RЎRїRµS†RїSЂRѕRµRyeS‚

RЈ R“RѕSЂRѕRgRyeSѓ SЂRѕR·RyeRѕRїR°R»Rё RyeRѕSЂS‡RјSѓ. RЇRye R°SЂS…RµRѕR»RѕRiS–S‡RЅS– R·RЅR°S…S–RgRyeRё SѓS‚RѕS‡RЅSЋSЋS‚SЊ S–SЃS‚RѕSЂS–SЋ RїRѕRgS–R»SЊSЃSЊRyeRѕRiRѕ RјS–SЃS‚RµS‡RyeR°

RђSЂS…RµRѕR»RѕRiR°Rј RIRgR°R»RѕSЃSЏ R·SЏSЃSѓRIR°S‚Rё, S‰Rѕ S‚RµSЂRёS‚RѕSЂS–SЋ S‚RµRїRµSЂS–S€RЅSЊRѕRiRѕ R“RѕSЂRѕRgRyeR° R»SЋRgRё RIRїRѕRgRѕR±R°R»Rё S‰Rµ Sѓ SЃRёRISѓ RgR°RIRЅRёRЅSѓ. R—RѕRyeSЂRµRјR°, RїS–Rg S‡R°SЃ SЂRѕR·RyeRѕRїRѕRye RѕR±S”RyeS‚Sѓ "RyeRѕSЂS‡RјR°" RЅR° RgRIRѕRјRµS‚SЂRѕRIS–R№ RiR»RёR±RёRЅS– RgRѕSЃR»S–RgRЅRёRyeRё R·RЅR°R№S€R»Rё RyeR°RјSЏRЅRѕRiRѕ RЅSѓRyeR»RµSѓSЃR° S‚R° SЃR»S–RgRё RѕR±RјR°R·RyeRё S‚SЂRёRїS–R»SЊSЃSЊRyeRѕRiRѕ R¶RёS‚R»R°.

RљRѕR»Rё RI RЅR°S€ S‡R°SЃ RјRµRgS–R° RiRѕRIRѕSЂSЏS‚SЊ RїSЂRѕ R°SЂS…RµRѕR»RѕRiS–SЋ, R·R°R·RIRёS‡R°R№ S–RgRµS‚SЊSЃSЏ RїSЂRѕ RЅRµRiR°S‚RёRI. "R§RѕSЂRЅS– RyeRѕRїR°S‡S–" S‰RѕSЃSЊ SЂRѕR·RiSЂR°R±SѓRIR°R»Rё, R·R°R±SѓRgRѕRIRЅRёRyeRё SЂRёSЋS‚SЊ RyeRѕS‚R»RѕRIR°RЅ RЅR° RїR°RјSЏS‚S†S–, S„RµSЂRјRµSЂ SЂRѕR·RѕSЂR°RI RyeSѓSЂRiR°RЅ...

RџRѕRIS–RgRѕRјR»RµRЅRЅSЏ RїSЂRѕ R·RЅR°S…S–RgRyeRё S‚R° RIS–RgRyeSЂRёS‚S‚SЏ R·SѓSЃS‚SЂS–RЅRµS€ RЅRµS‡R°SЃS‚Rѕ. R† RЅRµ S‚RѕRјSѓ, S‰Rѕ R¶SѓSЂRЅR°R»S–SЃS‚Rё R»S–RЅRёRIS– S‡Rё S‚RµRјR° S–SЃS‚RѕSЂRёS‡RЅRёS… RgRѕSЃR»S–RgR¶RµRЅSЊ RЅRµ S†S–RyeR°RIR° S‡RёS‚R°S‡R°Rј. RђR¶ RЅS–SЏRye. RЎS‚R°S‚S‚S– RїSЂRѕ R°SЂS…RµRѕR»RѕRiS–RI S–RgSѓS‚SЊ RЅR° "SѓSЂR°!", R° R¶SѓSЂRЅR°R»S–SЃS‚Rё S†SЋ S‚RµRјSѓ SЂRµS‚RµR»SЊRЅRѕ RIS–RgSЃS‚RµR¶SѓSЋS‚SЊ. RђR»Rµ RyeRѕR»Rё RЅRµRјR° RїSЂRѕ S‰Rѕ RїRёSЃR°S‚Rё?

RќRёRЅS– "R»RµRiR°R»SЊRЅS–" R°SЂS…RµRѕR»RѕRiRё RyeRѕRїR°SЋS‚SЊ RIRyeSЂR°R№ RјR°R»Rѕ. RџSЂRёS‡RёRЅR° – S‚SЂR°RgRёS†S–R№RЅR° RgR»SЏ SЃSѓS‡R°SЃRЅRѕS— RЈRyeSЂR°S—RЅRё: RЅRµRјR° RiSЂRѕS€RµR№. RўRѕRјSѓ RїRµSЂRµRIR°R¶RЅR° R±S–R»SЊS€S–SЃS‚SЊ RЅR°SЏRIRЅRёS… SЂRѕR·RyeRѕRїRѕRye RјR°SЋS‚SЊ RѕS…RѕSЂRѕRЅRЅRёR№ SЃS‚R°S‚SѓSЃ,  S‚RѕR±S‚Rѕ, S—S… RIRµRgSѓS‚SЊ RyeRѕS€S‚RѕRј R·R°R±SѓRgRѕRIRЅRёRyeS–RI Sѓ RјS–SЃS†SЏS…, RgRµ RїS–Rg R±SѓRgRѕRISѓ RIS–RgRIRѕRgSЏS‚SЊ RgS–R»SЏRЅRyeRё R· RyeSѓR»SЊS‚SѓSЂRЅRёRј S€R°SЂRѕRј.

RўR°Rye RIRёRјR°RiR°S” R·R°RyeRѕRЅRѕRgR°RISЃS‚RIRѕ. R—R°R±SѓRgRѕRIRЅRёRyeRё R¶ SѓSЃS–RјR° SЃRёR»R°RјRё RЅR°RјR°RiR°SЋS‚SЊSЃSЏ SѓRЅRёRyeRЅSѓS‚Rё R·R°R№RIRёS… RIRёS‚SЂR°S‚ S– RѕR±S–R№S‚RёSЃSЏ R±RµR· R°SЂS…RµRѕR»RѕRiS–RI. RўRѕR¶ "RїSЂRёRјSѓSЃ RgRѕ SЂRѕR·RyeRѕRїRѕRye" R±R°S‡RёRјRѕ RїRµSЂRµRIR°R¶RЅRѕ RI RјS–SЃS‚R°S… RЅR° RyeS€S‚R°R»S‚ RљRёS”RIR°, R›SЊRIRѕRIR° S‡Rё RљR°RјSЏRЅS†SЏ...

R’SЃRµ RїRѕS‡R°R»RѕSЃSЏ R· RѕS†RёS… S‚SЂSЊRѕS… RyeRµR»RёS€RyeS–RI, S‰Rѕ R»RµR¶R°R»Rё RЅR° RЅR°R№RIRёRgRЅS–S€RѕRјSѓ RјS–SЃS†S– RIS–RgRIR°R»Sѓ

R‘SѓRIR°, S‰Rѕ RЅR° SЂRѕR·RyeRѕRїRyeRё RgR°S” RyeRѕS€S‚Rё RјS–SЃS†RµRIR° RIR»R°RgR°. RђR»Rµ S†Rµ S€RIRёRgS€Rµ RIRёRЅSЏS‚RѕRye, RЅS–R¶ RїSЂR°RIRёR»Rѕ, R±Rѕ S‚R°RyeS– RIRёS‚SЂR°S‚Rё RЅS–S‡RёRј RЅRµ "RIS–RgS–R±’S”S€", R±SЋRgR¶RµS‚ RїRѕ S†S–R№ SЃS‚R°S‚S‚S– RЅRµ "RїRѕRїRёR»SЏS”S€".

RќRµRgR°RIRЅS– R°SЂS…RµRѕR»RѕRiS–S‡RЅS– RgRѕSЃR»S–RgR¶RµRЅRЅSЏ RI R“RѕSЂRѕRgRyeSѓ (RџRѕRgS–R»SЊSЃSЊRyeRѕRјSѓ – S‚óRјSѓ, S‰Rѕ RЅR° RGRјRµR»SЊRЅRёS‡S‡RёRЅS–) RЅR°R»RµR¶R°S‚SЊ SЃR°RјRµ RgRѕ RѕSЃS‚R°RЅRЅSЊRѕRiRѕ, SЂS–RgRyeS–SЃRЅRѕRiRѕ RIRёRїR°RgRyeSѓ.

R’SЃRµ RїRѕS‡R°R»RѕSЃSЊ Sѓ S‚SЂR°RIRЅS–, RyeRѕR»Rё RIRёRїR°RgRyeRѕRIS– R·RµRјR»RµRyeRѕRїRё RIRёRїR°RgRyeRѕRIRѕ RЅR°S‚SЂR°RїRёR»Rё RЅR° R±R°RiR°S‚SЋS‰RёR№ RyeSѓR»SЊS‚SѓSЂRЅRёR№ S€R°SЂ.

"R†SЃS‚RѕSЂS–SЏ RgRѕ RїRµRIRЅRѕS— RјS–SЂRё R°RЅRµRyeRgRѕS‚RёS‡RЅR°, – SЂRѕR·RїRѕRIS–RgR°S” RјRµS‚RѕRgRёSЃS‚ R· RѕS…RѕSЂRѕRЅRё RїR°RјSЏS‚RѕRye S–SЃS‚RѕSЂS–S— S‚R° RyeSѓR»SЊS‚SѓSЂRё R†RiRѕSЂ RћR»S–R№RЅRёRye. – RЈ S†RµRЅS‚SЂS– RјS–SЃS‚R° R±S–R»SЏ RѕRgRЅS–S”S— RyeSЂR°RјRЅRёS‡RyeRё R·R°S‚S–SЏR»Rё RyeRѕRїR°S‚Rё RїS–Rg RyeR°RЅR°R»S–R·R°S†S–R№RЅRёR№ SЃS‚S–Rye SЃRµRїS‚RёS‡RЅSѓ SЏRјSѓ. R—R°RyeR»R°R»Rё RyeRѕR»RѕRgSЏR·SЊ. RќRµRIRµR»RёS‡RyeRёR№, RјRµRЅS€Rµ RјRµS‚SЂR° Sѓ RgS–R°RјRµS‚SЂS–, RiR»RёR±RёRЅRѕSЋ – Sѓ RgRIR°. R¦SЏ SЏRјR° "SЃS–R»R°" RЅR° SЃRјS–S‚RЅRёRye RyeRѕSЂS‡RјRё XVII SЃS‚RѕR»S–S‚S‚SЏ. RќR° RїRѕRIRµSЂS…RЅSЋ "RїRѕR»S–R·R»Rё" SѓR»R°RјRyeRё RiSѓS‚RЅRѕRiRѕ SЃRyeR»SЏRЅRѕRiRѕ RїRѕSЃSѓRgSѓ, RyeRµSЂR°RјS–RyeRё, RyeS–SЃS‚RyeRё  SЃRIS–R№SЃSЊRyeRёS… S‚RIR°SЂRёRЅ S‚R° RїS‚RёS†S–. R¦Rµ S‚RёRїRѕRIRёR№ SЃRјS–S‚S‚S”RIRёR№ RЅR°R±S–SЂ RgR»SЏ S‚R°RyeRѕRiRѕ RѕR±S”RyeS‚Sѓ".

R†RiRѕSЂ RћR»S–R№RЅRёRye – RyeSЂR°R№RЅS–R№ R»S–RIRѕSЂSѓS‡

Rђ RЅR°R№R±R°R¶R°RЅS–S€RѕSЋ R·RЅR°S…S–RgRyeRѕSЋ RgR»SЏ RЅR°SѓRyeRѕRIS†S–RI S” SЃR°RјRµ SЃRјS–S‚RЅRёRyeRё S‚R° R·RIR°R»RёS‰R° – RIRѕRЅRё RgR°SЋS‚SЊ SЏRye RIRµR»RёRyeSѓ RyeS–R»SЊRyeS–SЃS‚SЊ R°SЂS‚RµS„R°RyeS‚S–RI, S‚R°Rye S– RјR°RyeSЃRёRјSѓRј S–RЅS„RѕSЂRјR°S†S–S— RїSЂRѕ RїRѕR±SѓS‚ RgR°RIRЅS–S… S‡R°SЃS–RI.

RќR° S‰R°SЃS‚SЏ, RIRёRyeRѕRїR°RЅS– S‚RѕRgS– SѓR»R°RјRyeRё RјR°R»Rё RIRёRЅSЏS‚RyeRѕRIRѕ RјSѓR·RµR№RЅSѓ S‚R° RЅR°SѓRyeRѕRISѓ S†S–RЅRЅS–SЃS‚SЊ – RyeRѕR»RµRyeS†S–RѕRЅRµSЂRё R¶ R±Rѕ RIRѕR»S–SЋS‚SЊ S†S–R»RёS… RїSЂRµRgRјRµS‚S–RI, R° RЅRµ S„SЂR°RiRјRµRЅS‚S–RI. RўRѕR¶ SѓSЃRµ R·RЅR°R№RgRµRЅRµ RїRѕR»RµS‚S–R»Rѕ Sѓ RIS–RgRIR°R»:

"RџSЂRѕ R·RЅR°S…S–RgRyeSѓ RјRё RgS–R·RЅR°R»RёSЃSЏ RIRёRїR°RgRyeRѕRIRѕ, – RyeR°R¶Rµ RЅR°S‡R°R»SЊRЅRёRye RIS–RgRgS–R»Sѓ RyeSѓR»SЊS‚SѓSЂRё R“RѕSЂRѕRgRѕS†SЊRyeRѕS— R R”Rђ RћR»RµRi R¤RµRgRѕSЂRѕRI. – RћRgSЂR°R·Sѓ RїSЂRёR№S€R»Rё RїRµSЂRµRIS–SЂRёS‚Rё. R RµR·SѓR»SЊS‚R°S‚ RїSЂRёRiRѕR»RѕRјS€RёRI – R·R° SЏRyeS–SЃSЊ RїS–RIRiRѕRgRёRЅRё R· RIS–RgRIR°R»Sѓ RIRёRyeRѕRїR°R»Rё RјR°R№R¶Rµ RgRIR° RgRµSЃSЏS‚RyeRё RIRµR»RёRyeRёS… S„SЂR°RiRјRµRЅS‚S–RI SЃRyeR»SЏRЅRѕRiRѕ RїRѕSЃSѓRgSѓ RgSЂSѓRiRѕS— RїRѕR»RѕRIRёRЅRё XVIISЃS‚RѕR»S–S‚S‚SЏ, RјS–RgRЅRµ RgR·RµSЂRyeR°R»SЊS†Rµ, S‚SЂRё RјS–RgRЅS– RјRѕRЅRµS‚Rё XVII-XVIII SЃS‚RѕR»S–S‚SЊ, RјR°R№R¶Rµ S†S–R»Sѓ RyeRµSЂR°RјS–S‡RЅSѓ R»SЋR»SЊRyeSѓ S‚R° R±RµR·R»S–S‡ S„SЂR°RiRјRµRЅS‚S–RI RyeRµSЂR°RјS–RyeRё S‚RѕRiRѕ R¶ S‡R°SЃSѓ. RќR°RiR°RgR°SЋ: RISЃRµ S†Rµ R±SѓR»Rѕ R·RЅR°R№RgRµRЅRѕ RI S€R°SЂS– RїR»RѕS‰RµSЋ, RјRµRЅS€RѕSЋ R·R° RyeRIR°RgSЂR°S‚RЅRѕRiRѕ RјRµS‚SЂR° S‚R°, SЏRye SЂRѕR·RїRѕRIS–RI R·RµRјR»RµRyeRѕRї, S‚RѕRIS‰RёRЅRѕSЋ RјR°RyeSЃRёRјSѓRј Sѓ 40 SЃRј. R—R° R°SЂS…RµRѕR»RѕRiS–S‡RЅRёRјRё RјS–SЂRyeR°RјRё, S†Rµ R±SѓRI RgSѓR¶Rµ R±R°RiR°S‚RёR№ S€R°SЂ".

 

R’RёRЅRёRyeR»R° S–RgRµSЏ SЂRѕR·RyeRѕRїR°S‚Rё S‚R°RyeRµ S†S–RyeR°RIRµ RјS–SЃS†Rµ. RўRёRј R±S–R»SЊS€Rµ, S‰Rѕ S†SЊRѕRiRѕ SЂRѕRyeSѓ R“RѕSЂRѕRgRѕRye RIS–RgR·RЅR°S‡R°S” SЃRIS–R№ 655-SЂS–S‡RЅRёR№ SЋRIS–R»RµR№, R±SѓRI R±Rё "RїRѕRgR°SЂSѓRЅRѕRye RЅR° SЃRISЏS‚Rѕ"...

RњS–SЃSЊRyeR° RIR»R°RgR° RїS–RgS‚SЂRёRјR°R»R° S–RЅS–S†S–R°S‚RёRISѓ RyeSЂR°S”R·RЅR°RIS†S–RI S– RїR°Rј’SЏS‚RyeRѕRѕS…RѕSЂRѕRЅS†S–RI:

"R—R° RїRѕRISЃSЏRyeRgRµRЅRЅRёRјRё SЃRїSЂR°RIR°RјRё RјRё SЏRyeRѕSЃSЊ R·R°R±SѓRIR°S”RјRѕ RїSЂRѕ RIS–S‡RЅRµ. – RyeR°R¶Rµ RјS–SЃSЊRyeRёR№ RiRѕR»RѕRIR° R’R°SЃRёR»SЊ RџS–RgR»S–SЃRЅRёR№. – R’R·SЏS‚Rё S‚Sѓ R¶ S–SЃS‚RѕSЂS–SЋ RЅR°S€RѕRiRѕ RјS–SЃS‚R°. RџSЂRѕ RISЃRµ, S‰Rѕ SЃS‚R°SЂS–S€Rµ SЃRµSЂRµRgRёRЅRё RїRѕR·R°RјRёRЅSѓR»RѕRiRѕ SЃS‚RѕR»S–S‚S‚SЏ – R»RёS€Rµ RЅR°R№R·R°RiR°R»SЊRЅS–S€S– RIS–RgRѕRјRѕSЃS‚S–. RќR°RїSЂRёRyeR»R°Rg, RIS–RgRѕRјRѕ S…S‚Rѕ R±SѓR»Rё RIR»R°SЃRЅRёRyeRё R“RѕSЂRѕRgRyeR°, R·RЅR°S”RјRѕ, S‰Rѕ S‚SѓS‚ RїRѕR±SѓRIR°RI R·S– SЃRIRѕS—Rј RIS–R№SЃSЊRyeRѕRј R‘RѕRiRgR°RЅ RGRјRµR»SЊRЅRёS†SЊRyeRёR№... RђR»Rµ  SЏRye R¶RёR»Rё R»SЋRgRё, RgRµ, RЅR°RїSЂRёRyeR»R°Rg, SЃS‚RѕSЏR»Rё RјS–SЃSЊRyeS– SѓRyeSЂS–RїR»RµRЅRЅSЏ, RЅR°RIS–S‚SЊ RgRµ R±SѓR»Rѕ RgR°RIRЅS” SЏRgSЂRѕ RјS–SЃS‚R°, – S‚S–R»SЊRyeRё R·RgRѕRiR°RgRyeRё. R—R° RISЃSЋ S–SЃS‚RѕSЂS–SЋ R“RѕSЂRѕRgRyeR° R¶RѕRgRЅRёS… SЃRїRµS†S–R°R»SЊRЅRёS… RgRѕSЃR»S–RgR¶RµRЅSЊ RЅS–S…S‚Rѕ RЅRµ RїSЂRѕRIRѕRgRёRI. RўRѕR¶ RјRё RIRёSЂS–S€RёR»Rё RIR·SЏS‚RёSЃSЏ R·R° S†SЋ SЃRїSЂR°RISѓ".

RњRµSЂ R“RѕSЂRѕRgRyeR° R’R°SЃRёR»SЊ RџS–RgR»S–SЃRЅRёR№ S‚RµR¶ RgRѕR»SѓS‡RёRISЃSЏ RgRѕ SЂRѕR·RyeRѕRїRѕRye

R—RiRѕRgRѕRј RїR°RЅ R’R°SЃRёR»SЊ R·RЅR°R№S€RѕRI S‡R°SЃ RgRѕR»SѓS‡RёS‚RёSЃSЏ RgRѕ RїSЂRѕRIRµRgRµRЅRЅSЏ RgRѕSЃR»S–RgR¶RµRЅSЊ S– RЅR°RIS–S‚SЊ RIS–RgRyeRѕRїR°RI R»SЋR»SЊRyeSѓ. RўS–S€RёRISЃSЏ, RЅR°S‡Rµ RiRѕSЂS‰RёRye R·RѕR»RѕS‚R° RЅR°RgRёR±R°RI.

 

RђRyeS‚RёRIRЅRѕ RїS–RgS‚SЂRёRјR°R»R° S–RgRµSЋ RїSЂRѕRIRµRgRµRЅRЅSЏ R°SЂS…RµRѕR»RѕRiS–S‡RЅRёS… SЂRѕR·RyeRѕRїRѕRye S– R·R°SЃS‚SѓRїRЅRёS†SЏ RјS–SЃSЊRyeRѕRiRѕ RiRѕR»RѕRIRё R· RiSѓRјR°RЅS–S‚R°SЂRЅRёS… RїRёS‚R°RЅSЊ RћR»RµRЅR° RњR°S‚RIS”R№S†RµRIR°:

"R¦S– SЂRѕR·RyeRѕRїRyeRё RgR»SЏ RЅR°SЃ S†S–RyeR°RIS– RїRѕRgRIS–R№RЅRѕ, – RyeR°R¶Rµ RIRѕRЅR°. – RџRµSЂS€Rµ – RЅRѕRIR° S–RЅS„RѕSЂRјR°S†S–SЏ RїSЂRѕ RјRёRЅSѓR»Rµ RјS–SЃS‚R°. R”SЂSѓRiRµ – RI R“RѕSЂRѕRgRyeSѓ R·R°RIRµSЂS€SѓS”S‚SЊSЃSЏ R±SѓRgS–RIRЅRёS†S‚RIRѕ S–SЃS‚RѕSЂRёS‡RЅRѕRiRѕ RјSѓR·RµSЋ. RўR°RyeRёRј RЅRµ RISЃS– RѕR±R»R°SЃRЅS– S†RµRЅS‚SЂRё RїRѕS…RёR·SѓRIR°S‚RёSЃSЏ RјRѕR¶SѓS‚SЊ. RђR»Rµ RјSѓR·RµR№ – S†Rµ RЅRµ R»RёS€Rµ RIRµR»RёRyeR° SЃSѓS‡R°SЃRЅR°  R±SѓRgS–RIR»SЏ, RI RїRµSЂS€Sѓ S‡RµSЂRiSѓ S†Rµ RµRyeSЃRїRѕRЅR°S‚Rё. RќR° R¶R°R»SЊ, RїRµSЂS–RѕRg XVII-XVIII SЃS‚RѕR»S–S‚SЊ Sѓ RЅR°SЃ RI RµRyeSЃRїRѕR·RёS†S–S— R·RѕRISЃS–Rј RЅRµ RїSЂRµRgSЃS‚R°RIR»RµRЅRёR№. R RѕR·RyeRѕRїRyeRё RgRѕRїRѕRјRѕR¶SѓS‚SЊ R»S–RyeRIS–RgSѓRIR°S‚Rё S†SЋ RїSЂRёRyeSЂSѓ RїSЂRѕRiR°R»RёRЅSѓ".

 

R”R»SЏ RїRѕS‡R°S‚RyeSѓ RIRёSЂS–S€RёR»Rё RѕR±RјRµR¶RёS‚RёSЃSЏ SЂRѕR·RIS–RgRyeRѕSЋ – S‚SЂSЊRѕRјR° RyeRIR°RgSЂR°S‚R°RјRё SЂRѕR·RјS–SЂRѕRј 2S…2 RјRµS‚SЂRё. RџRѕRIRЅRѕRјR°SЃS€S‚R°R±RЅS–, RЅR° SЃRѕS‚RЅS– RyeRIR°RgSЂR°S‚RЅRёS… RјRµS‚SЂS–RI, RgRѕSЃR»S–RgR¶RµRЅRЅSЏ RgR»SЏ SЂR°R№S†RµRЅS‚SЂS–RISЃSЊRyeRѕRiRѕ R±SЋRgR¶RµS‚Sѓ – SЃSѓRјR° R·R°RIRµR»RёRyeR°.

R”Rѕ S‚RѕRiRѕ R¶, Sѓ R±SѓRgSЊ-SЏRyeRѕRјSѓ SЂR°R·S– RIRµR»RёRyeRёRј SЂRѕR·RyeRѕRїRyeR°Rј RјR°S” RїRµSЂRµRgSѓRIR°S‚Rё SЃR°RјRµ SЂRѕR·RIS–RgRyeR°. RљSЂS–Rј RiS–RїRѕS‚RµS‚RёS‡RЅRѕS— RyeRѕSЂS‡RјRё, RIRёSЂS–S€RёR»Rё RgRѕSЃR»S–RgRёS‚Rё S‰Rµ RѕRgRёRЅ, RIS–RgRѕRјRёR№  RIS–Rg 1980-S… SЂRѕRyeS–RI, RѕR±S”RyeS‚ RїS–Rg SЂRѕR±RѕS‡RѕSЋ RЅR°R·RIRѕSЋ "R»SЋR»SЊRyeRѕRIR° RјR°R№SЃS‚RµSЂRЅSЏ".

R—RIRµRgRµRЅS– S‰Rµ Sѓ XVIII SЃS‚RѕR»S–S‚S‚S– S‚RѕSЂRiRѕRIS– SЂSЏRgRё. RќR° S—S…RЅS–S… R·R°RiSѓRјS–RЅRyeR°S… Sѓ 1980-S… SЂRѕRyeR°S… R·RЅR°R№S€R»Rё SЂRѕR·SЃRёRїRё R»SЋR»SЊRѕRye. R SЏRgRё R·RЅRµSЃR»Rё S‰Rµ RI 1930-S….

RљRѕR»RёSЃSЊ S‚SѓS‚ RїSЂRѕRIRѕRgRёR»Rё R·RµRјR»SЏRЅS– SЂRѕR±RѕS‚Rё S‚R° RIRёRїR°RgRyeRѕRIRѕ RIS–RgRyeRѕRїR°R»Rё RјR°R№R¶Rµ SЃRѕS‚RЅSЋ RЅRµRIR¶RёRIR°RЅRёS… R»SЋR»SЊRѕRye, S‰Rѕ RјR°R»Rё R±S–R»SЊS€S– S‡Rё RјRµRЅS€S– RIR°RgRё. RќR° S†S–R№ RїS–RgSЃS‚R°RIS– RyeSЂR°S”R·RЅR°RIS†S–  RIRёSЃSѓRЅSѓR»Rё RїSЂRёRїSѓS‰RµRЅRЅSЏ, S‰Rѕ S‚Rѕ R±SѓRI R±SЂR°Rye R»SЋR»SЊRyeRѕRIRѕRiRѕ RIRёSЂRѕR±RЅRёS†S‚RIR°, SѓS‚RёR»S–R·RѕRIR°RЅRёR№ R· SЂRѕR·S‚R°S€RѕRIR°RЅRѕS— RgRµSЃSЊ RїRѕSЂSѓS‡ RјR°R№SЃS‚RµSЂRЅS–. 

RќR°SѓRyeRѕRIS†S– R”RµSЂR¶R°RIRЅRѕRiRѕ RїS–RgRїSЂRёS”RјSЃS‚RIR° "RќR°SѓRyeRѕRIRѕ-RgRѕSЃR»S–RgRЅRёR№ S†RµRЅS‚SЂ "RћS…RѕSЂRѕRЅRЅR° R°SЂS…RµRѕR»RѕRiS–S‡RЅR° SЃR»SѓR¶R±R° RЈRyeSЂR°S—RЅRё" R†RЅSЃS‚RёS‚SѓS‚Sѓ R°SЂS…RµRѕR»RѕRiS–S— RќRђRќ RЈRyeSЂR°S—RЅRё" SЂRѕR·RїRѕS‡R°R»Rё SЂRѕR±RѕS‚Sѓ 4 RIRµSЂRµSЃRЅSЏ. RљRµSЂS–RIRЅRёRye RµRyeSЃRїRµRgRёS†S–S— RџR°RIR»Rѕ RќRµS‡RёS‚R°R№R»Rѕ RyeRѕRїR°S” RїRѕ-SЃRµSЂR№RѕR·RЅRѕRјSѓ

RљRµSЂS–RIRЅRёRye RµRyeSЃRїRµRgRёS†S–S— RџR°RIR»Rѕ RќRµS‡RёS‚R°R№R»Rѕ RyeRѕRїR°S” RїRѕ-SЃRµSЂR№RѕR·RЅRѕRјSѓ

RџRµSЂRIS–SЃRЅR° RiS–RїRѕS‚RµR·R° RїSЂRѕ S‚Rµ, S‰Rѕ R·RЅR°R№RgRµRЅRѕ RyeRѕSЂS‡RјSѓ RgSЂSѓRiRѕS— RїRѕR»RѕRIRёRЅRё XVII SЃS‚., RЅRµR·R°R±R°SЂRѕRј R·RЅR°R№S€R»R° RїRµRIRЅS– RїS–RgS‚RIRµSЂRgR¶RµRЅRЅSЏ.

"R’RµSЂSЃS–SЏ R· RyeRѕSЂS‡RјRѕSЋ RIRёSЏRIRёR»R°SЃSЏ RgRѕSЃRёS‚SЊ RIS–SЂRѕRiS–RgRЅRѕSЋ, – RyeR°R¶Rµ RyeRµSЂS–RIRЅRёRye RµRyeSЃRїRµRgRёS†S–S— RyeR°RЅRgRёRgR°S‚ S–SЃS‚RѕSЂRёS‡RЅRёS… RЅR°SѓRye RџR°RIR»Rѕ RќRµS‡RёS‚R°R№R»Rѕ. – R‘SѓRgS–RIR»SЏ R±SѓR»R° SЂRѕR·S‚R°S€RѕRIR°RЅR° RЅR° RyeSЂR°SЋ SЃS‚R°SЂRѕS— SЂRёRЅRyeRѕRIRѕS— RїR»RѕS‰S–, S‰Rѕ S…R°SЂR°RyeS‚RµSЂRЅRѕ RgR»SЏ S‚R°RyeRёS… R·R°RyeR»R°RgS–RI. R—RЅRѕRISѓ R¶ – RIRµR»RёRyeR° RyeS–R»SЊRyeS–SЃS‚SЊ SЃRyeR»R°: S€S‚RѕS„Rё, RyeRµR»RёS…Rё, RyeSѓR±RyeRё, S‡R°SЂRyeRё, SЃS‚RѕRїRyeRё, SЂSѓS‡RyeRё RIS–Rg RyeSѓS…R»S–RI... R‘S–R»SЊS€Rµ SЃRyeR»R° RЅR°Rј S‚SЂR°RїR»SЏR»RѕSЃSЏ S…S–R±R° S‰Rѕ RI RџRѕR»RѕRЅRЅRѕRјSѓ. R’S‚S–Rј, RIRёR·RЅR°S‡RµRЅRЅSЏ "RyeRѕSЂS‡RјR°" S‰RѕRgRѕ SЂRѕR·RyeRѕRїR°RЅRѕS— SЃRїRѕSЂSѓRgRё –  RјRѕR¶R»RёRIRµ, R°R»Rµ, S†Rµ R»RёS€Rµ RїSЂRёRїSѓS‰RµRЅRЅSЏ. R“R°SЂR°RЅS‚RѕRIR°RЅRѕ R¶ RјRѕR¶RЅR° SЃRyeR°R·R°S‚Rё, S‰Rѕ S†SЏ R±SѓRgS–RIR»SЏ RїSЂRѕS–SЃRЅSѓRIR°R»R° RIS–Rg RgSЂSѓRiRѕS— RїRѕR»RѕRIRёRЅRё XVII S– RgRѕ RyeS–RЅS†SЏ XVIII SЃS‚RѕR»S–S‚SЊ, RїRѕRyeRё RЅRµ R±SѓR»R° R·RЅRёS‰RµRЅR°.RџR°RIR»Rѕ RќRµS‡RёS‚R№R°R»Rѕ RgRѕSЃR»S–RgR¶SѓS” S‡RµSЂRiRѕRISѓ RїR°SЂS‚S–SЋ R·RЅR°R№RgRµRЅRѕRiRѕ SЃRyeR»R°".

RџR°RIR»Rѕ RќRµS‡RёS‚R№R°R»Rѕ RgRѕSЃR»S–RgR¶SѓS” S‡RµSЂRiRѕRISѓ RїR°SЂS‚S–SЋ R·RЅR°R№RgRµRЅRѕRiRѕ SЃRyeR»R°.

R“SѓS‚RЅRѕRiRѕ RїRѕSЃSѓRgSѓ RјRѕRiR»Rѕ R±SѓS‚Rё R·RЅR°R№RgRµRЅRѕ RЅR°R±R°RiR°S‚Rѕ R±S–R»SЊS€Rµ, R°R»Rµ "SЃRyeR»SЏRЅRёR№ RyeR»RѕRЅRgR°R№Rye" R»RµR¶RёS‚SЊ RїS–Rg SЃR°RјS–SЃS–RЅSЊRyeRёRј S„SѓRЅRgR°RјRµRЅS‚RѕRј SЃSѓS‡R°SЃRЅRѕS— SЃRїRѕSЂSѓRgRё. R—RIS–SЃRЅRѕ, S‰Rѕ S‚R°Rј R·R°RyeR»R°RgR°S‚Rё SЂRѕR·RyeRѕRї RЅRµ SЃS‚R°R»Rё – RЅRµ RIRёSЃS‚R°S‡R°R»Rѕ S‰Rµ R·R°RIR°R»RёS‚Rё R±SѓRgRёRЅRѕRye.R¤SЂR°RiRјRµRЅS‚Rё RyeR°S…R»S–RI XVII–XVIII SЃS‚. R· "RyeRѕSЂS‡RјRё"

R’RIR°R¶R°S”S‚SЊSЃSЏ, S‰Rѕ RїRµSЂS€R° R·RiR°RgRyeR° RїSЂRѕ R“RѕSЂRѕRgRѕRye RgR°S‚RѕRIR°RЅR° 1362 SЂRѕRyeRѕRј. R’S–RgRїRѕRIS–RgRЅRѕ, R°SЂS…RµRѕR»RѕRiRё SЃRїRѕRgS–RIR°R»RёSЃSЏ RЅR°S‚SЂR°RїRёS‚Rё RЅR° R°SЂS‚RµS„R°RyeS‚Rё S…RѕS‡R° R±Rё XVI SЃS‚RѕR»S–S‚S‚SЏ.  RђR»Rµ RI SѓSЃS–S… RIRёRїR°RgRyeR°S… RјS–SЃSЊRyeS– RyeSѓR»SЊS‚SѓSЂRЅS– S€R°SЂRё R·R°RyeS–RЅS‡SѓRIR°R»RёSЃSЏ S‰RѕR№RЅRѕ RgSЂSѓRiRѕSЋ RїRѕR»RѕRIRёRЅRѕSЋ XVII-RiRѕ. RџSЂRёS‡RѕRјSѓ S‡R°SЃS‚RёRЅR° RјS–SЃS‚R°, RgRµ R·R°RyeR»R°R»Rё SЂRѕR·RyeRѕRїRё, RgRѕSЃS– RIRIR°R¶R°R»R°SЃSЏ R№RѕRiRѕ S–SЃS‚RѕSЂRёS‡RЅRёRј SЏRgSЂRѕRј.

R¤SЂR°RiRјRµRЅS‚Rё RyeR°S…R»S–RI XVII–XVIII SЃS‚. R· “RyeRѕSЂS‡RјRё”

RњRѕR¶RЅR° RїSЂRёRїSѓSЃS‚RёS‚Rё, S‰Rѕ RјR°S”RјRѕ RyeR»R°SЃRёS‡RЅSѓ SЃRёS‚SѓR°S†S–SЋ "RїRµSЂRµS—R·RgSѓ" RїRѕSЃRµR»RµRЅRЅSЏ RїS–SЃR»SЏ R·R°RIRgR°RЅRёS… R№RѕRјSѓ R·RЅR°S‡RЅRёS… SЂSѓR№RЅSѓRIR°RЅSЊ. RџRѕRgS–R±RЅRµ SЃS‚R°R»RѕSЃSЏ, RЅR°RїSЂRёRyeR»R°Rg, Sѓ R—R±R°SЂR°R¶S–. R‘SѓRgSѓRIR°S‚Rё R· "S‡RёSЃS‚RѕRiRѕ R°SЂRyeSѓS€R°" RЅR°R±R°RiR°S‚Rѕ RїSЂRѕSЃS‚S–S€Rµ, RЅS–R¶ SЂRѕR±RёS‚Rё S†Rµ RЅR° SЂSѓS—RЅR°S….

RњRѕR¶R»RёRIRѕ, S‰Rѕ R№ R“RѕSЂRѕRgRѕRye, SЏRyeRёR№ R·R°R·RЅR°RI SЃRёR»SЊRЅRёS… SЂSѓR№RЅSѓRIR°RЅSЊ Sѓ S‡R°SЃRё RGRјRµR»SЊRЅRёS‡S‡RёRЅRё, S‚RµR¶ RїRѕS‡R°R»Rё RIS–RgR±SѓRgRѕRISѓRIR°S‚Rё S‚SЂRѕS…Rё RI SЃS‚RѕSЂRѕRЅS– RIS–Rg SЂSѓS—RЅ. RGSЂRѕRЅRѕR»RѕRiS–S‡RЅRѕ S†Rµ S†S–R»RyeRѕRј R·R±S–RiR°S”S‚SЊSЃSЏ R· SЂRµR·SѓR»SЊS‚R°S‚R°RјRё SЂRѕR·RyeRѕRїRѕRye. RўRѕR¶ "RyeRѕR»RёSЃRyeSѓ" RјS–SЃS‚R° S‰Rµ RgRѕRIRµRgRµS‚SЊSЃSЏ RїRѕS€SѓRyeR°S‚Rё.

R¤SЂR°RiRјRµRЅS‚ RјR°RїRё R“RѕSЂRѕRgRyeR°, RIRёRiRѕS‚RѕRIR»RµRЅRѕS— 1863 SЂRѕRyeSѓ RЅR° R·R°RјRѕRIR»RµRЅRЅSЏ RIR»R°SЃRЅRёS†S– RјS–SЃS‚RµS‡RyeR° R±R°SЂRѕRЅRµSЃRё R“RµR№SЃRјR°SЂ. R§RµSЂRIRѕRЅRёRјRё S‚RѕS‡RyeR°RјRё RїRѕR·RЅR°S‡RµRЅRѕ RјS–SЃS†SЏ SЂRѕR·RyeRѕRїRѕRye. R’RµSЂS…RЅSЏ S‚RѕS‡RyeR° – “RyeRѕSЂS‡RјR°”, RЅRёR¶RЅSЏ – “RyeSЂR°RјRЅRёS‡RyeR° R· R»SЋR»SЊRyeR°RјRё”.

RЇRye R±Rё RЅR°Rј RЅRµ S…RѕS‚S–R»RѕSЃSЏ RѕRiRѕR»RѕSЃRёS‚Rё, S‰Rѕ RI R“RѕSЂRѕRgRyeSѓ R·R°S„S–RyeSЃRѕRIR°RЅRµ RјS–SЃS†Rµ, RgRµ RgS–SЏR»R° R»SЋR»SЊRyeRѕRIR°  RјR°R№SЃS‚RµSЂRЅSЏ (R° S†Rµ R±SѓR»R° R±Rё R°SЂS…RµRѕR»RѕRiS–S‡RЅR° SЃRµRЅSЃR°S†S–SЏ, R±Rѕ S‚R°RyeRёS… RIS–RgRѕRјRѕ RѕRgRёRЅRёS†S–), SЃRёS‚SѓR°S†S–SЏ S‚SѓS‚ RЅRµ RїSЂRѕSЏSЃRЅRёR»R°SЃSЏ:

"RќRµ R·RIR°R¶R°SЋS‡Rё, S‰Rѕ RјRё R·RЅR°R№S€R»Rё S‡RёRјR°R»Rѕ "RЅSѓR»SЊRѕRIRёS…" R»SЋR»SЊRѕRye,  RIRїRµRIRЅRµRЅRѕ SЃS‚RIRµSЂRgR¶SѓRIR°S‚Rё, S‰Rѕ S†Rµ RIS–RgS…RѕRgRё RIRёSЂRѕR±RЅRёS†S‚RIR°, RЅRµ RјRѕR¶RЅR°, – RyeR°R¶Rµ RџRµS‚SЂRѕ R‘RѕR»S‚R°RЅSЋRye, RIS–RgRѕRјRёR№ RїRѕRgS–R»SЊSЃSЊRyeRёR№ R°SЂS…RµRѕR»RѕRi. – R—R°RЅR°RgS‚Rѕ RјR°R»RµRЅSЊRyeR° RїR»RѕS‰R° SЂRѕR·RyeRѕRїSѓ S– RЅRµRgRѕSЃS‚R°S‚RЅSЏ RyeS–R»SЊRyeS–SЃS‚SЊ RјR°S‚RµSЂS–R°R»Sѓ. RќRµRIRµR»RёRyeR° RјR°R№SЃS‚RµSЂRЅSЏ S†S–R»RyeRѕRј RјRѕRiR»R° R№ R±SѓS‚Rё. RђR»Rµ RЅRµ RIRёRyeR»SЋS‡RµRЅRёR№  S–RЅS€RёR№ RIR°SЂS–R°RЅS‚.

RўSѓS‚ RјRё SЂRѕR·RyeRѕRїR°R»Rё RyeSЂR°RјRЅRёS‡RyeSѓ, S‰Rѕ S–SЃRЅSѓRIR°R»R° RI XVII-XVIII SЃS‚RѕR»S–S‚S‚SЏS…. RњRѕR¶RЅR° RїSЂRёRїSѓSЃS‚RёS‚Rё, S‰Rѕ S‚SѓS‚ S‚RѕSЂRiSѓRIR°R»Rё RISЃS–R»SЏRyeRёRјRё  RgSЂS–R±RЅRёS†SЏRјRё, RI S‚RѕRјSѓ S‡RёSЃR»S– R№ R»SЋR»SЊRyeR°RјRё. RћSЃS‚R°RЅRЅS–, SЏRye S– RyeRµSЂR°RјS–S‡RЅS– RgRёS‚SЏS‡S– S–RiSЂR°S€RyeRё S‚RёRїSѓ SѓSЃS–Rј RIS–RgRѕRјRёS… SЃRIRёS‰RёRyeS–RI, RIRёSЂRѕR±RЅRёRyeRё RїSЂRѕRgR°RIR°R»Rё RgS–R¶RyeR°RјRё, RyeSѓRgRё RјS–Ri RїRѕS‚SЂR°RїRёS‚Rё R№ R±SЂR°Rye. RљSЂS–Rј S‚RѕRiRѕ, RgRѕSЂRѕRiRё S‚RѕRgS– R±SѓR»Rё RЅRµ RgSѓR¶Rµ, R° S„S–SЂRё – R±RµR· SЂRµSЃRѕSЂ. RЇRye S‰S–R»SЊRЅRѕ RЅRµ RIRyeR»R°RgR°R»Rё RyeSЂRёS…RyeRёR№ S‚RѕRIR°SЂ – S‰RѕSЃSЊ RISЃRµ RѕRgRЅRѕ R±RёR»RѕSЃSЏ. R’S–RgRїRѕRIS–RgRЅRѕ "RЅSѓR»SЊRѕRIS–" R»SЋR»SЊRyeRё RјRѕR¶SѓS‚SЊ R±SѓS‚Rё, SЏRye RIS–RgS…RѕRgR°RјRё RјS–SЃS†RµRIRѕRiRѕ RIRёSЂRѕR±RЅRёS†S‚RIR°, S‚R°Rye S–  R±RѕS”Rј, S‰Rѕ SѓS‚RIRѕSЂRёRISЃSЏ RїSЂRё S‚SЂR°RЅSЃRїRѕSЂS‚SѓRIR°RЅRЅS–.

RџRµS‚SЂRѕ R‘RѕR»S‚R°RЅSЋRye RgRѕSЃR»S–RgR¶SѓS” "RyeSЂR°RјRЅRёS‡RyeSѓ"

R’SЃRµ R¶ R°SЂS…RµRѕR»RѕRiRё R·SЂRѕR±RёR»Rё SЃRµRЅSЃR°S†S–R№RЅRµ "R»SЋR»SЊRyeRѕRIRµ" RIS–RgRyeSЂRёS‚S‚SЏ.

RђR»Rµ RIS–RgS–R№RgRµRјRѕ RЅR° S…RIRёR»SЊRyeSѓ RIS–Rg S‚RµRјRё S‚SЋS‚SЋRЅRѕRїR°R»S–RЅRЅSЏ.

RџSЂRµRgSЃS‚R°RIRЅRёRyeRё SЏRyeRѕS— RµS‚RЅS–S‡RЅRѕS— SЃRїS–R»SЊRЅRѕS‚Rё SѓS‚SЂRёRјSѓRIR°R»Rё Sѓ XVII–XVIII RyeRѕSЂS‡RјSѓ, R·SЂRѕR·SѓRјS–R»Rѕ. RЇRye S†S–R»RyeRѕRј R·SЂRѕR·SѓRјS–R»R° RµS‚RЅS–S‡RЅR° RЅR°R»RµR¶RЅS–SЃS‚SЊ RyeSЂR°RјR°SЂSЏ. RўRёRј RїR°S‡Rµ, S‰Rѕ RyeSЂR°RјRЅRёS‡RyeR° R±SѓR»R° RїRѕSЃRµSЂRµRg S”RISЂRµR№SЃSЊRyeRѕRiRѕ RyeRIR°SЂS‚R°R»Sѓ. R›RѕRiS–S‡RЅS– RIRёSЃRЅRѕRIRyeRё R°SЂS…RµRѕR»RѕRiRё RїS–RgS‚RIRµSЂRgRёR»Rё R·RЅR°S…S–RgRyeR°RјRё. R—RѕRyeSЂRµRјR°, RyeR°S…R»SЏRјRё, RїSЂRёRyeSЂR°S€RµRЅRёRјRё RgRIRѕRiRѕR»RѕRIRёRј RѕSЂR»RѕRј.

 

RќR° RјRѕRјRµRЅS‚ RIRёRiRѕS‚RѕRIR»RµRЅRЅSЏ RyeR°S…R»S–RI R°SЂRµR°R» RїRѕS€RёSЂRµRЅRЅSЏ S‰Rѕ R°RISЃS‚SЂS–R№SЃSЊRyeRёS…, S‰Rѕ SЂRѕSЃS–R№SЃSЊRyeRёS… RgRIRѕRiRѕR»RѕRIRёS… RѕSЂR»S–RI R»RµR¶R°RI RgRѕSЃRёS‚SЊ RgR°R»RµRyeRѕ RIS–Rg R“RѕSЂRѕRgRyeR° (S‚SѓS‚ R±SѓR»R° RџRѕR»SЊS‰R°, S—S— R¶ RѕSЂRµR» – RѕRgRЅRѕRiRѕR»RѕRIRёR№). Rђ RѕS‚ S”RISЂRµR№SЃSЊRyeS– RgRIRѕRiRѕR»RѕRIS– RѕSЂR»Rё S‚SѓS‚ "R¶RёR»Rё" R·RgR°RIRЅR°. 

RќR°RiR°RgR°S”RјRѕ, S‰Rѕ RI SЋRgRµR№SЃSЊRyeS–R№ S‚SЂR°RgRёS†S–S— RѕSЂRµR» S” SЃRёRјRIRѕR»RѕRј R‘RѕRiR°. R”RIRѕRiRѕR»RѕRIRёR№ – S‚RµR¶. R”RIS– RiRѕR»RѕRIRё, R·RѕRyeSЂRµRјR°, SЃRёRјRIRѕR»S–R·SѓSЋS‚SЊ RgSѓR°R»S–SЃS‚RёS‡RЅS–SЃS‚SЊ RїSЂRѕSЏRIS–RI R‘RѕR¶RµSЃS‚RIR°: R±Rѕ R“RѕSЃRїRѕRgSЊ S…RѕS‡ RyeR°SЂR°S”, R°R»Rµ R№ RїSЂRѕS‰R°S”, R’S–RЅ SЃSѓRIRѕSЂRёR№, R°R»Rµ  R№ R»SЋR±R»SЏS‡RёR№ S‚RѕS‰Rѕ.

 

RўRµRїRµSЂ RїRѕRIRµSЂRЅS–RјRѕSЃSЏ RgRѕ R»SЋR»SЊRѕRye.

R†SЃS‚RѕSЂRёS‡RЅRѕ SЃRyeR»R°R»RѕSЃSЏ S‚R°Rye, S‰Rѕ RI RЈRyeSЂR°S—RЅS– RISЃS– RyeRµSЂR°RјS–S‡RЅS– R»SЋR»SЊRyeRё XVI-XIX SЃS‚RѕR»S–S‚SЊ S‚SЂR°RgRёS†S–R№RЅRѕ RЅR°R·RёRIR°SЋS‚SЊ "RyeRѕR·R°S†SЊRyeRёRјRё".RўR°RyeS– R»SЋR»SЊRyeRё R·R°R·RIRёS‡R°R№ RЅR°R·RёRIR°SЋS‚SЊ RyeRѕR·R°S†SЊRyeRёRјRё, RЅRµ R·RIR°R¶R°SЋS‡Rё RЅR° S‚Rµ, S…S‚Rѕ R±SѓRI RIR»R°SЃRЅRёRyeRѕRј.

 

RќR°SЃRїSЂR°RIRgS– RyeRѕR·R°RyeR°Rј RЅR°R»RµR¶R°R»Rё R»RёS€Rµ RјRµRЅS€Rµ 1% R·RЅR°R№RgRµRЅRёS… "RyeRѕR·R°S†SЊRyeRёS…" R»SЋR»SЊRѕRye. R‘S–R»SЊS€S–SЃS‚SЊ – RIR»R°SЃRЅS–SЃS‚SЊ R·RIRёS‡R°R№RЅRёS… RyeSѓSЂS†S–RI. R‡S… RyeSѓSЂRёR»Rё S– RyeRѕR·R°RyeRё, S– RїRѕR»SЏRyeRё, S– SЃRµR»SЏRЅRё, S– RјS–S‰R°RЅRё, S– RyeSѓRїS†S–... Rђ RIR¶Rµ SЏRye S‚SѓSЂRyeRё SЃRјR°R»RёR»Rё! R”Rѕ SЂRµS‡S–, SЃR°RјRµ RIS–Rg SЏRЅRёS‡R°SЂ RїSЂRёR№S€R»R° RgRѕ RЅR°SЃ S†SЏ S€RyeS–RgR»RёRIR° R·RIRёS‡RyeR°. 

R„RISЂRµS—, R·R°SѓRIR°R¶RёRјRѕ RI S‚SЋS‚SЋRЅRѕRїR°R»S–RЅRЅS– S‚RµR¶ RЅRµ RїR°SЃR»Rё R·R°RgRЅS–S…. RќRµ RIRёRyeR»SЋS‡RµRЅRѕ, S‰Rѕ RI R“RѕSЂRѕRgRyeSѓ RIS–RgRyeRѕRїR°R»Rё RїRµSЂS€Sѓ, RyeR»R°SЃRёS‡RЅSѓ S”RISЂRµR№SЃSЊRyeSѓ "RyeRѕR·R°S†SЊRyeSѓ" R»SЋR»SЊRyeSѓ!

 

RќR° R¶R°R»SЊ, S†Rµ R»RёS€Rµ S„SЂR°RiRјRµRЅS‚ – S†RёR±SѓS… R· RiRЅS–R·RgRѕRј, Sѓ SЏRyeRµ RISЃS‚R°RIR»SЏR»Rё RјSѓRЅRgS€S‚SѓRye. R§R°S€R°, Sѓ SЏRyeSѓ RЅR°R±RёRIR°SЋS‚SЊ S‚SЋS‚SЋRЅ, RIS‚SЂR°S‡RµRЅR°. RЇRye RgRѕR±SЂRµ RIRёRgRЅRѕ RЅR° S„RѕS‚Rѕ, S†RёR±SѓS… S‚SѓS‚ RIRёRyeRѕRЅR°RЅRѕ Sѓ RIRёRiR»SЏRgS– R»RµR¶R°S‡RѕRiRѕ R»RµRIR° – S‡RѕS‚RёSЂRё R»R°RїRё S– RѕSЃRѕR±R»RёRIRёRј S‡RёRЅRѕRј SЃRyeR»R°RgRµRЅRёR№  S…RIS–SЃS‚.

RќR° RїSЂRµRIRµR»RёRyeRёR№ R¶R°R»SЊ, S‡R°S€Sѓ RIS–RgR±RёR»Rё S‰Rµ Sѓ RgR°RIRЅRёRЅSѓ. R’RѕRЅR°, RїRѕR·R° SЃSѓRјRЅS–RIRѕRј, R±SѓR»R° RIRёRyeRѕRЅR°RЅR° Sѓ RIRёRiR»SЏRgS– RiRѕR»RѕRIRё S†R°SЂSЏ R·RIS–SЂS–RI, RїSЂRѕ S‰Rѕ SЃRIS–RgS‡R°S‚SЊ RјR°R№SЃS‚RµSЂRЅRѕ RIRёRyeRѕRЅR°RЅS– S„SЂR°RiRјRµRЅS‚Rё RiSЂRёRIRё.

R„RISЂRµR№SЃSЊRyeR° (?) R»SЋR»SЊRyeR° Sѓ RIRёRiR»SЏRgS– R»RµRIR°

RЎR°RјRµ S‚R°RyeRёR№ RIR°SЂS–R°RЅS‚ R·RѕR±SЂR°R¶RµRЅRЅSЏ R»RµRIS–RI Sѓ R·R°R·RЅR°S‡RµRЅRёR№ RїRµSЂS–RѕRg R±SѓRI S‚RёRїRѕRIRёRј RgR»SЏ S”RISЂRµR№SЃSЊRyeRѕRiRѕ SЃR°RyeSЂR°R»SЊRЅRѕRiRѕ RјRёSЃS‚RµS†S‚RIR°. RўR°RyeRёS… R»RµRIS–RI, R·RѕRyeSЂRµRјR°, RїRѕRIRЅRѕ RЅR° RЅR°RgRiSЂRѕR±RyeR°S… XVIII SЃS‚RѕR»S–S‚S‚SЏ – S‰Rѕ RI SЃR°RјRѕRјSѓ R“RѕSЂRѕRgRyeSѓ, S‰Rѕ RЅR° S†RIRёRЅS‚R°SЂS– RI SЃSѓSЃS–RgRЅSЊRѕRјSѓ RЎR°S‚R°RЅRѕRIS–.

R¦S–R»RyeRѕRј RјRѕR¶RЅR° RїSЂRёRїSѓSЃS‚RёS‚Rё, S‰Rѕ SЏRyeRёR№SЃSЊ R·R°RїRѕRIR·SЏS‚R»RёRIRёR№ SѓRјS–R»RµS†SЊ RЅR°R»R°RiRѕRgRёRI RIRёRїSѓSЃRye "RyeRѕR·R°S†SЊRyeRёS… R»SЋR»SЊRѕRye" SЃRїRµS†S–R°R»SЊRЅRѕ RgR»SЏ S”RISЂRµS—RI-RyeSѓSЂS†S–RI. R§RѕRјSѓ R±Rё R№ RЅS–?

R† RЅR°RѕSЃS‚R°RЅRѕRye RIS–Rg  XVII–XVIII SЃS‚RѕR»S–S‚SЊ RїS–SЂRЅRµRјRѕ Sѓ RiR»RёR±RёRЅSѓ S‚RёSЃSЏS‡RѕR»S–S‚SЊ.

RђSЂS…RµRѕR»RѕRiR°Rј RIRgR°R»RѕSЃSЏ R·SЏSЃSѓRIR°S‚Rё, S‰Rѕ S‚RµSЂRёS‚RѕSЂS–SЋ S‚RµRїRµSЂS–S€RЅSЊRѕRiRѕ R“RѕSЂRѕRgRyeR° R»SЋRgRё RIRїRѕRgRѕR±R°R»Rё S‰Rµ Sѓ SЃRёRISѓ RgR°RIRЅRёRЅSѓ. R—RѕRyeSЂRµRјR°, RїS–Rg S‡R°SЃ SЂRѕR·RyeRѕRїRѕRye RѕR±S”RyeS‚Sѓ "RyeRѕSЂS‡RјR°" RЅR° RgRIRѕRјRµS‚SЂRѕRIS–R№ RiR»RёR±RёRЅS– RgRѕSЃR»S–RgRЅRёRyeRё R·RЅR°R№S€R»Rё RyeR°RјSЏRЅRѕRiRѕ RЅSѓRyeR»RµSѓSЃR° S‚R° SЃR»S–RgRё RѕR±RјR°R·RyeRё S‚SЂRёRїS–R»SЊSЃSЊRyeRѕRiRѕ R¶RёS‚R»R°.

 

RќR° SЂRѕR·RyeRѕRїS– "RyeSЂR°RјRЅRёS‡RyeR°-R»SЋR»SЊRyeRё", R·R°RyeR»R°RgRµRЅRѕRјSѓ RјRµS‚SЂS–RI R·R° 100 RIS–Rg "RyeRѕSЂS‡RјRё", RIRёSЏRIRёR»Rё RyeS–R»SЊRyeR° S„SЂR°RiRјRµRЅS‚S–RI RyeRµSЂR°RјS–RyeRё, S‰Rѕ RѕSЂS–S”RЅS‚RѕRIRЅRѕ RЅR°R»RµR¶R°S‚SЊ RgRѕ S‡RѕSЂRЅRѕR»S–SЃSЊRyeRѕS— RyeSѓR»SЊS‚SѓSЂRё – R° S†Rµ SЃR°RјS–SЃS–RЅSЊRyeRёR№ RїRѕS‡R°S‚RѕRye R·R°R»S–R·RЅRѕS— RgRѕR±Rё.

RўR°RyeRёRј S‡RёRЅRѕRј Sѓ RїS–RgSЃSѓRјRyeSѓ SЂRѕR·RyeRѕRїRѕRye R·RЅR°S‡RЅRѕ RїRѕRјRѕR»RѕRgS€R°RI SЃSѓS‡R°SЃRЅRёR№ S†RµRЅS‚SЂ R“RѕSЂRѕRgRyeR° S‚R° RIRѕRgRЅRѕS‡R°SЃ R·SЂS–SЃ RIS–Rye R»SЋRgSЃSЊRyeRёS… RїRѕSЃRµR»RµRЅSЊ RЅR° RјS–SЃS†S– RЅR°SЃRµR»RµRЅRѕRiRѕ RїSѓRЅRyeS‚Sѓ. R—RIS–SЃRЅRѕ, S‰Rѕ RЅS– "S‚SЂRёRїS–R»SЊS†S–", RЅS– "S‡RѕSЂRЅRѕR»S–SЃS†S–" RgRѕ R·R°SЃRЅSѓRIR°RЅRЅSЏ SЃSѓS‡R°SЃRЅRѕRiRѕ RјS–SЃS‚RµS‡RyeR° RIS–RgRЅRѕS€RµRЅRЅSЏ RЅRµ RјR°SЋS‚SЊ, R°R»Rµ SЏRye S€S‚SЂRёS… RgRѕ S–SЃS‚RѕSЂS–S— R№RѕRiRѕ S‚RµSЂRёS‚RѕSЂS–S— S†Rµ S†S–RyeR°RIRѕ.

RЇRye R·SЏSЃSѓRIR°RI Z, RIRµSЂRµSЃRЅRµRIRёRјRё SЂRѕR·RyeRѕRїRyeR°RјRё RgRѕSЃR»S–RgR¶RµRЅRЅSЏ S–SЃS‚RѕSЂS–S— R“RѕSЂRѕRgRyeR° RЅRµ R·R°RyeS–RЅS‡RёS‚SЊSЃSЏ – "R±R°S‚SЊRyeRё RјS–SЃS‚R°" RїR»R°RЅSѓSЋS‚SЊ RISЂRµS€S‚S– SЂRѕR·S–R±SЂR°S‚RёSЃSЏ R·S– R·RЅR°RјRµRЅRёS‚RёRјRё RЅR° RISЃRµ RџRѕRgS–R»R»SЏ RјS–SЃS†RµRIRёRјRё RїS–RgR·RµRјRµR»R»SЏRјRё.

R”R¶RµSЂRµR»Rѕ: R—R±SЂSѓS‡

100 RyeRЅRёRi RќRµR·R°R»RµR¶RЅRѕSЃS‚S–. "R†SЃS‚RѕSЂRёS‡RЅR° RїSЂR°RIRgR°" SЂRµRyeRѕRјRµRЅRgSѓS”

RџRµSЂRµR»S–Rye RIRёRgR°RЅSЊ, SЏRyeS– RIRёR№S€R»Rё R·R° S‡R°SЃS–RI RЅRµR·R°R»RµR¶RЅRѕSЃS‚S– S– SЏRyeS– RgR°SЋS‚SЊ RјRѕR¶R»RёRIS–SЃS‚SЊ RїS–R·RЅR°S‚Rё S–SЃS‚RѕSЂS–SЋ RЈRyeSЂR°S—RЅRё, R„RISЂRѕRїRё, RЅR°S€RёS… SЃSѓSЃS–RgS–RI, RѕRyeSЂRµRјRёS… R»SЋRgRµR№ S– SЏRIRёS‰. R† SЏRyeS– SЂRѕR±R»SЏS‚SЊ S†Rµ R· SЂS–R·RЅRёS… RїRµSЂSЃRїRµRyeS‚RёRI. RџRµRIRЅS–, S‰Rѕ S‡R°SЃ, RIRёS‚SЂR°S‡RµRЅRёR№ RЅR° S‡RёS‚R°RЅRЅSЏ RЅRµ R±SѓRgRµ RIS‚SЂR°S‡RµRЅRёRј.

RЈRyeSЂR°S—RЅS†S–. RќR°R№RЅRµS‰R°SЃR»RёRIS–S€R° RЅR°S†S–SЏ S‡RѕS‚RёSЂSЊRѕS… RyeRѕRЅS‚RёRЅRµRЅS‚S–RI

RЈRyeSЂR°S—RЅS†S– vЂ” RЅR°R№RЅRµS‰R°SЃR»RёRIS–S€R° RЅR°S†S–SЏ R„RISЂRѕRїRё, RѕR±RѕS… RђRјRµSЂRёRye S‚R° RђRISЃS‚SЂR°R»S–S—. RўR°RyeRёRј S” RїS–RgSЃSѓRјRѕRye RЅR°S€RѕRiRѕ SЂRѕR·RIRёS‚RyeSѓ RЅR°RїRµSЂRµRgRѕRgRЅS– 28-S— SЂS–S‡RЅRёS†S– RќRµR·R°R»RµR¶RЅRѕSЃS‚Rё. RЇRye SѓRyeSЂR°S—RЅS†S– R·RјS–RЅSЋRIR°R»RёSЃSЏ RїSЂRѕS‚SЏRiRѕRј SЂRѕRyeS–RI RќRµR·R°R»RµR¶RЅRѕSЃS‚S–? R§RѕRјSѓ RјRё RIRїSЂRёS‚SѓR» RЅRµ RїRѕRјS–S‡R°S”RјRѕ, S‰Rѕ RЅR°SЃRїSЂR°RIRgS– RЈRyeSЂR°S—RЅR° vЂ” RЅRµ RЈRiR°RЅRgR°!?

RЈRyeSЂR°S—RЅSЃSЊRyeRёR№ RїR°SЂR°Rg Sѓ SЃS‚RѕR»RёS†S– R RѕSЃS–S—

RњSЂS–SЏ? RќS– vЂ“ S†Rµ RIR¶Rµ R±SѓR»Rѕ. R† RЅRµ RѕRgRёRЅ SЂR°R·. RџRѕR±SѓS‚SѓS” RgSѓRјRyeR°, S‰Rѕ RI RЅR°S€S–R№ S–SЃS‚RѕSЂS–S— RјR°R»Rѕ SЃRIS–S‚R»RёS… SЃS‚RѕSЂS–RЅRѕRye S– RїRµSЂRµRјRѕRi. R“SЂR°RЅRgS–RѕR·RЅRёR№ SѓRyeSЂR°S—RЅSЃSЊRyeRёR№ RIS–R№SЃSЊRyeRѕRIRёR№ RїR°SЂR°Rg RI SЃS‚RѕR»RёS†S– R RѕSЃS–S—: SЏRye S†Rµ R±SѓR»Rѕ?

RћRјRµR»SЏRЅ RљRѕRIS‡ vЂ” SЃRISЏS‰RµRЅRёRye, RїR°S‚SЂS–RѕS‚ S‚R° RїSЂR°RIRµRgRЅRёRye

"RљRѕRIS‡, SЏRyeRёR№ RgRѕSЃRyeRѕRЅR°R»Rѕ R·RЅR°RI RЅS–RјRµS†SЊRyeSѓ RјRѕRISѓ, RyeSЂRёRyeRЅSѓRI RgRѕ RЅS–RјRµS†SЊRyeRёS… SЃRѕR»RgR°S‚S–RI, S‰RѕR± RgRѕRїSѓSЃS‚RёR»Rё R№RѕRiRѕ RgRѕ SЃRёRЅR°RiRѕRiRё. RћSЃS‚R°RЅRЅS– RѕRЅS–RјS–R»Rё RIS–Rg R·RgRёRISѓRIR°RЅRЅSЏ S– RїSѓSЃS‚RёR»Rё R№RѕRiRѕ, R° RѕS‚RµS†SЊ RyeRёRЅSѓRISЃSЏ RIRёRЅRѕSЃRёS‚Rё R»SЋRgRµR№ S–R· RїR°R»R°SЋS‡RѕS— SЃRёRЅR°RiRѕRiRё. RЎRµSЂRµRg S–RЅS€RёS…, SЏRyeRёS… RISЂSЏS‚SѓRIR°RI Rѕ. RљRѕRIS‡, R±SѓRI SЂR°R±RёRЅ Rј. R‘RµR»R· RђR°SЂRѕRЅ R RѕRyeRµR°S…".