RЎRїRµS†RїSЂRѕRµRyeS‚

R§RµSЂRIRѕRЅRёR№ RiRѕR»RѕRg. RЎS‚R°R»S–RЅSЃSЊRyeR° RIS–R№RЅR° RїSЂRѕS‚Rё RЈRyeSЂR°S—RЅRё

R—R° RgRѕRїRѕRјRѕRiRѕSЋ SѓSЃRЅRёS… S–SЃS‚RѕSЂS–R№, SЂR°RgSЏRЅSЃSЊRyeRёS… RgRѕRyeSѓRјRµRЅS‚S–RI S‚R° R»RёSЃS‚SѓRIR°RЅRЅSЏ RјS–R¶ SЂR°RgSЏRЅSЃSЊRyeRёRјRё SЂRµS‡RЅRёRyeR°RјRё R°RIS‚RѕSЂRyeR° RїRѕRgR°S” R±S–R»SЊS€Rµ RЅS–R¶ RgRѕSЃS‚R°S‚RЅSЊRѕ SЃRIS–RgS‡RµRЅSЊ RїSЂRѕ RЅR°RgRјS–SЂRЅRµ, R¶RѕSЂSЃS‚RѕRyeRµ RIS–RgS–R±SЂR°RЅRЅSЏ R·RµSЂRЅR°, RѕRїRѕRgR°S‚RyeSѓRIR°RЅRЅSЏ, S‰Rѕ RїSЂRёR·RIRѕRgRёR»Rѕ RgRѕ RIRёR»SѓS‡RµRЅRЅSЏ RїSЂRѕRgSѓRyeS‚S–RI S…R°SЂS‡SѓRIR°RЅRЅSЏ S‚R° S…SѓRgRѕR±Rё, RїRѕRyeR°SЂR°RЅRЅSЏ S‡RµSЂRµR· S‡RѕSЂRЅS– SЃRїRёSЃRyeRё S‚R° S–RЅS€S– RїSЂRёRјSѓSЃRѕRIS– RјRµS‚RѕRgRё, RIRyeR»SЋS‡R°SЋS‡Rё R·R°RyeSЂRёS‚S‚SЏ RyeRѕSЂRgRѕRЅSѓ, S‰Rѕ R·SЂRѕR±RёR»Rѕ RЅRµRјRѕR¶R»RёRIRёRј RgR»SЏ SѓRyeSЂR°S—RЅS†S–RI SѓRЅRёRyeRЅSѓS‚Rё SЃRIRѕRiRѕ RyeRѕS€RјR°SЂSѓ.

R©Rѕ S‡RёS‚R°S”RјRѕ? RљRЅRёRiSѓ R•RЅRЅ R•RїRїR»R±RѕRј Red Famine: Stalins War on Ukraine (R§RµSЂRIRѕRЅRёR№ RiRѕR»RѕRg. RЎS‚R°R»S–RЅSЃSЊRyeR° RIS–R№RЅR° RїSЂRѕS‚Rё RЈRyeSЂR°S—RЅRё), Doubleday, 2017.

R‘S–RѕRiSЂR°S„S–SЏ RїR°RЅS– R•RїRїR»R±RѕRј S‚R° S—S— RїRѕRїRµSЂRµRgRЅSЏ RїRѕRIR°R¶RЅR° RЅR°SѓRyeRѕRIR° S– RїSѓR±R»S–S†RёSЃS‚RёS‡RЅR° SЂRѕR±RѕS‚R° SЃRIS–RgS‡R°S‚SЊ RїSЂRѕ S—S— R·RЅR°RЅRЅSЏ RI SЃRїSЂR°RIR°S… S‚R° S–SЃS‚RѕSЂS–S— RЎS…S–RgRЅRѕS— R„RISЂRѕRїRё. RЈ "R§RµSЂRIRѕRЅRѕRјSѓ RiRѕR»RѕRgS–" RIRѕRЅR° RїRѕRgR°S” RIRёSЃRЅRѕRIRѕRye, "S‰Rѕ RЅRµ RјR°S” R¶RѕRgRЅRѕRiRѕ SЃSѓRјRЅS–RISѓ" RI S‚RѕRјSѓ, S‰Rѕ S†RµR№ R“RѕR»RѕRg SЃS‚RIRѕSЂRµRЅRёR№ R»SЋRgSЊRјRё SЃRёR»SЊRЅRѕ RIS–RgSЂS–R·RЅSЏS”S‚SЊSЃSЏ RIS–Rg RiRѕR»RѕRgSѓ RIRёRyeR»RёRyeR°RЅRѕRiRѕ RїSЂRёSЂRѕRgRЅRёRјRё RѕR±SЃS‚R°RIRёRЅR°RјRё.

R—R° RgRѕRїRѕRјRѕRiRѕSЋ SѓSЃRЅRёS… S–SЃS‚RѕSЂS–R№, SЂR°RgSЏRЅSЃSЊRyeRёS… RgRѕRyeSѓRјRµRЅS‚S–RI S‚R° R»RёSЃS‚SѓRIR°RЅRЅSЏ RјS–R¶ SЂR°RgSЏRЅSЃSЊRyeRёRјRё SЂRµS‡RЅRёRyeR°RјRё RIRѕRЅR° RїRѕRgR°S” R±S–R»SЊS€Rµ RЅS–R¶ RgRѕSЃS‚R°S‚RЅSЊRѕ SЃRIS–RgS‡RµRЅSЊ RїSЂRѕ RЅR°RgRјS–SЂRЅRµ, R¶RѕSЂSЃS‚RѕRyeRµ RIS–RgS–R±SЂR°RЅRЅSЏ R·RµSЂRЅR°, RѕRїRѕRgR°S‚RyeSѓRIR°RЅRЅSЏ, S‰Rѕ RїSЂRёR·RIRѕRgRёR»Rѕ RgRѕ RIRёR»SѓS‡RµRЅRЅSЏ RїSЂRѕRgSѓRyeS‚S–RI S…R°SЂS‡SѓRIR°RЅRЅSЏ S‚R° S…SѓRgRѕR±Rё, RїRѕRyeR°SЂR°RЅRЅSЏ S‡RµSЂRµR· S‡RѕSЂRЅS– SЃRїRёSЃRyeRё S‚R° S–RЅS€S– RїSЂRёRјSѓSЃRѕRIS– RјRµS‚RѕRgRё, RIRyeR»SЋS‡R°SЋS‡Rё R·R°RyeSЂRёS‚S‚SЏ RyeRѕSЂRgRѕRЅSѓ, S‰Rѕ R·SЂRѕR±RёR»Rѕ RЅRµRјRѕR¶R»RёRIRёRј RgR»SЏ SѓRyeSЂR°S—RЅS†S–RI SѓRЅRёRyeRЅSѓS‚Rё SЃRIRѕRiRѕ RyeRѕS€RјR°SЂSѓ.

RЈ S‚RѕR№ S‡R°SЃ RЎS‚R°R»S–RЅ S– SЂRµR¶RёRј RµRyeSЃRїRѕSЂS‚SѓRIR°R»Rё R·RµSЂRЅRѕ RЅR° RјS–R¶RЅR°SЂRѕRgRЅRѕRјSѓ SЂS–RIRЅS–, RIS–RgRјRѕRIR»SЏR»RёSЃSЏ RIS–Rg R·RѕRIRЅS–S€RЅSЊRѕS— RgRѕRїRѕRјRѕRiRё S‚R° RїSЂRёRјSѓS€SѓRIR°R»Rё RїSЂRёS…RѕRISѓRIR°S‚Rё R¶SѓSЂRЅR°R»S–SЃS‚S–RI, RїS–RgSЂRѕR±R»SЏS‚Rё R·R°RїRёSЃRё R±SЋSЂRѕRyeSЂR°S‚S–RI S‚R° RµRyeSЃRїR»SѓR°S‚SѓRIR°S‚Rё "RyeRѕSЂRёSЃRЅRёS… S–RgS–RѕS‚S–RI".

RЈ 1932 SЂRѕS†S– RIRЅR°SЃR»S–RgRѕRye RїSЂRёRјSѓSЃRѕRIRѕS— RyeRѕR»RµRyeS‚RёRIS–R·R°S†S–S— R“RѕR»RѕRgRѕRјRѕSЂ SЃRїSѓSЃS‚RѕS€RёRI RЎR RЎR , RѕSЃRѕR±R»RёRIRѕ S‚Sѓ SЂRµSЃRїSѓR±R»S–RyeSѓ, SЏRyeR° RЅR°R№R±S–R»SЊS€Rµ RїRѕSЃS‚SЂR°R¶RgR°R»R° RIS–Rg S†S–S”S— RїRѕR»S–S‚RёRyeRё — RЈR RЎR  — RgRµ SЃSѓS‚S‚S”RIRѕ SЃS‚SЂRёRјSѓRIR°RISЃSЏ RїSЂRѕS†RµSЃ RyeRѕR»RµRyeS‚RёRIS–R·R°S†S–S—.

RќR° RgSѓRјRyeSѓ RЎS‚R°R»S–RЅR°, RЅR°RIS–S‚SЊ SѓRyeSЂR°S—RЅSЃSЊRyeS– RyeRѕRјSѓRЅS–SЃS‚Rё R±SѓR»Rё RїSЂRёS‡RµS‚RЅS– RgRѕ RѕRїRѕR·RёS†S–S—. R”Rѕ SЃRµSЂRїRЅSЏ 1932 SЂRѕRyeSѓ RЎS‚R°R»S–RЅ RIRёSЂS–S€RёRI SЃRyeRѕSЂRёSЃS‚R°S‚RёSЃSЏ S†S–S”SЋ RјRѕR¶R»RёRIS–SЃS‚SЋ, S‰RѕR± RїRѕSЂSѓS€RёS‚Rё RЅR°S†S–RѕRЅR°R»S–SЃS‚RёS‡RЅRёR№ RѕRїS–SЂ S– R·RЅRёS‰RёS‚Rё RЅRµRїSЂRёRјRёSЂRµRЅRЅRѕRiRѕ SѓRyeSЂR°S—RЅSЃSЊRyeRѕRiRѕ SЃRµR»SЏRЅRёRЅR°.

RќRµR·RIR°R¶R°SЋS‡Rё RЅR° S‚Rµ, S‰Rѕ S—S— RgRѕSЃR»S–RgR¶RµRЅRЅSЏ S” SЂRµS‚RµR»SЊRЅRёRјRё S‚R° RISЂR°R¶R°SЋS‡RёRјRё, S–SЃRЅSѓSЋS‚SЊ RїRµRIRЅS– RЅRµRgRѕR»S–RyeRё RI SЂRѕR±RѕS‚S– RїR°RЅS– R•RїRїR»R±RѕRј, R·RѕRyeSЂRµRјR°, S‚R°RЅRiRµRЅS†S–R°R»SЊRЅS– RїSЂRѕR±R»RµRјRё, S‚R° RїSЂRёRЅR°R№RјRЅS– RgRIR° S–SЃS‚RѕS‚RЅRёS… RIRёSЃRЅRѕRIRyeRё R·SЂRѕR±R»RµRЅS– RЅR°RgS‚Rѕ R»RµRiRyeRѕ.

R•RЅRЅ R•RїRїR»R±RѕRј

R”RѕS‚RёS‡RЅS– RЅRµRgRѕR»S–RyeRё RIRyeR»SЋS‡R°SЋS‚SЊ S‚R°RyeS– S‚RIRµSЂRgR¶RµRЅRЅSЏ, SЏRye RїRѕRјRёR»RyeRѕRIR° S…R°SЂR°RyeS‚RµSЂRёSЃS‚RёRyeR° SѓRyeSЂR°S—RЅSЃSЊRyeRёS… R·RµRјRµR»SЊ, SЏRyeS– "R»RµR¶R°S‚SЊ RI SЃR°RјRѕRјSѓ SЃRµSЂS†S– RљRёS—RISЃSЊRyeRѕS— R SѓSЃS–, SЃRµSЂRµRgRЅSЊRѕRIS–S‡RЅRѕS— RgRµSЂR¶R°RIRё RI RgRµRISЏS‚RѕRјSѓ SЃS‚RѕR»S–S‚S‚S– ... RјR°R№R¶Rµ RјS–S„S–S‡RЅRµ RyeRѕSЂRѕR»S–RISЃS‚RIRѕ, RЅR° SЏRyeRµ SЂRѕSЃS–SЏRЅRё, R±S–R»RѕSЂSѓSЃRё S‚R° SѓRyeSЂR°S—RЅS†S– RїSЂRµS‚RµRЅRgSѓSЋS‚SЊ SЏRye RЅR° SЃRIRѕS—S… RїSЂRµRgRyeS–RI".

RљRёS—RISЃSЊRyeR° R SѓSЃSЊ RїRѕRїRµSЂRµRgRёR»R° RњRѕSЃRyeRISѓ RЅR° R±S–R»SЊS€, SЏRye S‚SЂRёSЃS‚R° SЂRѕRyeS–RI, S– RЅR°RIS–S‚SЊ Sѓ S‚SЂRёRЅR°RgS†SЏS‚RѕRјSѓ SЃS‚RѕR»S–S‚S‚S– RњRѕSЃRyeRIR° R±SѓR»R° RЅRµ RgRµSЂR¶R°RIRѕSЋ, R° RїSЂRѕRIS–RЅS†S–R№RЅRёRј SЃRµR»RѕRј R—RѕR»RѕS‚RѕS— RћSЂRgRё.

RџRѕR·RёS†S–SЏ SЃRїS–R»SЊRЅRѕRiRѕ RїRѕS…RѕRgR¶RµRЅRЅSЏ RїRѕS‡R°R»R°SЃSЏ R· SЂRѕSЃS–R№SЃSЊRyeRёS… RyeRѕR»RѕRЅS–R°R»SЊRЅRёS… SЃRїSЂRѕR± RїS–RgS–SЂRIR°S‚Rё S–RgRµSЋ RѕRyeSЂRµRјRѕS— SѓRyeSЂR°S—RЅSЃSЊRyeRѕS— RЅR°S†S–S—, SЃRїRѕS‚RIRѕSЂSЋSЋS‡Rё S–SЃS‚RѕSЂS–SЋ. R¦Rµ SЃRїRѕS‚RIRѕSЂRµRЅRЅSЏ S–SЃS‚RѕSЂS–S— RїSЂRѕSЏRIR»SЏS”S‚SЊSЃSЏ S– RI R·R°RїRµSЂRµS‡RµRЅRЅS– R RѕSЃS–S”SЋ R“RѕR»RѕRgRѕRјRѕSЂSѓ.

RђRЅR°R»RѕRiS–S‡RЅRѕ RїR°RЅS– R•RїRїR»R±RѕRј, SЂRѕR·RїRѕRIS–RgR°SЋS‡Rё RїSЂRѕ RЅR°RїR°Rg RЅR° SѓRyeSЂR°S—RЅSЃSЊRyeRёR№ S–RЅS‚RµR»RµRyeS‚SѓR°R»SЊRЅRёR№ SЃRIS–S‚ Sѓ 1930 SЂRѕS†S–, RїRѕRgR°S” R№RѕRiRѕ SЏRye RїRѕSЃS‚R°RЅRѕRIRЅRёR№ SЃRїRµRyeS‚R°RyeR»SЊ — S‰RѕRgRѕ SѓRyeSЂR°S—RЅSЃSЊRyeRёS… S–RЅS‚RµR»RµRyeS‚SѓR°R»S–RI RЅR° RїSЂRѕS†RµSЃS– RI RGR°SЂRyeS–RISЃSЊRyeRѕRјSѓ RѕRїRµSЂRЅRѕRјSѓ S‚RµR°S‚SЂS–.

RџSЂRё S‡RѕRјSѓ RIRѕRЅR° RїRѕRgR°S” RЎRїS–R»RyeSѓ RIRёR·RIRѕR»RµRЅRЅSЏ RЈRyeSЂR°S—RЅRё SЏRye RIRёRiR°RgRyeSѓ SЂR°RgSЏRЅSЃSЊRyeRѕRiRѕ SЂRµR¶RёRјSѓ, RyeRѕR»Rё S” RgRѕSЃS‚R°S‚RЅSЊRѕ S–SЃS‚RѕSЂRёS‡RЅRёS… RgRѕRyeR°R·S–RI, RѕSЃRѕR±R»RёRIRѕ SЃRїRѕRiR°RgS–RI, RїSЂRѕ S–SЃRЅSѓRIR°RЅRЅSЏ RЎRїS–R»RyeRё SЏRye SЂRµS‡RЅRёRyeR° R±RѕSЂRѕS‚SЊR±Rё R·R° RЅRµR·R°R»RµR¶RЅS–SЃS‚SЊ RЈRyeSЂR°S—RЅRё.

R©Rѕ R±S–R»SЊS€ RIR°R¶R»RёRIRѕ, RyeS–R»SЊRyeS–SЃS‚SЊ R¶RµSЂS‚RI R“RѕR»RѕRgRѕRјRѕSЂSѓ RI RЈRyeSЂR°S—RЅS– RЅRµRgRѕSЃS‚R°S‚RЅSЊRѕ RISЂR°S…RѕRIR°RЅR°. RџR°RЅS– R•RїRїR»R±RѕRј RїSЂRѕSЃS‚Rѕ RїSЂRёR№RјR°S” S†RёS„SЂSѓ, SЏRyeSѓ RЅRµS‰RѕRgR°RIRЅRѕ RїRѕRgR°R»Rё RyeS–R»SЊRyeR° RgRµRјRѕRiSЂR°S„S–RI R· RЈRyeSЂR°S—RЅRё S‚R° RѕRgRёRЅ S–R· RЎRЁRђ.

R‘S–R»SЊS€Rµ SѓRIR°RiRё SЃR»S–Rg R±SѓR»Rѕ RїSЂRёRgS–R»SЏS‚Rё S—S… RgR¶RµSЂRµR»R°Rј S‚R° RјRµS‚RѕRgRѕR»RѕRiS–S—, RѕSЃRyeS–R»SЊRyeRё S—S… RЅR°SѓRyeRѕRIS–SЃS‚SЊ R±SѓR»R° SЃSѓRїRµSЂRµS‡RyeRѕSЋ R±R°RiR°S‚SЊRѕS… SѓS‡RµRЅRёS… RgRѕ S‚R° RїS–SЃR»SЏ S—S… RIRёSЃRЅRѕRIRyeS–RI. R‘S–R»SЊS€ RIS–RgRѕRјS– RµRyeSЃRїRµSЂS‚Rё RgS–R№S€R»Rё RIRёSЃRЅRѕRIRyeSѓ RїSЂRѕ R·RЅR°S‡RЅRѕ R±S–R»SЊS€Sѓ RyeS–R»SЊRyeS–SЃS‚SЊ, S– SЃSЊRѕRiRѕRgRЅS– RyeRѕRЅSЃRµRЅSЃSѓSЃ R·R°R»RёS€R°S”S‚SЊSЃSЏ RЅR° SЂS–RIRЅS– 7 RјS–R»SЊR№RѕRЅS–RI [SѓRyeSЂR°S—RЅSЃSЊRyeS– RgRµRјRѕRiSЂR°S„Rё RIRIR°R¶R°SЋS‚SЊ RЅR°R№R±S–R»SЊS€ RgRѕSЃS‚RѕRIS–SЂRЅRѕSЋ S†RёS„SЂSѓ 3,9 RјR»RЅ R·R°RiRёR±R»RёS… RIS–Rg R“RѕR»RѕRgRѕRјRѕSЂSѓ — R†Rџ].

"R§RµSЂRIRѕRЅRёR№ RiRѕR»RѕRg" — RµRјRѕS†S–R№RЅRµ S‡RёS‚R°RЅRЅSЏ RI R·RЅR°S‡RЅS–R№ RјS–SЂS– S‡RµSЂRµR· SЂRѕR·S–R±SЂR°RЅSѓ SѓSЃRЅSѓ S–SЃS‚RѕSЂS–SЋ. RўRёRј RЅRµ RјRµRЅS€, R°RIS‚RѕSЂSѓ RIRgR°S”S‚SЊSЃSЏ RїRµSЂRµRїR»S–S‚R°S‚Rё S†S– RјRµRјSѓR°SЂR°RјRё R· R°RIS‚RµRЅS‚RёS‡RЅRёRјRё RgRѕRyeSѓRјRµRЅS‚R°RјRё, S‰Rѕ SЃS‚RIRѕSЂSЋS” S†S–R»S–SЃRЅSѓ RyeR°SЂS‚RёRЅSѓ S€S‚SѓS‡RЅRѕRiRѕ RiRѕR»RѕRgSѓ.

RGRѕS‡R° RЅS–RyeRѕR»Rё RЅRµ R±SѓR»Rѕ RїRёS‚R°RЅRЅSЏ RїSЂRѕ S‚Rµ, S‡Rё R±SѓRI RiRѕR»RѕRg RI RЎR RЎR  Sѓ 1932—33 SЂRѕRyeR°S…, RїR°RЅS– R•RїRїR»R±RѕRј RgR°S” SЃRїRѕRyeS–R№ S‰RѕRgRѕ S‚RѕRiRѕ, S‡Rё R·R°SЃS‚RѕSЃSѓRIR°RI S†RµR№ RiRѕR»RѕRg RЎS‚R°R»S–RЅ S‚R° R№RѕRiRѕ SЂR°RgSЏRЅSЃSЊRyeRёR№ SЂRµR¶RёRј RgRѕ R·RЅRёS‰RµRЅRЅSЏ SѓRyeSЂR°S—RЅSЃSЊRyeRѕRiRѕ SЃRµR»SЏRЅSЃS‚RIR°.

R— RѕRiR»SЏRgSѓ RЅR° RISЃRµRїRѕRiR»RёRЅR°SЋS‡Sѓ RgS–SЏR»SЊRЅS–SЃS‚SЊ RЎS‚R°R»S–RЅR° RїSЂRѕS‚Rё SѓRyeSЂR°S—RЅSЃSЊRyeRёS… S†RµSЂRyeRѕRI S‚R° S–RЅS‚RµR»RµRyeS‚SѓR°R»S–RI, RgSѓS€Sѓ S‚R° S–RЅS‚RµR»RµRyeS‚ SѓRyeSЂR°S—RЅSЃSЊRyeRѕRiRѕ RЅR°SЂRѕRgSѓ, R°RyeS†S–SЏ RїSЂRѕS‚Rё SЃRµR»SЏRЅSЃS‚RIR° (SЃRµSЂS†SЏ RЅR°S†S–S—) SЃS‚R°R»R° R±RµR·R·R°RїRµSЂRµS‡RЅRѕSЋ S‚SЂRµS‚SЊRѕSЋ S‡R°SЃS‚RёRЅRѕSЋ S‡RѕS‚RёSЂRёRyeSѓS‚RЅRѕS— R°S‚R°RyeRё RЅR° SѓRyeSЂR°S—RЅSЃSЊRyeSѓ RЅR°S†S–SЋ.

R§RµS‚RIRµSЂS‚Rµ RјS–SЃS†Rµ R±SѓR»Rѕ RїRµSЂRµSЃRµR»RµRЅRЅSЏ SЂRѕSЃS–SЏRЅ RЅR° S‚RµSЂRёS‚RѕSЂS–SЋ RЈRyeSЂR°S—RЅRё. RўR°RyeRёRј S‡RёRЅRѕRј, S†Rµ S‚RµR·R° R R°S„R°RµR»SЏ R›RµRјRyeS–RЅR° RїSЂRѕ RiRµRЅRѕS†RёRg RїSЂRѕS‚Rё SѓRyeSЂR°S—RЅS†S–RI, SЏRyeSѓ RIS–RЅ RїSЂRµRgSЃS‚R°RIRёRI Sѓ 1953 SЂRѕS†S– RЅR° 20-S‚Sѓ SЂS–S‡RЅRёS†SЋ R“RѕR»RѕRgRѕRјRѕSЂSѓ 1932-1933 SЂRѕRyeS–RI. R”SѓS…, S–RЅS‚RµR»RµRyeS‚ S– SЃRµSЂS†Rµ — RјRµS‚R°S„RѕSЂRё R›RµRјRyeS–RЅR°.

 

R›RµRјRyeS–RЅ, RїRѕR»SЊSЃSЊRyeRёR№ S”RISЂRµR№, SЏRyeRёR№ RIRёRIS‡R°RI RїSЂR°RIRѕ Sѓ R›SЊRIS–RISЃSЊRyeRѕRјSѓ SѓRЅS–RIRµSЂSЃRёS‚RµS‚S–, RIRIR°R¶R°S”S‚SЊSЃSЏ R·R°SЃRЅRѕRIRЅRёRyeRѕRј  S‚RµSЂRјS–RЅSѓ "RiRµRЅRѕS†RёRg". R’R°R¶R»RёRIRѕ RIS–RgR·RЅR°S‡RёS‚Rё, S‰Rѕ RIS–RЅ S‚R°RyeRѕR¶ R±SѓRI RѕRgRЅRёRј S–R· SЂRѕR·SЂRѕR±RЅRёRyeS–RI RљRѕRЅRIRµRЅS†S–S— RћRћRќ RїSЂRѕ RїRѕRїRµSЂRµRgR¶RµRЅRЅSЏ S‚R° RїRѕRyeR°SЂR°RЅRЅSЏ RiRµRЅRѕS†RёRgSѓ. R›RµRјRyeS–RЅ RIRIR°R¶R°RI RЈRyeSЂR°S—RЅSЃSЊRyeRёR№ R“RѕR»RѕRgRѕRјRѕSЂ 1932—33 SЂRѕRyeR°RјRё S‡R°SЃS‚RёRЅRѕSЋ RiRµRЅRѕS†RёRgSѓ RїSЂRѕS‚Rё SѓRyeSЂR°S—RЅSЃSЊRyeRѕRiRѕ RЅR°SЂRѕRgSѓ RI XX SЃS‚RѕR»S–S‚S‚S–.

RљRѕRЅRIRµRЅS†S–SЏ RћRћRќ, RїSЂRёR№RЅSЏS‚R° RI RiSЂSѓRgRЅS– 1948 SЂRѕRyeSѓ, RIRёR·RЅR°S‡RёR»R° RiRµRЅRѕS†RёRg SЏRye: "RЈ S†S–R№ RљRѕRЅRIRµRЅS†S–S— RiRµRЅRѕS†RёRg RѕR·RЅR°S‡R°S” R±SѓRgSЊ-SЏRyeRµ R· RЅR°SЃS‚SѓRїRЅRёS… RgS–R№, RIS‡RёRЅRµRЅRёS… R· RЅR°RјS–SЂRѕRј RїRѕRIRЅS–SЃS‚SЋ R°R±Rѕ S‡R°SЃS‚RyeRѕRIRѕ R·RЅRёS‰RёS‚Rё RЅR°S†S–RѕRЅR°R»SЊRЅSѓ, RµS‚RЅS–S‡RЅSѓ, SЂR°SЃRѕRISѓ S‡Rё SЂRµR»S–RiS–R№RЅSѓ RiSЂSѓRїSѓ SЏRye S‚R°RyeSѓ". R¦Rµ RIRёR·RЅR°S‡RµRЅRЅSЏ R·R°R»RёS€RёR»RѕSЃSЏ RЅRµR·RјS–RЅRЅRёRј.

RџR°RЅS– R•RїRїR»R±RѕRј RїRёS€Rµ, S‰Rѕ R“RѕR»RѕRgRѕRјRѕSЂ 1932—33 SЂRѕRyeS–RI RЅRµ RIS–RgRїRѕRIS–RgR°S” S‚R°RyeRѕRјSѓ RIRёR·RЅR°S‡RµRЅRЅSЋ, RѕSЃRyeS–R»SЊRyeRё RЅRµ R±SѓR»Rѕ RЅR°RјS–SЂSѓ R·SЂSѓR№RЅSѓRIR°S‚Rё RISЃSЋ SѓRyeSЂR°S—RЅSЃSЊRyeSѓ RЅR°S†S–SЋ. RђR»Rµ R·RIRёS‡R°R№RЅRѕ, S‰Rѕ SЃRїSЂRѕR±R° R·RЅRёS‰RёS‚Rё SѓRyeSЂR°S—RЅSЃSЊRyeSѓ RЅR°S†S–SЋ S‡R°SЃS‚RyeRѕRIRѕ, SЏRye S†Rµ RyeRѕRЅRyeSЂRµS‚RЅRѕ R·R°R·RЅR°S‡RµRЅRѕ RI RљRѕRЅRIRµRЅS†S–S—, R·RЅRёS‰SѓSЋS‡Rё S—S— SЃRµR»SЏRЅSЃS‚RIRѕ, S‰Rѕ S” RЅRµRIS–RgS”RјRЅRѕSЋ S‡R°SЃS‚RёRЅRѕSЋ , S—S— SЃRµSЂS†RµRј, SЏRye R·R°R·RЅR°S‡R°RI R›RµRјRyeS–RЅ, RIS–RgRїRѕRIS–RgR°S” RIRёR·RЅR°S‡RµRЅRЅSЋ RљRѕRЅRIRµRЅS†S–S—!

R”Rѕ SЂRµS‡S– RЅR°RјS–SЂ R±SѓRI RїRѕRIRЅS–SЃS‚SЋ R·RЅRёS‰RёS‚Rё SѓRyeSЂR°S—RЅSЃSЊRyeSѓ RЅR°S†S–SЋ S– RgR»SЏ S†SЊRѕRiRѕ S‚SЂRµR±R° RїSЂRёR№RЅSЏS‚Rё S– R·SЂRѕR·SѓRјS–S‚Rё RISЃS– S‡RѕS‚RёSЂRё RЅR°RїSЂSЏRјRё RїSЂRµRgSЃS‚R°RIR»RµRЅS– R›RµRјRyeS–RЅRѕRј.

RњR°R±SѓS‚SЊ, SЏRye S‰Rµ RѕRgRёRЅ RgRёRїR»RѕRјR°S‚RёS‡RЅRёR№ RїS–RgS…S–Rg, RїR°RЅS– R•RїRїR»R±RѕRј RЅR°RIRѕRgRёS‚SЊ RgSѓRјRyeSѓ, S‰Rѕ RїSЂRѕRIRёRЅR° R·R° R“RѕR»RѕRg R»RµR¶RёS‚SЊ RЅR° SЃS‚R°R»S–RЅSЃSЊRyeRѕRјSѓ SЂR°RgSЏRЅSЃSЊRyeRѕRјSѓ SЂRµR¶RёRјSѓ, R° RЅRµ R RѕSЃS–S— S‡Rё SЂRѕSЃS–SЏRЅR°S…. RЎR°RјRµ RїSЂRµR·RёRgRµRЅS‚ RЈRyeSЂR°S—RЅRё R®S‰RµRЅRyeRѕ RI 2008 SЂRѕS†S– R·R°RyeR»RёRyeR°RI SЂRѕSЃS–R№SЃSЊRyeRѕRiRѕ RїSЂRµR·RёRgRµRЅS‚R° RњRµRgRIRµRgS”RIR° RIRёR·RЅR°S‚Rё R“RѕR»RѕRg 1932—33 SЂRѕRyeS–RI!

RћRgRЅR°Rye RЅR°RIS–S‚SЊ RgR»SЏ S‚RёS…, S…S‚Rѕ RIRIR°R¶R°S”, S‰Rѕ RЎR RЎR  RЅRµ R±SѓRI RїSЂRѕSЃS‚Rѕ S–RЅS€RѕSЋ S„RѕSЂRјRѕSЋ R RѕSЃS–R№SЃSЊRyeRѕS— S–RјRїRµSЂS–S—, R RѕSЃS–R№SЃSЊRyeR° R¤RµRgRµSЂR°S†S–SЏ SЏRye SЃRїR°RgRyeRѕS”RјRµS†SЊ RЎR RЎR  RIR·SЏR»R° RЅR° SЃRµR±Rµ RIS–RgRїRѕRIS–RgR°R»SЊRЅS–SЃS‚SЊ S‡RµSЂRµR· SЂRѕR·SЂRѕR±RyeSѓ RyeR°RјRїR°RЅS–S— RI SЂR°RјRyeR°S… RјS–R¶RЅR°SЂRѕRgRЅRѕRiRѕ SЃRїS–RIS‚RѕRIR°SЂRёSЃS‚RIR° RgR»SЏ R·R°RїRµSЂRµS‡RµRЅRЅSЏ R“RѕR»RѕRgRѕRјRѕSЂSѓ, RIRёRyeR»SЋS‡R°SЋS‡Rё R±SѓRgSЊ-SЏRyeRµ R·RiR°RgSѓRIR°RЅRЅSЏ RїSЂRѕ S†Rµ RI RћR±S”RgRЅR°RЅRёS… RќR°S†S–SЏS….

RЈ RЅSѓS‚SЂS– RyeSЂR°S—RЅRё R RѕSЃS–R№SЃSЊRyeR° R¤RµRgRµSЂR°S†S–SЏ SЂRѕR·RїSѓSЃS‚RёR»R° RISЃS– S†RµRЅS‚SЂR°R»SЊRЅS– SѓRyeSЂR°S—RЅSЃSЊRyeS– SЃS‚SЂSѓRyeS‚SѓSЂRё RI R RѕSЃS–S—, RЅR°S…R°R±RЅRѕ SЃRїRёSЂR°SЋS‡RёSЃSЊ RЅR° SЏSЃRЅRѕ RIRyeR°R·R°RЅS– RїS–RgSЃS‚R°RIRё RgR»SЏ SЂRѕR·RїSѓSЃRyeSѓ RЅR° RIS–RgRјS–S‡RµRЅRЅSЏ S†RёRјRё RiSЂRѕRјR°RgR°RјRё R“RѕR»RѕRgRѕRјRѕSЂSѓ 1932—33 SЂRѕRyeS–RI. R RѕSЃS–R№SЃSЊRyeR° R¤RµRgRµSЂR°S†S–SЏ RI RgR°RЅRёR№ S‡R°SЃ S” R±S–R»SЊS€ RЅS–R¶ SЃRїR°RgRyeRѕS”RјS†RµRј S†SЊRѕRiRѕ R·R»RѕS‡RёRЅSѓ.

RќRµR·RIR°R¶R°SЋS‡Rё RЅR° RЅR°RIRµRgRµRЅS– RIRёS‰Rµ SЃRїRѕSЃS‚RµSЂRµR¶RµRЅRЅSЏ, "R§RµSЂRIRѕRЅRёR№ RiRѕR»RѕRg" RїR°RЅS– R•RїRїR»R±RѕRј S” RµRјRѕS†S–R№RЅRѕSЋ, RјR°R№R¶Rµ RIRёSЃRЅR°R¶R»RёRIRѕSЋ, R°R»Rµ RgSѓR¶Rµ S†S–RyeR°RIRѕSЋ RyeRЅRёRiRѕSЋ RgR»SЏ RISЃS–S…, S…S‚Rѕ S†S–RyeR°RIRёS‚SЊSЃSЏ RЈRyeSЂR°S—RЅRѕSЋ, RiRµRЅRѕS†RёRgR°RјRё, R·R»RѕS‡RёRЅR°RјRё RЎS‚R°R»S–RЅR° S‚R° S–RЅS€RёS… SЂR°RgSЏRЅSЃSЊRyeRёS… RIR°S‚R°R¶RyeS–RI R°R±Rѕ RїSЂRѕSЃS‚Rѕ S‚SѓSЂR±SѓS”S‚SЊSЃSЏ RїSЂRѕ R»SЋRgSЃS‚RIRѕ S‚R° SЃRїSЂR°RIRµRgR»RёRIS–SЃS‚SЊ.

RќR°RIS–S‚SЊ RgR»SЏ R»SЋRgRµR№, RIRyeR»SЋS‡R°SЋS‡Rё R±S–R»SЊS€S–SЃS‚SЊ R°RЅRiR»RѕRјRѕRIRЅRёS… RЅR°SЂRѕRgS–RI, SЏRye RїSЂR°RIRёR»Rѕ, RЅRµR·RЅR°R№RѕRјRёS… R· SЂRѕSЃS–R№SЃSЊRyeRѕSЋ S–SЃS‚RѕSЂS–S”SЋ, R°R»Rµ RI RgR°RЅRёR№ S‡R°SЃ R·R°S†S–RyeR°RIR»RµRЅRёS… Sѓ RyeSЂR°S‰RѕRјSѓ SЂRѕR·SѓRјS–RЅRЅS– SЂRѕSЃS–R№SЃSЊRyeRѕS— RїSЃRёS…RѕR»RѕRiS–S— S‚R° S—S— SЃRїSЂRѕRјRѕR¶RЅRѕSЃS‚S– S‚RIRѕSЂRёS‚Rё R»RёS…Rѕ RЅR° RѕSЃRЅRѕRIS– S—S— S–SЃS‚RѕSЂS–S—, S†Rµ RЅR°SѓRyeR° RgR»SЏ SѓSЃS–S….

R¤SЂR°R·R°. "RЎS‚R°R»S–RЅSЃSЊRyeR° RїRѕR»S–S‚RёRyeR° S†S–S”S— RѕSЃRµRЅS– RЅRµRјRёRЅSѓS‡Rµ RIRµR»R°SЃSЏ RїRѕ RISЃSЊRѕRјSѓ R·RµSЂRЅRѕRIRѕRјSѓ SЂRµRiS–RѕRЅSѓ RЎR RЎR . RђR»Rµ RI R»RёSЃS‚RѕRїR°RgS– S‚R° RiSЂSѓRgRЅS– 1932 SЂRѕRyeSѓ RIS–RЅ S‰Rµ R±S–R»SЊS€Rµ "RISЃS‚SЂRѕRјRёRI RЅS–R¶" RI RЈRyeSЂR°S—RЅSѓ, RЅR°RIRјRёSЃRЅRѕ SЃS‚RIRѕSЂRёRIS€Rё RiR»RёR±RѕRyeSѓ RyeSЂRёR·Sѓ. RљSЂRѕRye R·R° RyeSЂRѕRyeRѕRј, RIRёRyeRѕSЂRёSЃS‚RѕRISѓSЋS‡Rё R±SЋSЂRѕRyeSЂR°S‚RёS‡RЅSѓ RјRѕRISѓ S‚R° S‚SѓRїSѓ SЋSЂRёRgRёS‡RЅSѓ S‚RµSЂRјS–RЅRѕR»RѕRiS–SЋ, SЂR°RgSЏRЅSЃSЊRyeRµ RyeRµSЂS–RIRЅRёS†S‚RIRѕ, RїSЂRё RgRѕRїRѕRјRѕR·S– SЃRIRѕS—S… R·R°R»SЏRyeR°RЅRёS… SѓRyeSЂR°S—RЅSЃSЊRyeRёS… RyeRѕR»RµRi, RїRѕS‡R°R»Rѕ RiRѕR»RѕRg, S‰Rѕ RїSЂRёRIRµR»Rѕ RI RЅR°SЃR»S–RgRyeSѓ RgRѕ  RyeR°S‚R°SЃS‚SЂRѕS„Rё, SЃRїRµS†S–R°R»SЊRЅRѕ RѕSЂS–S”RЅS‚RѕRIR°RЅSѓ RЅR° RЈRyeSЂR°S—RЅSѓ S‚R° SѓRyeSЂR°S—RЅS†S–RI ".

                    

100 RyeRЅRёRi RќRµR·R°R»RµR¶RЅRѕSЃS‚S–. "R†SЃS‚RѕSЂRёS‡RЅR° RїSЂR°RIRgR°" SЂRµRyeRѕRјRµRЅRgSѓS”

RџRµSЂRµR»S–Rye RIRёRgR°RЅSЊ, SЏRyeS– RIRёR№S€R»Rё R·R° S‡R°SЃS–RI RЅRµR·R°R»RµR¶RЅRѕSЃS‚S– S– SЏRyeS– RgR°SЋS‚SЊ RјRѕR¶R»RёRIS–SЃS‚SЊ RїS–R·RЅR°S‚Rё S–SЃS‚RѕSЂS–SЋ RЈRyeSЂR°S—RЅRё, R„RISЂRѕRїRё, RЅR°S€RёS… SЃSѓSЃS–RgS–RI, RѕRyeSЂRµRјRёS… R»SЋRgRµR№ S– SЏRIRёS‰. R† SЏRyeS– SЂRѕR±R»SЏS‚SЊ S†Rµ R· SЂS–R·RЅRёS… RїRµSЂSЃRїRµRyeS‚RёRI. RџRµRIRЅS–, S‰Rѕ S‡R°SЃ, RIRёS‚SЂR°S‡RµRЅRёR№ RЅR° S‡RёS‚R°RЅRЅSЏ RЅRµ R±SѓRgRµ RIS‚SЂR°S‡RµRЅRёRј.

RЈRyeSЂR°S—RЅS†S–. RќR°R№RЅRµS‰R°SЃR»RёRIS–S€R° RЅR°S†S–SЏ S‡RѕS‚RёSЂSЊRѕS… RyeRѕRЅS‚RёRЅRµRЅS‚S–RI

RЈRyeSЂR°S—RЅS†S– vЂ” RЅR°R№RЅRµS‰R°SЃR»RёRIS–S€R° RЅR°S†S–SЏ R„RISЂRѕRїRё, RѕR±RѕS… RђRјRµSЂRёRye S‚R° RђRISЃS‚SЂR°R»S–S—. RўR°RyeRёRј S” RїS–RgSЃSѓRјRѕRye RЅR°S€RѕRiRѕ SЂRѕR·RIRёS‚RyeSѓ RЅR°RїRµSЂRµRgRѕRgRЅS– 28-S— SЂS–S‡RЅRёS†S– RќRµR·R°R»RµR¶RЅRѕSЃS‚Rё. RЇRye SѓRyeSЂR°S—RЅS†S– R·RјS–RЅSЋRIR°R»RёSЃSЏ RїSЂRѕS‚SЏRiRѕRј SЂRѕRyeS–RI RќRµR·R°R»RµR¶RЅRѕSЃS‚S–? R§RѕRјSѓ RјRё RIRїSЂRёS‚SѓR» RЅRµ RїRѕRјS–S‡R°S”RјRѕ, S‰Rѕ RЅR°SЃRїSЂR°RIRgS– RЈRyeSЂR°S—RЅR° vЂ” RЅRµ RЈRiR°RЅRgR°!?

RЈRyeSЂR°S—RЅSЃSЊRyeRёR№ RїR°SЂR°Rg Sѓ SЃS‚RѕR»RёS†S– R RѕSЃS–S—

RњSЂS–SЏ? RќS– vЂ“ S†Rµ RIR¶Rµ R±SѓR»Rѕ. R† RЅRµ RѕRgRёRЅ SЂR°R·. RџRѕR±SѓS‚SѓS” RgSѓRјRyeR°, S‰Rѕ RI RЅR°S€S–R№ S–SЃS‚RѕSЂS–S— RјR°R»Rѕ SЃRIS–S‚R»RёS… SЃS‚RѕSЂS–RЅRѕRye S– RїRµSЂRµRјRѕRi. R“SЂR°RЅRgS–RѕR·RЅRёR№ SѓRyeSЂR°S—RЅSЃSЊRyeRёR№ RIS–R№SЃSЊRyeRѕRIRёR№ RїR°SЂR°Rg RI SЃS‚RѕR»RёS†S– R RѕSЃS–S—: SЏRye S†Rµ R±SѓR»Rѕ?

RћRјRµR»SЏRЅ RљRѕRIS‡ vЂ” SЃRISЏS‰RµRЅRёRye, RїR°S‚SЂS–RѕS‚ S‚R° RїSЂR°RIRµRgRЅRёRye

"RљRѕRIS‡, SЏRyeRёR№ RgRѕSЃRyeRѕRЅR°R»Rѕ R·RЅR°RI RЅS–RјRµS†SЊRyeSѓ RјRѕRISѓ, RyeSЂRёRyeRЅSѓRI RgRѕ RЅS–RјRµS†SЊRyeRёS… SЃRѕR»RgR°S‚S–RI, S‰RѕR± RgRѕRїSѓSЃS‚RёR»Rё R№RѕRiRѕ RgRѕ SЃRёRЅR°RiRѕRiRё. RћSЃS‚R°RЅRЅS– RѕRЅS–RјS–R»Rё RIS–Rg R·RgRёRISѓRIR°RЅRЅSЏ S– RїSѓSЃS‚RёR»Rё R№RѕRiRѕ, R° RѕS‚RµS†SЊ RyeRёRЅSѓRISЃSЏ RIRёRЅRѕSЃRёS‚Rё R»SЋRgRµR№ S–R· RїR°R»R°SЋS‡RѕS— SЃRёRЅR°RiRѕRiRё. RЎRµSЂRµRg S–RЅS€RёS…, SЏRyeRёS… RISЂSЏS‚SѓRIR°RI Rѕ. RљRѕRIS‡, R±SѓRI SЂR°R±RёRЅ Rј. R‘RµR»R· RђR°SЂRѕRЅ R RѕRyeRµR°S…".