSѓ. RќR°SЃS‚SѓRї R±S–R»SЊS€RѕRIRёRyeS–RI R·R°RyeS–RЅS‡RёRISЃSЏ RјR°SЃRѕRIRѕSЋ SЂS–R·R°RЅRёRЅRѕSЋ RЅR° RISѓR»RёS†SЏS… RљRёS”RIR°. R‘S–R»SЊS€RѕRIRёS†SЊRyeRёR№ S‚RµSЂRѕSЂ R·R°R±SЂR°RI R¶RёS‚S‚SЏ RIS–Rg 2 RgRѕ 3 S‚RёSЃSЏS‡ RyeRёSЏRЅ. R† SЃRїSЂRёS‡RёRЅRёRI RїRµSЂS€Sѓ RIRµR»RёRyeSѓ S…RIRёR»SЋ R°RЅS‚RёSЃRµRјS–S‚RёR·RјSѓ Sѓ RљRёS”RIS–.

RћRgRЅRёRј S–R· RїRµSЂS€RёS… SЂS–S€RµRЅSЊ RЎRёRјRѕRЅR° RџRµS‚R»SЋSЂRё RїS–SЃR»SЏ RїRѕRIRµSЂRЅRµRЅRЅSЏ SѓRyeSЂR°S—RЅSЃSЊRyeRѕS— RIR»R°RgRё RgRѕ RљRёS”RIR° RI R±RµSЂRµR·RЅS– 1918 SЂRѕRyeSѓ SЃS‚R°R»R° SЃRїSЂRѕR±R° SѓR±RµSЂRµRiS‚Rё S”RISЂRµR№SЃSЊRyeS– RyeRIR°SЂS‚R°R»Rё RIS–Rg RїRѕRiSЂRѕRјS–RI. RџRµS‚R»SЋSЂR° RЅR°RyeR°R·R°RI RIRёSЃS‚R°RIRёS‚Rё RїR°S‚SЂSѓR»S– RЅR°RIRyeRѕR»Rѕ RџRѕRgRѕR»Sѓ, RgRµ RјRµS€RyeR°R»Rѕ R±R°RiR°S‚Rѕ S”RISЂRµS—RI. RђR»Rµ S†Rµ RЅRµ RїRµSЂRµS€RyeRѕRgRёR»Rѕ SЃRїRѕRЅS‚R°RЅRЅRёRј RIRёR±SѓS…R°Rј RЅR°SЃRёR»SЊSЃS‚RIR° Sѓ RљRёS”RIS–.

R¦Rµ – RѕRgRёRЅ S–R· RїRµSЂS€RёS… RIRёRїR°RgRyeS–RI RµRyeSЃRїR»SѓR°S‚R°S†S–S— SЃS‚RµSЂRµRѕS‚RёRїSѓ "R¶RёRgRѕRyeRѕRјSѓRЅRё", SЏRyeRёR№ RїRѕS‚S–Rј R±SѓRgRµ RIRёRyeRѕSЂRёSЃS‚R°RЅRёR№ R±R°RiR°S‚Rѕ SЂR°R·S–RI RgR»SЏ RIRёRїSЂR°RIRgR°RЅRЅSЏ R°RЅS‚RёS”RISЂRµR№SЃSЊRyeRёS… RїRѕRiSЂRѕRјS–RI S– RIR±RёRISЃS‚RI RЅRµRIRёRЅRЅRёS… R»SЋRgRµR№."R„RISЂRµS—RI S–R· RyeSЂRёRyeR°RјRё "R–RёRgS–RISЃSЊRyeS– RyeRѕRјS–SЃR°SЂRё!" R±RёR»Rё SЃRµSЂRµRg R±S–R»RѕRiRѕ RgRЅSЏ. RћRgRЅRµ R· RIS–R№SЃSЊRyeRѕRIRёS… S„RѕSЂRјSѓRIR°RЅSЊ, RљSѓSЂS–RЅSЊ SЃRјRµSЂS‚S–, RѕR±R»R°S€S‚SѓRIR°R»Rѕ SЃRIS–R№ S€S‚R°R± Sѓ RњRёS…R°R№R»S–RISЃSЊRyeRѕRјSѓ RјRѕRЅR°SЃS‚RёSЂS–, RїRµSЂRµS‚RIRѕSЂRёRIS€Rё R№RѕRiRѕ RЅR° RѕSЃRЅRѕRIRЅRµ RјS–SЃS†Rµ RyeR°S‚SѓRIR°RЅSЊ S‚R° RIR±RёRISЃS‚RI S”RISЂRµS—RI; RїS–R·RЅS–S€Rµ R”RЅS–RїSЂRѕRј RїR»RёRIR»Rѕ R±R°RiR°S‚Rѕ S‚S–R»," - RїRёS€Rµ RїSЂRѕS„RµSЃRѕSЂ RђR±SЂR°RјSЃRѕRЅ.

"R”RѕR±SЂRµ RIS–RgRѕRјRѕ, S‰Rѕ S”RISЂRµR№SЃSЊRyeS– RyeRѕRјSѓRЅS–SЃS‚Rё R·R°R·RIRёS‡R°R№ SЏRyeRЅR°R№RgR°R»S– RgRёSЃS‚R°RЅS†S–RѕRЅSѓRIR°R»RёSЃSЏ RIS–Rg SЃRIRѕRiRѕ S”RISЂRµR№SЃSЊRyeRѕRiRѕ RїRѕS…RѕRgR¶RµRЅRЅSЏ.

RќR°RїSЂRёRyeR»R°Rg, RїSЂRёSЏS‚RµR»SЊ R›SЊRIR° RўSЂRѕS†SЊRyeRѕRiRѕ RњR°RyeSЃ R†SЃS‚RјRµRЅ RIRIR°R¶R°RI, S‰Rѕ S‚RѕR№ RЅR°SЃS‚S–R»SЊRyeRё "RЅR°R№RјRµRЅS€Rµ RїRµSЂRµR№RјR°RISЃSЏ S‡Rё RЅR°RgRёS…R°RISЃSЏ SЃRIRѕS—Rј S”RISЂRµR№SЃS‚RIRѕRј R· SѓSЃS–S… S”RISЂRµS—RI, SЏRyeRёS… SЏ RyeRѕR»Rё-RЅRµR±SѓRgSЊ R·RЅR°RI", S‰Rѕ RЅR°RIS–S‚SЊ RIS–RgRјRѕRIRёRISЃSЏ S…RѕRIR°S‚Rё SЃRIRѕRiRѕ R±R°S‚SЊRyeR° R·R° S”RISЂRµR№SЃSЊRyeRёRј R·RIRёS‡R°S”Rј.

R§R°SЃS‚RyeR° S”RISЂRµS—RI Sѓ S†RёS… RїR°SЂS‚S–SЏS… R·R°R·RIRёS‡R°R№ RЅRµ RIS–RgRїRѕRIS–RgR°R»R° S‡R°SЃS‚S†S– S”RISЂRµS—RI SЃRµSЂRµRg SѓSЃSЊRѕRiRѕ RЅR°SЃRµR»RµRЅRЅSЏ, S‰Rѕ R№RјRѕRIS–SЂRЅRѕ, R±S–R»SЊS€Rµ RїRѕSЏSЃRЅSЋRIR°R»RѕSЃSЏ S”RISЂRµR№SЃSЊRyeRёRјRё SѓSЂR±R°RЅS–R·R°S†S–R№RЅRёRјRё RјRѕRgRµR»SЏRјRё, R°RЅS–R¶ S”RISЂRµR№SЃSЊRyeRѕSЋ S–RgRµRЅS‚RёS‡RЅS–SЃS‚SЋ," - SЃS‚RIRµSЂRgR¶SѓS” R“RµRЅSЂS– RђR±SЂR°RјSЃRѕRЅ.

R§R°SЃS‚RyeR° S”RISЂRµS—RI Sѓ RyeRѕRјSѓRЅS–SЃS‚RёS‡RЅS–R№ RїR°SЂS‚S–S— RgS–R№SЃRЅRѕ R±SѓR»R° RgRµS‰Rѕ R±S–R»SЊS€RѕSЋ, RЅS–R¶ S‡R°SЃS‚RyeR° RI RїRѕRїSѓR»SЏS†S–S— RI S†S–R»RѕRјSѓ. RђR»Rµ SѓRyeSЂR°S—RЅS†S–RI Sѓ RyeRѕRјSѓRЅS–SЃS‚RёS‡RЅS–R№ RїR°SЂS‚S–S— R±SѓR»Rѕ RјR°R№R¶Rµ Sѓ RgRIR° SЂR°R·Rё R±S–R»SЊS€Rµ, RЅS–R¶ S”RISЂRµS—RI. RќR°R№R±S–R»SЊS€Rµ R¶ RI RљRџ(R±)RЈ R±SѓR»Rѕ SЂRѕSЃS–SЏRЅ – R±S–R»SЊS€Rµ RїRѕR»RѕRIRёRЅRё S‡R»RµRЅS–RI S†S–S”S— RїR°SЂS‚S–S—.

RЎS‚RµSЂRµRѕS‚RёRї RIS–RgRїRѕRIS–RgR°R»SЊRЅRѕSЃS‚S– R”RёSЂRµRyeS‚RѕSЂS–S— R·R° RјR°SЃRѕRIS– RїRѕRiSЂRѕRјRё 1919 SЂRѕRyeSѓ S‚R°RyeRѕR¶ S” R»RёS€Rµ S‡R°SЃS‚RyeRѕRIRѕ RѕR±T‘SЂSѓRЅS‚RѕRIR°RЅRёRј SЃS‚R°S‚RёSЃS‚RёRyeRѕSЋ.

R—R° RїS–RgSЂR°S…SѓRЅRyeR°RјRё, SЏRyeS– RЅR°RIRѕRgRёS‚SЊ RїSЂRѕS„RµSЃRѕSЂ RђR±SЂR°RјSЃRѕRЅ, RIS–R№SЃSЊRyeR° R”RёSЂRµRyeS‚RѕSЂS–S— RIS–RgRїRѕRIS–RgR°SЋS‚SЊ R·R° 40% SѓSЃS–S… RIRёRїR°RgRyeS–RI R°RЅS‚Rё S”RISЂRµR№SЃSЊRyeRёS… RїRѕRiSЂRѕRјS–RI RЅR° SѓRyeSЂR°S—RЅSЃSЊRyeRёS… R·RµRјR»SЏS….

R RµS€S‚Sѓ 60% RїRѕRiSЂRѕRјS–RI RIS‡RёRЅRёR»Rё S–RЅS€S– SЃRёR»Rё: RЅRµ RїS–RgRїRѕSЂSЏRgRyeRѕRIR°RЅS– S„RѕSЂRјSѓRIR°RЅRЅSЏ (25%), R‘S–R»R° R°SЂRјS–SЏ (17%), R§RµSЂRIRѕRЅR° R°SЂRјS–SЏ (9%), R·R°RiS–RЅ RѕS‚R°RјR°RЅR° R“SЂRёRiRѕSЂ’S”RIR° (4%), RїRѕR»SЊSЃSЊRyeR° R°SЂRјS–SЏ (3%) S‚R° RЅRµRISЃS‚R°RЅRѕRIR»RµRЅS– S„RѕSЂRјSѓRIR°RЅRЅSЏ (3%).

 

R’RѕS‡RµRIRёRgSЊ, S†S– RїS–RgSЂR°S…SѓRЅRyeRё RЅRµ R·RЅS–RјR°SЋS‚SЊ RIS–RgRїRѕRIS–RgR°R»SЊRЅRѕSЃS‚S– R· RIRёRЅRЅRёS…, R°R»Rµ SЂRѕR·R±RёRIR°SЋS‚SЊ SЃS‚RµSЂRµRѕS‚RёRї R°RЅS‚RёSЃRµRјS–S‚SЃSЊRyeRѕS— SѓRyeSЂR°S—RЅSЃSЊRyeRѕS— RIR»R°RgRё.

"R“RѕR»RѕRIRЅS– RgRёSЃRyeSѓSЃS–S— S‰RѕRgRѕ RIS–RgRїRѕRIS–RgR°R»SЊRЅRѕSЃS‚S– S‚RѕS‡R°S‚SЊSЃSЏ RЅR°RIRyeRѕR»Rѕ RѕRgRЅS–S”S— R»SЋRgRёRЅRё: RЎRёRјRѕRЅR° RџRµS‚R»SЋSЂRё. R’S–RЅ R·R°R№RјR°S” S‚SЂR°RiS–S‡RЅRµ RјS–SЃS†Rµ RI SѓRyeSЂR°S—RЅSЃSЊRyeRѕ-S”RISЂRµR№SЃSЊRyeS–R№ S–SЃS‚RѕSЂS–S—: SѓRyeSЂR°S—RЅS†S– RIS€R°RЅRѕRISѓSЋS‚SЊ R№RѕRiRѕ SЏRye R±RµR·SЃS‚SЂR°S€RЅRѕRiRѕ RЅR°S†S–RѕRЅR°R»SЊRЅRѕRiRѕ R»S–RgRµSЂR°, R° S”RISЂRµS— – RЅRµRЅR°RIRёRgSЏS‚SЊ SЏRye R·R»S–SЃRЅRѕRiRѕ R°RЅS‚RёSЃRµRјS–S‚R°", - R·R°SѓRIR°R¶SѓS” RїSЂRѕS„RµSЃRѕSЂ RђR±SЂR°RјSЃRѕRЅ.

R—RЅR°S‡RЅR° S‡R°SЃS‚RёRЅR° RgRѕSЃR»S–RgR¶RµRЅRЅSЏ RїSЂRёSЃRISЏS‡RµRЅR° R°RЅR°R»S–R·Sѓ, RЅR°SЃRyeS–R»SЊRyeRё R”RёSЂRµRyeS‚RѕSЂS–SЏ S– RџRµS‚R»SЋSЂR° RѕSЃRѕR±RёSЃS‚Rѕ RIS–RgRїRѕRIS–RgR°R»SЊRЅRёR№ Sѓ R°RЅS‚RёSЃRµRјS–S‚SЃSЊRyeRёS… RїSЂRѕSЏRIR°S….

R“RµRЅSЂS– RђR±SЂR°RјSЃRѕRЅ RїRѕSЏSЃRЅSЋS” SЃS‚RµSЂRµRѕS‚RёRї RџRµS‚R»SЋSЂRё-R°RЅS‚RёSЃRµRјS–S‚R° RgRѕRIRiRёRј S–SЃS‚RѕSЂRёS‡RЅRёRј S€R»RµR№S„RѕRј RIRyeSЂR°R№ RµRјRѕS†S–R№RЅRѕRiRѕ SЃSѓRgSѓ 1926-27 SЂRѕRyeS–RI RЅR°Rg R№RѕRiRѕ RIR±RёRIS†RµSЋ RЁRѕR»RµRјRѕRј RЁRIR°SЂS†R±R°SЂRgRѕRј.  

R†SЃS‚RѕSЂRёRye RIS–RgRyeRёRgR°S” SЃRIS–RgS‡RµRЅRЅSЏ RїSЂRѕ R°RЅS‚RёSЃRµRјS–S‚RёR·Rј RџRµS‚R»SЋSЂRё, SЏRyeS– RїSЂRѕR·RISѓS‡R°R»Rё RїS–Rg S‡R°SЃ S†SЊRѕRiRѕ RїSЂRѕS†RµSЃSѓ: "Sѓ RyeSЂR°S‰RѕRјSѓ SЂR°R·S– RIRѕRЅRё RЅRµRїRµSЂRµRyeRѕRЅR»RёRIS–, R° RI RЅR°R№RiS–SЂS€RѕRјSѓ – RїRѕRIRЅS–SЃS‚SЋ RЅRµRgRѕSЃS‚RѕRIS–SЂRЅS–".

R’S–RЅ R°RЅR°R»S–R·SѓS” RЅR°SЏRIRЅS– SЃRIS–RgS‡RµRЅRЅSЏ S‰RѕRgRѕ RїRѕSЃS‚R°RIRё RЎRёRјRѕRЅR° RџRµS‚R»SЋSЂRё S‰RѕRgRѕ S”RISЂRµS—RI, R№RѕRiRѕ R·RIRµSЂRЅRµRЅRЅSЏ RgRѕ RIS–R№SЃSЊRyeR° S– RiSЂRѕRјR°RgSЏRЅ SѓRyeSЂR°S—RЅSЃSЊRyeRѕS— SЂRµSЃRїSѓR±R»S–RyeRё. R—RѕRyeSЂRµRјR°, R°RЅR°R»S–R·SѓS”S‚SЊSЃSЏ RyeRѕRЅS‚RµRyeSЃS‚ RIS–RgRѕRјRѕRiRѕ R·RIRµSЂRЅRµRЅRЅSЏ RIS–Rg SЃRµSЂRїRЅSЏ 1919 SЂRѕRyeSѓ, SЏRyeRµ RgRµS‰Rѕ RїSЂRёR·SѓRїRёRЅRёR»Rѕ SЂRѕR·RiRѕSЂS‚R°RЅRЅSЏ SЃRїS–SЂR°R»S– R°RЅS‚RёS”RISЂRµR№SЃSЊRyeRѕRiRѕ RЅR°SЃRёR»SЊSЃS‚RIR°.

 RЎRёRјRѕRЅ RџRµS‚R»SЋSЂR° (Sѓ S†RµRЅS‚SЂS–) S‚R° R„RIRiRµRЅ RљRѕRЅRѕRIR°R»RµS†SЊ (RїSЂR°RIRѕSЂSѓS‡) RїS–Rg S‡R°SЃ RїSЂRѕRiRѕR»RѕS€RµRЅRЅSЏ RђRyeS‚Sѓ R·R»SѓRyeRё RЅR° RЎRѕS„S–R№SЃSЊRyeS–R№ RїR»RѕS‰S–. RљRёS—RI, 22 SЃS–S‡RЅSЏ 1919 SЂRѕRyeSѓ. RљR°RgSЂ RgRѕRyeSѓRјRµRЅS‚R°R»SЊRЅRѕS— RyeS–RЅRѕS…SЂRѕRЅS–RyeRё

RђR±SЂR°RјSЃRѕRЅ S†RёS‚SѓS” S– RїRѕR»RyeRѕRIRЅRёRyeR° RЈRќR  RђRЅRgSЂS–SЏ RњRµR»SЊRЅRёRyeR°, SЏRyeRёR№ RїS–R·RЅS–S€Rµ RѕS‡RѕR»RёS‚SЊ RћSЂRiR°RЅS–R·R°S†S–SЋ RЈRyeSЂR°S—RЅSЃSЊRyeRёS… RќR°S†S–RѕRЅR°R»S–SЃS‚S–RI: 

 RђRЅRgSЂS–R№ RњRµR»SЊRЅRёRye

"RЇ SЂS–S€SѓS‡Rµ RїRµSЂRµSЃR»S–RgSѓRIR°S‚RёRјSѓ RISЃS–S… RїSЂRѕRIRѕRyeR°S‚RѕSЂS–RI, SЏRyeS– SЃS‚RIRµSЂRgR¶SѓRIR°S‚RёRјSѓS‚SЊ, S‰Rѕ RїSЂRёRїSѓSЃS‚RёRјRѕ S‡RёRЅRёS‚Rё S”RISЂRµR№SЃSЊRyeS– RїRѕRiSЂRѕRјRё, S‚R° RIRµSЃS‚RёS‚RёRјSѓS‚SЊ RїRѕRgS–R±RЅSѓ R°RiS–S‚R°S†S–SЋ.

R’RѕRЅRё R±SѓRgSѓS‚SЊ RIS–RgRgR°RЅS– RїS–Rg S‚SЂRёR±SѓRЅR°R», RISЃS– R·R»RѕS‡RёRЅS†S– RЈRyeSЂR°S—RЅSЃSЊRyeRѕS— RќR°SЂRѕRgRЅRѕS— R RµSЃRїSѓR±R»S–RyeRё.

R—R° RЅRµSЃR°RЅRyeS†S–RѕRЅRѕRIR°RЅS– RѕR±S€SѓRyeRё RgRѕRјS–RI RgRIR° RyeRѕR·R°RyeRё RIR¶Rµ R±SѓR»Rё SЂRѕR·SЃS‚SЂS–R»SЏRЅS–: RњRёS…R°R№R»Rѕ R‘RѕR»RѕS‚RЅRёR№ S‚R° RњRёRyeRѕR»R° R†RIR°RЅS–RI.

R—R° RїRѕRiSЂRѕRјRЅRёS†SЊRyeSѓ R°RiS–S‚R°S†S–SЋ R±SѓR»Rё SЂRѕR·SЃS‚SЂS–R»SЏRЅS–: RЎS‚R°RЅS–SЃR»R°RI RџRѕR»SЏRЅSЃSЊRyeRёR№ S‚R° RќRёRyeR°RЅRѕSЂ RЎR°RIRµR»SЊS”RI".

RЇSЃRЅR° SЂS–S‡, S‰Rѕ SЂRµSЃRїSѓR±R»S–RyeR°, SЏRyeRѕSЋ RyeRµSЂSѓRIR°R»Rё R· RIS–RyeRЅR° R·R°R»S–R·RЅRёS‡RЅRѕRiRѕ RIR°RiRѕRЅSѓ, RјR°R»R° RgRѕSЃRёS‚SЊ RѕR±RјRµR¶RµRЅS– RјRѕR¶R»RёRIRѕSЃS‚S– RgR»SЏ RїRѕRIRЅRѕRiRѕ RyeRѕRЅS‚SЂRѕR»SЋ RЅR°Rg SЃRёS‚SѓR°S†S–S”SЋ RI RyeSЂR°S—RЅS–.

RџRµS‚R»SЋSЂR° RЅRµ SЃRїSЂRѕRјS–RiSЃSЏ RЅR°R»RµR¶RЅRѕ RyeR°SЂR°S‚Rё SЃRIRѕS— RIS–R№SЃSЊRyeR°, RyeRѕR»Rё S†Rµ RјRѕRiR»Rѕ RIRїR»RёRЅSѓS‚Rё RЅR° RїS–RgR»RµRiR»RёS… RѕS‚R°RјR°RЅS–RI. RўR°RyeSѓ RїRѕRIRµRgS–RЅRyeSѓ R“RµRЅSЂS– RђR±SЂR°RјSЃRѕRЅ RїRѕSЏSЃRЅSЋS” SЃS‚SЂR°S…RѕRј RIS‚SЂR°S‚Rё R»RѕSЏR»SЊRЅS–SЃS‚SЊ SЃRIRѕS”S— R°SЂRјS–S—, S‰Rѕ SЂRѕR·RїR°RgR°R»R°SЃSЏ. RџRµS‚R»SЋSЂR° R№S€RѕRI RЅR° RyeRѕRјRїSЂRѕRјS–SЃRё, S‰Rѕ SЃSѓRїRµSЂRµS‡RёR»Rё R№RѕRiRѕ RѕSЃRѕR±RёSЃS‚RёRј RїRѕR»S–S‚RёS‡RЅRёRј RїRµSЂRµRyeRѕRЅR°RЅRЅSЏRј.

"RњRѕR»RёS‚RIR° R·R° RIR»R°RgSѓ. RЈRyeSЂR°S—RЅS†S– S‚R° S”RISЂRµS— RI SЂRµRIRѕR»SЋS†S–R№RЅSѓ RgRѕR±Sѓ 1917-1920" R“RµRЅSЂS– RђR±SЂR°RјSЃRѕRЅR° - S†Rµ S‡SѓRgRѕRIR° RyeRЅRёR¶RyeR° RgR»SЏ S‚RёS…, S…S‚Rѕ S…RѕS‡Rµ RїRѕRgRѕR»R°S‚Rё R·RЅR°RЅRЅSЏRј S”RISЂRµR№SЃSЊRyeS– SЃS‚RµSЂRµRѕS‚RёRїRё S‰RѕRgRѕ SѓRyeSЂR°S—RЅS†S–RI S‚R° SѓRyeSЂR°S—RЅSЃSЊRyeS– SЃS‚RµSЂRµRѕS‚RёRїRё S‰RѕRgRѕ S”RISЂRµS—RI.  

R¤SЂR°R·R°. "RўRѕ S‰Rѕ R¶ RЅR°SЃR°RјRyeS–RЅRµS†SЊ RјRѕR¶RЅR° SЃRyeR°R·R°S‚Rё RїSЂRѕ RѕSЃRѕR±RёSЃS‚Sѓ RIS–RgRїRѕRIS–RgR°R»SЊRЅS–SЃS‚SЊ RџRµS‚R»SЋSЂRё? R”RѕRIRµSЃS‚Rё, S‰Rѕ RIS–RЅ R±SѓRI RIS–RgRїRѕRIS–RgR°R»SЊRЅRёR№ R·R° RїRѕRiSЂRѕRјRё SЏRye SЃSѓR±’S”RyeS‚, RЅRµRјRѕR¶R»RёRIRѕ; RgS–R№SЃRЅRѕ RISЃS– RgRѕSЃS‚SѓRїRЅS– SЃRIS–RgS‡RµRЅRЅSЏ RIRyeR°R·SѓSЋS‚SЊ, S‰Rѕ RIS–RЅ R°R¶ RЅS–SЏRye RЅRµ R±SѓRI RѕSЂRiR°RЅS–R·R°S‚RѕSЂRѕRј RїRѕRiSЂRѕRјS–RI. R— S–RЅS€RѕRiRѕ R±RѕRyeSѓ, SЏRye RѕS‡S–R»SЊRЅRёRye RgRµSЂR¶R°RIRё RIS–RЅ RїRѕRIRёRЅRµRЅ R±SѓRI RЅRµSЃS‚Rё RIS–RgRїRѕRIS–RgR°R»SЊRЅS–SЃS‚SЊ R·R° RIS‡RёRЅRyeRё SЃRIRѕS”S— R°SЂRјS–S—, RЅRµR·RIR°R¶R°SЋS‡Rё RЅR° S‚Rµ, S‰Rѕ SЃR°Rј RgRѕSЃRёS‚SЊ SЃR»R°R±RyeRѕ RyeRѕRЅS‚SЂRѕR»SЋRIR°RI S—S—".

RќR°RiR°RgSѓS”RјRѕ, R“RµRЅSЂS– RђR±SЂR°RјSЃRѕRЅ RЅR°SЂRѕRgRёRISЃSЏ RЅR° RїS–RIRЅRѕS‡S– RћRЅS‚R°SЂS–Rѕ (RљR°RЅR°RgR°). RќR°RIS‡R°RISЃSЏ Sѓ RїSЂRѕS„RµSЃRѕSЂR° RџR°RIR»R°-R RѕR±RµSЂS‚R° RњR°RiRѕS‡S–SЏ S– RѕS‚SЂRёRјR°RI RgRѕRyeS‚RѕSЂSЃSЊRyeRёR№ SЃS‚SѓRїRµRЅSЊ RЅR° RyeR°S„RµRgSЂS– SѓRyeSЂR°S—RЅSЃSЊRyeRёS… RgRѕSЃR»S–RgR¶RµRЅSЊ S‚R° S–SЃS‚RѕSЂRёS‡RЅRѕRјSѓ S„R°RyeSѓR»SЊS‚RµS‚S– RЈRЅS–RIRµSЂSЃRёS‚RµS‚Sѓ RўRѕSЂRѕRЅS‚Rѕ. R’ RѕSЃRЅRѕRIS– RyeRЅRёRiRё "RњRѕR»RёS‚RIR° R·R° RIR»R°RgSѓ. RЈRyeSЂR°S—RЅS†S– S‚R° S”RISЂRµS— RI SЂRµRIRѕR»SЋS†S–R№RЅSѓ RgRѕR±Sѓ 1917-1920" R»RµR¶RёS‚SЊ RgRёSЃRµSЂS‚R°S†S–R№RЅRµ RgRѕSЃR»S–RgR¶RµRЅRЅSЏ, SЏRyeRµ RIRёR№S€R»Rѕ R°RЅRiR»S–R№SЃSЊRyeRѕSЋ Sѓ 1999 SЂRѕS†S–. R„ R°RIS‚RѕSЂRѕRј RyeS–R»SЊRyeRѕS… RЅR°SѓRyeRѕRIRёS… S– RїRѕRїSѓR»SЏSЂRЅRёS… RїSЂR°S†SЊ R· S”RISЂRµR№SЃSЊRyeRѕS— S–SЃS‚RѕSЂS–S—.    

  

   

100 RyeRЅRёRi RќRµR·R°R»RµR¶RЅRѕSЃS‚S–. "R†SЃS‚RѕSЂRёS‡RЅR° RїSЂR°RIRgR°" SЂRµRyeRѕRјRµRЅRgSѓS”

RџRµSЂRµR»S–Rye RIRёRgR°RЅSЊ, SЏRyeS– RIRёR№S€R»Rё R·R° S‡R°SЃS–RI RЅRµR·R°R»RµR¶RЅRѕSЃS‚S– S– SЏRyeS– RgR°SЋS‚SЊ RјRѕR¶R»RёRIS–SЃS‚SЊ RїS–R·RЅR°S‚Rё S–SЃS‚RѕSЂS–SЋ RЈRyeSЂR°S—RЅRё, R„RISЂRѕRїRё, RЅR°S€RёS… SЃSѓSЃS–RgS–RI, RѕRyeSЂRµRјRёS… R»SЋRgRµR№ S– SЏRIRёS‰. R† SЏRyeS– SЂRѕR±R»SЏS‚SЊ S†Rµ R· SЂS–R·RЅRёS… RїRµSЂSЃRїRµRyeS‚RёRI. RџRµRIRЅS–, S‰Rѕ S‡R°SЃ, RIRёS‚SЂR°S‡RµRЅRёR№ RЅR° S‡RёS‚R°RЅRЅSЏ RЅRµ R±SѓRgRµ RIS‚SЂR°S‡RµRЅRёRј.

RЈRyeSЂR°S—RЅS†S–. RќR°R№RЅRµS‰R°SЃR»RёRIS–S€R° RЅR°S†S–SЏ S‡RѕS‚RёSЂSЊRѕS… RyeRѕRЅS‚RёRЅRµRЅS‚S–RI

RЈRyeSЂR°S—RЅS†S– vЂ” RЅR°R№RЅRµS‰R°SЃR»RёRIS–S€R° RЅR°S†S–SЏ R„RISЂRѕRїRё, RѕR±RѕS… RђRјRµSЂRёRye S‚R° RђRISЃS‚SЂR°R»S–S—. RўR°RyeRёRј S” RїS–RgSЃSѓRјRѕRye RЅR°S€RѕRiRѕ SЂRѕR·RIRёS‚RyeSѓ RЅR°RїRµSЂRµRgRѕRgRЅS– 28-S— SЂS–S‡RЅRёS†S– RќRµR·R°R»RµR¶RЅRѕSЃS‚Rё. RЇRye SѓRyeSЂR°S—RЅS†S– R·RјS–RЅSЋRIR°R»RёSЃSЏ RїSЂRѕS‚SЏRiRѕRј SЂRѕRyeS–RI RќRµR·R°R»RµR¶RЅRѕSЃS‚S–? R§RѕRјSѓ RјRё RIRїSЂRёS‚SѓR» RЅRµ RїRѕRјS–S‡R°S”RјRѕ, S‰Rѕ RЅR°SЃRїSЂR°RIRgS– RЈRyeSЂR°S—RЅR° vЂ” RЅRµ RЈRiR°RЅRgR°!?

RЈRyeSЂR°S—RЅSЃSЊRyeRёR№ RїR°SЂR°Rg Sѓ SЃS‚RѕR»RёS†S– R RѕSЃS–S—

RњSЂS–SЏ? RќS– vЂ“ S†Rµ RIR¶Rµ R±SѓR»Rѕ. R† RЅRµ RѕRgRёRЅ SЂR°R·. RџRѕR±SѓS‚SѓS” RgSѓRјRyeR°, S‰Rѕ RI RЅR°S€S–R№ S–SЃS‚RѕSЂS–S— RјR°R»Rѕ SЃRIS–S‚R»RёS… SЃS‚RѕSЂS–RЅRѕRye S– RїRµSЂRµRјRѕRi. R“SЂR°RЅRgS–RѕR·RЅRёR№ SѓRyeSЂR°S—RЅSЃSЊRyeRёR№ RIS–R№SЃSЊRyeRѕRIRёR№ RїR°SЂR°Rg RI SЃS‚RѕR»RёS†S– R RѕSЃS–S—: SЏRye S†Rµ R±SѓR»Rѕ?

RћRјRµR»SЏRЅ RљRѕRIS‡ vЂ” SЃRISЏS‰RµRЅRёRye, RїR°S‚SЂS–RѕS‚ S‚R° RїSЂR°RIRµRgRЅRёRye

"RљRѕRIS‡, SЏRyeRёR№ RgRѕSЃRyeRѕRЅR°R»Rѕ R·RЅR°RI RЅS–RјRµS†SЊRyeSѓ RјRѕRISѓ, RyeSЂRёRyeRЅSѓRI RgRѕ RЅS–RјRµS†SЊRyeRёS… SЃRѕR»RgR°S‚S–RI, S‰RѕR± RgRѕRїSѓSЃS‚RёR»Rё R№RѕRiRѕ RgRѕ SЃRёRЅR°RiRѕRiRё. RћSЃS‚R°RЅRЅS– RѕRЅS–RјS–R»Rё RIS–Rg R·RgRёRISѓRIR°RЅRЅSЏ S– RїSѓSЃS‚RёR»Rё R№RѕRiRѕ, R° RѕS‚RµS†SЊ RyeRёRЅSѓRISЃSЏ RIRёRЅRѕSЃRёS‚Rё R»SЋRgRµR№ S–R· RїR°R»R°SЋS‡RѕS— SЃRёRЅR°RiRѕRiRё. RЎRµSЂRµRg S–RЅS€RёS…, SЏRyeRёS… RISЂSЏS‚SѓRIR°RI Rѕ. RљRѕRIS‡, R±SѓRI SЂR°R±RёRЅ Rј. R‘RµR»R· RђR°SЂRѕRЅ R RѕRyeRµR°S…".