RћR»RµRyeSЃR°RЅRgSЂ R—S–RЅS‡RµRЅRyeRѕ: S‡Rё RјRѕR¶R»RёRIRёR№ SѓRyeSЂR°S—RЅSЃSЊRyeRѕ-RїRѕR»SЊSЃSЊRyeRёR№ S–SЃS‚RѕSЂRёS‡RЅRёR№ RgS–R°R»RѕRi?

RџRѕR»SЊS‰R° RјR°S” SЃRїS–R»SЊRЅSѓ RїSЂRѕR±R»RµRјSѓ R· R RѕSЃS–S”SЋ: S—S…RЅS” R±R°S‡RµRЅRЅSЏ RЈRyeSЂR°S—RЅRё S– SЃRїSЂR°RIR¶RЅSЏ RЈRyeSЂR°S—RЅR° vЂ“ S†Rµ RgRIS– RIRµR»RёRyeS– SЂS–R·RЅRёS†S–. RЎSЊRѕRiRѕRgRЅS– RљRёS—RI RјR°S” R· R’R°SЂS€R°RIRѕSЋ S‚S– R¶ SЃR°RјS– RїRµSЂRµRїRѕRЅRё, S‰Rѕ S– R· RњRѕSЃRyeRIRѕSЋ: SѓRїRµSЂRµRgR¶RµRЅRЅSЏ, RyeR»S–S€Rµ, RЅRµRIS–RgRїRѕRIS–RgRЅS–SЃS‚SЊ SЂRµR°R»S–SЏRј. Rђ S‚RѕRјSѓ, SЏRyeS– R± RyeSЂRѕRyeRё SѓRyeSЂR°S—RЅSЃSЊRyeR° RIR»R°RgR° RЅRµ SЂRѕR±RёR»R° R±Rё RЅR°R·SѓSЃS‚SЂS–S‡ RїRѕR»SЊSЃSЊRyeS–R№ vЂ“ S†Rµ RЅRµ R·R°RyeS–RЅS‡RёS‚SЊSЃSЏ R¶RѕRgRЅRёRј RyeRѕRЅSЃS‚SЂSѓRyeS‚RёRIRѕRј. R‘Rѕ R’R°SЂS€R°RIR° RЅRµ RIRёRyeRѕRЅR°R»R° SЃRIRѕS” RgRѕRјR°S€RЅS” R·R°RIRgR°RЅRЅSЏ R·S– SЃRїSЂRѕSЃS‚SѓRIR°RЅRЅSЏ SѓRїRµSЂRµRgR¶RµRЅSЊ S‰RѕRgRѕ RЈRyeSЂR°S—RЅRё.

RћRyeSЃR°RЅR° RљRѕSЃRјS–RЅR°: R·R°RїRѕSЂRѕR·SЊRyeS– RyeRѕR·R°RyeRё RЅRѕSЃRёR»Rё RЅRµ S€R°SЂRѕRIR°SЂRё, R° RISѓR·SЊRyeS– RїRѕR»RѕS‚RЅSЏRЅS– S€S‚R°RЅRё

RЇRyeRёRјRё SЃSЊRѕRiRѕRgRЅS– RјS–S„R°RјRё RѕRiRѕSЂRЅSѓS‚R° RїSЂR°RgR°RIRЅSЏ RIRёS€RёS‚R° SЃRѕSЂRѕS‡RyeR°? RђRgR¶Rµ RЅR°RIS–S‚SЊ SЃR°RјRµ SЃR»RѕRIRѕ vЂњRIRёS€RёRIR°RЅRyeR°vЂќ, RIRёSЏRIR»SЏS”S‚SЊSЃSЏ, RЅRѕRIRѕRgS–R». R’ SѓRyeSЂR°S—RЅS†S–RI SЃRyeR»R°RISЃSЏ RїRµRIRЅRёR№ RїRµSЂRµR»S–Rye RјR°S‚RµSЂS–R°R»SЊRЅRёS… SЃRёRјRIRѕR»S–RI, SЏRyeS– RЅR°S‡RµR±S‚Rѕ SЂRѕR±R»SЏS‚SЊ S—S… SѓRyeSЂR°S—RЅS†SЏRјRё: R±R°RЅRgSѓSЂR°, RїS–SЃRЅSЏ, S€R°R±R»SЏ, SЃR°R»Rѕ, RiRѕSЂS–R»RyeR°, RIS–RЅRѕRye, RIRёS€RёRIR°RЅRyeR°. RќRµ RISЃRµ S‚R°Rye RѕRgRЅRѕR·RЅR°S‡RЅRѕ.

RЎRµSЂRiS–R№ R“S–SЂS–Rye: RiR°SЃR»R° RЈRќR  RЅR°RiR°RgSѓRIR°R»Rё R±S–R»SЊS€RѕRIRёS†SЊRyeS–

R†RЅS‚RµSЂRISЋ R· RyeR°RЅRgRёRgR°S‚RѕRј S–SЃS‚RѕSЂRёS‡RЅRёS… RЅR°SѓRye, RIS‡RµRЅRёRј SЃRµRyeSЂRµS‚R°SЂRµRј RЈRyeSЂR°S—RЅSЃSЊRyeRѕS— R°SЃRѕS†S–R°S†S–S— SЋRgR°S—RyeRё RЎRµSЂRiS–S”Rј R“S–SЂS–RyeRѕRј

RћSЃS‚R°RЅRЅS–R№ RЁSѓS…RµRIRёS‡

12 SЃS–S‡RЅSЏ RIS–RgR·RЅR°S‡R°SЋS‚SЊ R”RµRЅSЊ SѓRyeSЂR°S—RЅSЃSЊRyeRѕRiRѕ RїRѕR»S–S‚RIvЂ™SЏR·RЅSЏ vЂ“ SЏRye R·RiR°RgRyeSѓ RїSЂRѕ RјR°SЃS€S‚R°R±RЅS– R°SЂRµS€S‚Rё SѓRyeSЂR°S—RЅSЃSЊRyeRёS… RgRёSЃRёRgRµRЅS‚S–RI 1972 SЂRѕRyeSѓ. R— S†S–S”S— RЅR°RiRѕRgRё R†Rџ RїSѓR±R»S–RyeSѓS” S–RЅS‚RµSЂRIvЂ™SЋ R· R®SЂS–S”Rј RЁSѓS…RµRIRёS‡RµRј vЂ“ RѕRgRЅRёRј S–R· V«RјRѕRiS–RyeR°RЅS–RIV», S‰Rѕ RIS–RgR±SѓRI RI SЂR°RgSЏRЅSЃSЊRyeRёS… SѓRIvЂ™SЏR·RЅRµRЅRЅSЏS… 36 SЂRѕRyeS–RI.

RђRЅRgSЂRµR° RGR°R»SѓRїR°, R°RIS‚RѕSЂRyeR° SЃS†RµRЅR°SЂS–SЋ S„S–R»SЊRјSѓ V«R¦S–RЅR° RїSЂR°RIRgRёV»: V«S†Rµ S–SЃS‚RѕSЂS–SЏ, SЏRyeSѓ SЂRѕR·RїRѕRIS–RI RјRµRЅS– RgS–RgSѓSЃSЊV»

RЎS†RµRЅR°SЂS–R№ RgRѕ S„S–R»SЊRјSѓ V«R¦S–RЅR° RїSЂR°RIRgRёV», SЏRyeRёR№ R·RЅSЏR»R° RїRѕR»SЊSЃSЊRyeR° SЂRµR¶RёSЃRµSЂRyeR° RђT‘RЅS”S€RyeR° R“RѕR»R»R°RЅRg, RЅR°RїRёSЃR°R»R° RђRЅRgSЂRµR° RGR°R»SѓRїR° vЂ“ R°RјRµSЂRёRyeR°RЅSЃSЊRyeR° R¶SѓSЂRЅR°R»S–SЃS‚RyeR° SѓRyeSЂR°S—RЅSЃSЊRyeRѕRiRѕ RїRѕS…RѕRgR¶RµRЅRЅSЏ. R’RѕRЅR° RgSЂSѓRyeSѓS”S‚SЊSЃSЏ RI V«The AtlanticV», V«TIMEV», V«ForbesV». R’RїRµSЂS€Rµ RїSЂRѕ R“RѕR»RѕRgRѕRјRѕSЂ RђRЅRgSЂRµR° RїRѕS‡SѓR»R° RI RgRёS‚RёRЅSЃS‚RIS– RIS–Rg SЃRIRѕRiRѕ RgS–RgSѓSЃSЏ, SЏRyeRёR№ R№RѕRiRѕ RїRµSЂRµR¶RёRI. Rђ RI SЃS‚SѓRgRµRЅS‚SЃSЊRyeS– SЂRѕRyeRё RIRѕRЅR° S‡RёS‚R°R»R° RїSЂRѕ R¶RёS‚S‚SЏ SЂRµRїRѕSЂS‚RµSЂR° V«New York TimesV» R’RѕR»S‚RµSЂR° R”SЋSЂR°RЅS‚S– RI RњRѕSЃRyeRIS–. RЎR°RјRµ S‚RѕRgS– RIRѕRЅR° RgS–R·RЅR°R»R°SЃSЏ RїSЂRѕ R“R°SЂRµS‚R° R”R¶RѕRЅSЃR°, RїSЂRёRiR°RgR°R»R° S–SЃS‚RѕSЂS–SЋ SЃRIRѕS”S— SЂRѕRgRёRЅRё S– RIRёSЂS–S€RёR»R°: V«RЇ S‚RѕS‡RЅRѕ RЅR°RїRёS€Sѓ SЃS†RµRЅR°SЂS–R№ RgRѕ S„S–R»SЊRјSѓ, SЏRyeRёR№ SЂRѕR·RїRѕRIS–RgR°S‚RёRјRµ RїSЂRѕ S†RµV».

RџSЂRѕS„RµSЃRѕSЂ RGS–SЂRѕR°RyeS– RљSѓSЂRѕRјS–SЏ: R”RѕRЅR±R°SЃ RЅR°SЂRѕRgRёRI RgRµRјRѕRyeSЂR°S‚RёS‡RЅRёR№ SѓRyeSЂR°S—RЅSЃSЊRyeRёR№ RЅR°S†S–RѕRЅR°R»S–R·Rј

R”RѕRЅR±R°SЃ RїSЂRµRgSЃS‚R°RIR»SЏS” RЈRyeSЂR°S—RЅSѓ RI RyeRѕRЅS†RµRЅS‚SЂRѕRIR°RЅS–R№ S„RѕSЂRјS–. R‘R°RiR°S‚Rѕ RјRѕRI, R±R°RiR°S‚Rѕ RЅR°S†S–RѕRЅR°R»SЊRЅRѕSЃS‚RµR№, R±R°RiR°S‚Rѕ S–RgRµR№, RїSЂRѕSЃS‚Rѕ RIR°R¶RyeRѕ SѓRїSЂR°RIR»SЏS‚Rё RISЃS–Rј S†RёRј. R’ S‚R°RyeRѕRјSѓ SЃRµRЅSЃS– R”RѕRЅR±R°SЃ S” S†RµRЅS‚SЂRѕRј S‚RµRїRµSЂS–S€RЅSЊRѕS— RЈRyeSЂR°S—RЅRё. R† SЏRyeS‰Rѕ RIRё R·RјRѕR¶RµS‚Rµ RI S†SЊRѕRјSѓ RїR»R°RЅS– SѓRїSЂR°RIR»SЏS‚Rё R”RѕRЅR±R°SЃRѕRј, S‚Rѕ SѓRїSЂR°RIR»SЏS‚Rё RЈRyeSЂR°S—RЅRѕSЋ R±SѓRgRµ RЅR°R±R°RiR°S‚Rѕ R»RµRiS€Rµ. R’ S‚R°RyeRѕRјSѓ SЃRµRЅSЃS–, SЏ RgSѓRјR°SЋ, R”RѕRЅR±R°SЃ RgSѓR¶Rµ RIR°R¶R»RёRIRёR№ RЈRyeSЂR°S—RЅS–. RЇ RgSѓRјR°SЋ, S‰Rѕ RљRёS—RI S– SѓRyeSЂR°S—RЅSЃSЊRyeRёR№ RЅR°SЂRѕRg R·RјRѕR¶SѓS‚SЊ RIRїRѕSЂR°S‚RёSЃSЏ R· S†RёRјRё R·R°RIRgR°RЅRЅSЏRјRё.

RЎRyeS–R»SЊRyeRё RIRѕS—RЅS–RI R·R°RiRёRЅSѓR»Rё RI R†R»RѕRIR°R№SЃSЊRyeRѕRјSѓ RѕS‚RѕS‡RµRЅRЅS–: RIS–RgRѕRјRµ S‚RѕS‡RЅRµ S‡RёSЃR»Rѕ R№ S–RјRµRЅR°

RЈ RgRЅS– 5-SЂS–S‡S‡SЏ S‚SЂR°RiRµRgS–S— RїS–Rg R†R»RѕRIR°R№SЃSЊRyeRѕRј S” RISЃS– RїS–RgSЃS‚R°RIRё RiRѕRIRѕSЂRёS‚Rё RїSЂRѕ RyeRѕRЅRyeSЂRµS‚RЅS–, R° RЅRµ RїRµSЂRµR±S–R»SЊS€RµRЅS– R№ RЅRµRISЃS‚R°RЅRѕRIR»RµRЅS–, S†RёS„SЂRё RIS‚SЂR°S‚ RЈRyeSЂR°S—RЅSЃSЊRyeRёS… RIS–R№SЃSЊRye. R RѕR·SЃS‚R°RIR»SЏS”RјRѕ RyeSЂR°RїRyeRё RЅR°Rg vЂњS–vЂќ R· RїRѕS€SѓRyeRѕRIS†RµRј RЇSЂRѕSЃR»R°RIRѕRј RўRёRЅS‡RµRЅRyeRѕRј.

RћR»SЏ R“RЅR°S‚SЋRye: vЂњRџR°RјvЂ™SЏS‚R°S‚Rё RїSЂRѕ RјRёRЅSѓR»Rµ, R°R»Rµ RgSѓRјR°S‚Rё RїSЂRѕ RјR°R№R±SѓS‚RЅS”vЂќ

RЎR°Rј RјRµS‚R°S„RѕSЂRёS‡RЅRёR№ RIRёSЃR»S–RI vЂњR°RgRIRѕRyeR°S‚ RЈRyeSЂR°S—RЅRёvЂќ RјRµRЅS– RЅS–RyeRѕR»Rё RЅRµ RїRѕRgRѕR±R°RISЃSЏ. RљRѕR»Rё R№RgRµS‚SЊSЃSЏ RїSЂRѕ SЂRµS‡RЅRёRyeR° S–RЅS‚RµSЂRµSЃS–RI, S‚Rѕ RЈRyeSЂR°S—RЅR° RјR°R»R° R± SЃR°RјR° S—S… RїSЂRµRgSЃS‚R°RIR»SЏS‚Rё. RћRgRЅRµ RЅRµ RїS–RgR»SЏRiR°S” SЃSѓRјRЅS–RISѓ, S‰Rѕ RјS–R¶ RџRѕR»SЊS‰RµSЋ S‚R° RЈRyeSЂR°S—RЅRѕSЋ SЃRyeR»R°R»RёSЃSЏ RѕSЃRѕR±R»RёRIRѕ RgSЂSѓR¶RЅS– RIS–RgRЅRѕSЃRёRЅRё, S‰Rѕ R±SѓR»R° RїS–RgS‚SЂRёRјRyeR°, S–RЅRѕRgS– RЅR°RIS–S‚SЊ RїS–RgS‚SЂRёRјRyeR° R±RµR·R·R°SЃS‚RµSЂRµR¶RЅR°, RgRѕ SЏRyeRѕS— SѓRyeSЂR°S—RЅSЃSЊRyeS– RїRѕR»S–S‚RёRyeRё R·RIRёRyeR»Rё SЏRye RgRѕ S‡RѕRiRѕSЃSЊ SЃR°RјRѕRѕS‡RµRIRёRgRЅRѕRiRѕ.

V«RњS–R№ RyeRѕS…R°RЅRёR№ R·R°R»RёS€RёRISЃSЏ RЅR° V«RiSЂR°R¶RgR°RЅS†S–V». RЎRїRѕRgS–RIR°SЋSЃSЊ, S‰Rѕ RgRѕS‡RµRyeR°S”S‚SЊSЃSЏvЂ¦V»

RџS–SЃR»SЏ S†RёS… S…R»RѕRїS†S–RI Sѓ RЅR°SЃ R±SѓRI S–S‰Rµ RѕRgRёRЅ R·R°RiRёR±R»RёR№ R±SЂR°S‚ vЂ“ V«RљSЂSѓRyeV», RЅR°R№RјRѕR»RѕRgS€RёR№ R· RЅR°SЃ. R™RѕRiRѕ RgSЂSѓRi S‚RѕRgS– S‚R°Rye RyeSЂRёS‡R°RIvЂ¦ R’S–RЅ RЅR°RIS–S‚SЊ RЅRµ RyeSЂRёS‡R°RI, RIS–RЅ RIRёRI RїSЂRѕSЃS‚Rѕ, SЏRye R·RIS–SЂ, SЏ RIRїRµSЂS€Rµ S‡SѓR»R°, S‰RѕR± S‡RѕR»RѕRIS–Rye S‚R°Rye RyeSЂRёS‡R°RI. R¦Rµ R±SѓR»Rѕ SЃS‚SЂR°S€RЅRѕ R±RѕR»SЏS‡Rµ vЂ“ S– S‡RµSЂRµR· SѓR±RёS‚RѕRiRѕ V«RљSЂSѓRyeR°V», S– S‡RµSЂRµR· RѕS†RµR№ R±S–R»SЊ R»SЋRgRёRЅRё, SЏRyeR° RIS‚SЂR°S‚RёR»R° RyeSЂR°S‰RѕRiRѕ RgSЂSѓRiR°.

RњR°R»RyeRѕR»SЊRј RњR°T‘T‘RµSЂS–RgR¶ S– RiRѕR»RѕRg RI RЈRyeSЂR°S—RЅS– 1932-1933 SЂRѕRyeS–RI

R‘RµR· SЃSѓRјRЅS–RISѓ S†Rµ R±SѓRI RѕRgRёRЅ S–R· RЅR°R№R±S–R»SЊS€RёS… R·R»RѕS‡RёRЅS–RI RЅR°S€RёS… S‡R°SЃS–RI, RЅRµ RјRµRЅS€RёR№, RЅS–R¶ S”RISЂRµR№SЃSЊRyeR° RyeR°S‚R°SЃS‚SЂRѕS„R° S‡Rё RIS–SЂRјRµRЅSЃSЊRyeR° RјR°SЃR°RyeSЂR°. RђR»Rµ RјRµRЅRµ R·R°RIR¶RgRё RISЂR°R¶R°S”, SЏRye R»SЋRgRё, RiRѕRIRѕSЂSЏS‡Rё RїSЂRѕ RIRµR»RёRyeS– SЃS‚SЂR°S…S–S‚S‚SЏ RЅR°S€RѕRiRѕ SЃS‚RѕR»S–S‚S‚SЏ vЂ“ RђSѓS€RIS–S†, RGS–SЂRѕSЃS–RјSѓ S‚R° S–RЅS€S–, RЅS–RyeRѕR»Rё RЅRµ R·RiR°RgSѓSЋS‚SЊ RiRѕR»RѕRg RI RЈRyeSЂR°S—RЅS–. RЇRyeRѕSЃSЊ RїS–SЃR»SЏ RISЃS–S… S‚RёS… SЂRѕRyeS–RI S‰Rµ RЅRµ SѓSЃRIS–RgRѕRјR»RµRЅRѕ S‚RѕRiRѕ S„R°RyeS‚Sѓ, S‰Rѕ RЎS‚R°R»S–RЅ Sѓ 1930-S… SЂRѕRyeR°S… SѓR±RёRI RЅR°R±R°RiR°S‚Rѕ R±S–R»SЊS€Rµ R»SЋRgRµR№, RЅS–R¶ R“S–S‚R»RµSЂ RIRёRЅRёS‰RёRI S”RISЂRµS—RI.

R’RѕR»RѕRgRёRјRёSЂ R’vЂ™SЏS‚SЂRѕRIRёS‡: vЂњRџRѕR»SЊSЃSЊRyeS– RїRѕR»S–S‚RёRyeRё S‰Rµ RЅRµ R·SЂRѕR·SѓRјS–R»Rё, S‰Rѕ RЈRyeSЂR°S—RЅR° R·RјS–RЅRёR»R°SЃSЏvЂќ

RџRµSЂRµRyeRѕRЅR°RЅRёR№, S‰Rѕ RЅRёRЅS–S€RЅS– RЅRµRїRѕSЂRѕR·SѓRјS–RЅRЅSЏ S‚RёRјS‡R°SЃRѕRIS– S– S” RЅR°SЃR»S–RgRyeRѕRј RЅRµSЂRѕR·SѓRјS–RЅRЅSЏ RїRѕR»SЊSЃSЊRyeRёS… RїRѕR»S–S‚RёRyeS–RI, S‰Rѕ RЈRyeSЂR°S—RЅR° RјS–RЅSЏS”S‚SЊSЃSЏ. R”Rѕ RЈRyeSЂR°S—RЅRё S‚RµRїRµSЂS–S€RЅSЊRѕS— RЅR°RјR°RiR°SЋS‚SЊSЃSЏ SЃS‚R°RIRёS‚RёSЃSЊ, SЏRye RgRѕ RЈRyeSЂR°S—RЅRё RgRѕ R RµRIRѕR»SЋS†S–S— R“S–RgRЅRѕSЃS‚S–. RўRѕR±S‚Rѕ SЏRye RgRѕ RyeSЂR°S—RЅRё, SЏRyeR° RЅRµS…S‚SѓS” SЃRIRѕS”SЋ S–SЃS‚RѕSЂS–S”SЋ, SЏRyeR° RiRѕS‚RѕRIR° RїSЂRѕRgR°RIR°S‚Rё SЃRIRѕS— RїRѕRiR»SЏRgRё RЅR° RјRёRЅSѓR»Rµ R·R° R·RЅRёR¶RyeRё RЅR° RiR°R· S‚RѕS‰Rѕ. RђR»Rµ RЈRyeSЂR°S—RЅR° R·RјS–RЅRёR»R°SЃSЏ.

RЇSЂRѕSЃR»R°RI R“SЂRёS†R°Rye: V«RњR°RЅS–RїSѓR»SЏS†S–S— R· S–SЃS‚RѕSЂS–S”SЋ SЂRѕR·RyeRѕR»SЋSЋS‚SЊ RїRѕR»SЊSЃSЊRyeRµ SЃSѓSЃRїS–R»SЊSЃS‚RIRѕV»

R“RѕR»RѕRISѓ RЈRyeSЂR°S—RЅSЃSЊRyeRѕRiRѕ S‚RѕRIR°SЂRёSЃS‚RIR° Sѓ R›SЋR±R»S–RЅS– R“SЂRёRiRѕSЂS–SЏ RљSѓRїSЂS–SЏRЅRѕRIRёS‡R° RgRѕRїRёS‚R°R»Rё SЏRye SЃRIS–RgRyeR° Sѓ RїSЂRѕRyeSѓSЂR°S‚SѓSЂS– RїRѕR»SЊSЃSЊRyeRѕRiRѕ R—R°RјRѕSЃS‚SЏ. RџSЂRѕS‚Rё RЅSЊRѕRiRѕ S‚SЂRёRIR°S” SЃR»S–RgSЃS‚RIRѕ. RџSЂRѕRIRёRЅR° vЂ“ SЃR»RѕRIR°, SЃRyeR°R·R°RЅS– Sѓ RЎR°RiSЂRёRЅS– RїS–Rg S‡R°SЃ SѓSЂRѕS‡RёSЃS‚RѕSЃS‚RµR№ R· RIS€R°RЅSѓRIR°RЅRЅSЏ RIR±RёS‚RёS… RїRѕR»SЊSЃSЊRyeRёRј RїS–RgRїS–R»R»SЏRј SѓRyeSЂR°S—RЅS†S–RI Sѓ 1944 SЂRѕS†S–. R†SЃS‚RѕSЂRёRyeRѕRIS– R·R°RiSЂRѕR¶SѓS” RgRѕ 3 SЂRѕRyeS–RI SѓRIʼSЏR·RЅRµRЅRЅSЏ.