RЎRїRµS†RїSЂRѕRµRyeS‚

RўRѕ RyeRѕR»Rё R¶ R‘RѕR»R±RѕS‡R°RЅ RIRёR·RIRѕR»RёRI RљSЂRёRј? RGSЂRѕRЅS–RyeR° SѓRyeSЂR°S—RЅSЃSЊRyeRѕRiRѕ RїRѕS…RѕRgSѓ RЅR° RїS–RIRѕSЃS‚SЂS–RI

RЇRyeS‰Rѕ RyeRѕSЂRѕS‚RyeRѕ vЂ“ "RyeRѕSЂRѕS‚RyeR°" S…SЂRѕRЅRѕR»RѕRiS–SЏ RIRёR·RЅR°S‡R°S” RIR·SЏS‚S‚SЏ RЎS–RјS„RµSЂRѕRїRѕR»SЏ 22 RyeRIS–S‚RЅSЏ 1918 SЂRѕRyeSѓ, "RgRѕRIRiR°" S…SЂRѕRЅRѕR»RѕRiS–SЏ RїRµSЂRµRЅRѕSЃRёS‚SЊ S†SЋ RїRѕRgS–SЋ RЅR° 24 RyeRIS–S‚RЅSЏ. RGRѕS‡R° SЂS–R·RЅRёS†SЏ, R·RgR°RIR°R»R°SЃSЏ R±, RЅRµRїSЂRёRЅS†RёRїRѕRIR°, RЅR°SЃRїSЂR°RIRgS– R·R° RgR°S‚R°RјRё S…RѕRIR°S”S‚SЊSЃSЏ RЅRµR°R±RёSЏRyeRёR№ RїRѕR»S–S‚RёS‡RЅRёR№ RїS–RgS‚RµRyeSЃS‚.

R RѕSЃS–R№SЃSЊRyeRѕ-SѓRyeSЂR°S—RЅSЃSЊRyeRёR№ RyeRѕRЅS„R»S–RyeS‚, RI RѕRgRЅRѕRјSѓ R· S„RѕRyeSѓSЃS–RI SЏRyeRѕRiRѕ RѕRїRёRЅRёRISЃSЏ RљSЂRёRј, RїSЂRёSЂRѕRgRЅRёRј S‡RёRЅRѕRј RїS–RgR¶RёRIRёRI S–RЅS‚RµSЂRµSЃ RgRѕ RјRёRЅSѓR»RѕRiRѕ RїS–RIRѕSЃS‚SЂRѕRIR° R·R°RiR°R»RѕRј S‚R° R№RѕRiRѕ RIS–R№SЃSЊRyeRѕRIRёS… R°SЃRїRµRyeS‚S–RI R·RѕRyeSЂRµRјR°.

R† RѕRgRЅRёRј R· S‚R°RyeRёS… RµRїS–R·RѕRgS–RI, SѓRIR°RiR° RgRѕ SЏRyeRѕRiRѕ RјR°S” S– S‚RµRѕSЂRµS‚RёS‡RЅRёR№, S– RїSЂR°RyeS‚RёS‡RЅRёR№ R±S–Rye, S” RїRѕS…S–Rg RЅR° RљSЂRёRј SѓRyeSЂR°S—RЅSЃSЊRyeRёS… RIS–R№SЃSЊRye RЅR° S‡RѕR»S– R· RџRµS‚SЂRѕRј R‘RѕR»R±RѕS‡R°RЅRѕRј, 99-SЂS–S‡S‡SЏ SЏRyeRѕRiRѕ RјRё RIS–RgR·RЅR°S‡R°S”RјRѕ Sѓ RyeRIS–S‚RЅS–.

RђR»Rµ RЅRµR·RIR°R¶R°SЋS‡Rё RЅR° RIRёRЅSЏS‚RyeRѕRISѓ RIR°R¶R»RёRIS–SЃS‚SЊ S†S–S”S— RїRѕRgS–S— RgR»SЏ SѓRyeSЂR°S—RЅSЃSЊRyeRѕS— RIRѕS”RЅRЅRѕS— S–SЃS‚RѕSЂS–S— S‚R° S–SЃS‚RѕSЂS–S— RyeSЂRёRјSЃSЊRyeRѕ-SѓRyeSЂR°S—RЅSЃSЊRyeRёS… SЃS‚RѕSЃSѓRЅRyeS–RI, "R±S–R»RёS… RїR»SЏRј" Sѓ S—S— RIRёRIS‡RµRЅRЅS– S” S‰Rµ S‡RёRјR°R»Rѕ.

R† RѕRgRЅRёRј R· S‚R°RyeRёS… RgRѕSЃS– RЅRµSЂRѕR·RI’SЏR·R°RЅRёS… RѕSЃS‚R°S‚RѕS‡RЅRѕ RїRёS‚R°RЅSЊ S” RIR»R°SЃRЅRµ RgR°S‚R°, RyeRѕR»Rё R¶ R‘RѕR»R±RѕS‡R°RЅ RIRёR·RIRѕR»RёRI RїS–RIRѕSЃS‚SЂS–RI RIS–Rg RyeRѕRјSѓRЅS–SЃS‚S–RI, S‰Rѕ SѓR·SѓSЂRїSѓRIR°R»Rё S‚R°Rј RIR»R°RgSѓ. R† SЏRye RIRёRgR°S”S‚SЊSЃSЏ, Sѓ RЅR°SЃ S” RISЃRµ RЅRµRѕR±S…S–RgRЅRµ RgR»SЏ S‚RѕRiRѕ, R°R±Rё S†Rµ RїRёS‚R°RЅRЅSЏ, RЅR°SЂRµS€S‚S–, R·R°RyeSЂRёS‚Rё.

RџRѕSЃS‚R°RЅRѕRIRyeR° RїSЂRѕR±R»RµRјRё

RЇRyeS‰Rѕ R·RЅRµS…S‚SѓRIR°S‚Rё RѕRyeSЂRµRјRёRјRё SЂRѕR·R±S–R¶RЅRѕSЃS‚SЏRјRё, RЅR° R·R°RiR°R» RјRѕR¶RЅR° SЃS‚RIRµSЂRgR¶SѓRIR°S‚Rё, S‰Rѕ S–SЃRЅSѓS” RgRIR° RѕSЃRЅRѕRIRЅRёS… RIR°SЂS–R°RЅS‚Rё RgR°S‚SѓRIR°RЅRЅSЏ RїRѕS…RѕRgSѓ R‘RѕR»R±RѕS‡R°RЅR° – RЅR°R·RIRµRјRѕ S—S… SѓRјRѕRIRЅRѕ "RgRѕRIRiRѕSЋ" S‚R° "RyeRѕSЂRѕS‚RyeRѕSЋ" S…SЂRѕRЅRѕR»RѕRiS–S”SЋ.

RњR°R№R¶Rµ RЅS– RI RyeRѕRiRѕ RЅRµ RIRёRyeR»RёRyeR°S” SЃSѓRјRЅS–RIS–RI S‡R°SЃ RїRѕS‡R°S‚RyeSѓ R±RѕR№RѕRIRёS… RgS–R№ RI RљSЂRёRјSѓ RI S‚RѕR№ RїRµSЂS–RѕRg – S€S‚SѓSЂRј RЅS–RјS†SЏRјRё RџRµSЂRµRyeRѕRїR° 18 RyeRIS–S‚RЅSЏ 1918 SЂRѕRyeSѓ, S‚R°RyeRѕR¶ SѓSЃS‚R°R»RµRЅRѕSЋ S” RgR°S‚R° SѓRyeSЂR°S—RЅS–R·R°S†S–S— R§RѕSЂRЅRѕRјRѕSЂSЃSЊRyeRѕRiRѕ S„R»RѕS‚Sѓ RI RЎRµRIR°SЃS‚RѕRїRѕR»S– – 29 RyeRIS–S‚RЅSЏ. RќR°S‚RѕRјS–SЃS‚SЊ RISЃRµSЂRµRgRёRЅS– S†SЊRѕRiRѕ RIS–RgSЂS–R·RyeSѓ RgR°S‚Rё "RїR»R°RIR°SЋS‚SЊ", S– S‚Rѕ S–R· SЂRѕR·R±S–R¶RЅS–SЃS‚SЋ Sѓ RgRIS– RgRѕR±Rё.

RЇRyeS‰Rѕ RyeRѕSЂRѕS‚RyeRѕ – "RyeRѕSЂRѕS‚RyeR°" S…SЂRѕRЅRѕR»RѕRiS–SЏ RIRёR·RЅR°S‡R°S” RIR·SЏS‚S‚SЏ RЎS–RјS„RµSЂRѕRїRѕR»SЏ 22 RyeRIS–S‚RЅSЏ 1918 SЂRѕRyeSѓ, "RgRѕRIRiR°" S…SЂRѕRЅRѕR»RѕRiS–SЏ RїRµSЂRµRЅRѕSЃRёS‚SЊ S†SЋ RїRѕRgS–SЋ RЅR° 24 RyeRIS–S‚RЅSЏ. RGRѕS‡R° SЂS–R·RЅRёS†SЏ, R·RgR°RIR°R»R°SЃSЏ R±, RЅRµRїSЂRёRЅS†RёRїRѕRIR°, RЅR°SЃRїSЂR°RIRgS– R·R° RgR°S‚R°RјRё S…RѕRIR°S”S‚SЊSЃSЏ RЅRµR°R±RёSЏRyeRёR№ RїRѕR»S–S‚RёS‡RЅRёR№ RїS–RgS‚RµRyeSЃS‚.

RџRµS‚SЂRѕ R‘RѕR»R±RѕS‡R°RЅ S– R№RѕRiRѕ RїRѕS…S–Rg RЅR° RљSЂRёRј. RЈS‚RѕS‡RЅRµRЅRЅSЏ: Sѓ RњRµR»S–S‚RѕRїRѕR»SЊ R·R°RїRѕSЂRѕR¶S†S– RIRIS–R№S€R»Rё RЅRµ 20-RiRѕ, R° 18-RiRѕ RyeRIS–S‚RЅSЏ. RўRёSЃRЅS–S‚SЊ S‚SѓS‚ RgR»SЏ R·R±S–R»SЊS€RµRЅRЅSЏ.

RЇRyeS‰Rѕ RIS–SЂRЅRѕSЋ S” "RyeRѕSЂRѕS‚RyeR°" S…SЂRѕRЅRѕR»RѕRiS–SЏ, S‚Rѕ SЃS‚RѕR»RёS†SЋ RљSЂRёRјSѓ R·R°S…RѕRїRёR»Rё RЅS–RјS†S– S‰Rµ RgRѕ S‚RѕRiRѕ, SЏRye SѓRyeSЂR°S—RЅSЃSЊRyeS– RIS–R№SЃSЊRyeR° RgS–SЃS‚R°R»RёSЃSЏ R”R¶R°RЅRyeRѕSЋ, R° RIS–RgS‚R°Rye RїRѕRgR°R»SЊS€RёR№ RїRѕS…S–Rg R‘RѕR»R±RѕS‡R°RЅR° RЅRµ RјR°RI R¶RѕRgRЅRѕRiRѕ RIS–R№SЃSЊRyeRѕRIRѕRiRѕ S‚R° RїRѕR»S–S‚RёS‡RЅRѕRiRѕ SЃRµRЅSЃSѓ. R†, RIS–RgRїRѕRIS–RgRЅRѕ, SЃSЊRѕRiRѕRgRЅS– SѓRyeSЂR°S—RЅS†S– RgR°SЂRµRјRЅRѕ SЂRѕR·RgRјSѓS…SѓSЋS‚SЊ S†Rµ RїRёS‚R°RЅRЅSЏ.

RќR°S‚RѕRјS–SЃS‚SЊ, SЏRyeS‰Rѕ RїSЂR°RIRgRёRIRѕSЋ RIRёSЏRIRёS‚SЊSЃSЏ "RgRѕRIRiR°" S…SЂRѕRЅRѕR»RѕRiS–SЏ, S‚Rѕ S†Rµ SЃR°RјRµ SѓRyeSЂR°S—RЅS†S– S–R· RIRёRїRµSЂRµRgR¶RµRЅRЅSЏRј Sѓ RїS–RIRgRѕR±Rё R·RIS–R»SЊRЅSЏR»Rё RјS–SЃS‚R° RљSЂRёRјSѓ RIS–Rg RyeRѕRјSѓRЅS–SЃS‚RёS‡RЅRѕS— RIR»R°RgRё, R° S‚RѕRјSѓ RјR°R»Rё RїSЂR°RIRѕ RїSЂRµS‚RµRЅRgSѓRIR°S‚Rё RЅR° RyeRѕRЅS‚SЂRѕR»SЊ RЅR°Rg RїS–RIRѕSЃS‚SЂRѕRIRѕRј.

RќRµ RgRёRIRЅRѕ, S‰Rѕ RISЃS– SЂR°RgSЏRЅSЃSЊRyeS–, R°R±SЃRѕR»SЋS‚RЅR° R±S–R»SЊS€S–SЃS‚SЊ SЂRѕSЃS–R№SЃSЊRyeRёS… S‚R° RgRµSЏRyeS– SѓRyeSЂR°S—RЅSЃSЊRyeS– S–SЃS‚RѕSЂRёRyeRё RgRѕS‚SЂRёRјSѓSЋS‚SЊSЃSЏ R±S–R»SЊS€-RјRµRЅS€ S‚SЂR°RgRёS†S–R№RЅRѕS— "RyeRѕSЂRѕS‚RyeRѕS—" S…SЂRѕRЅRѕR»RѕRiS–S—, RЅR°S‚RѕRјS–SЃS‚SЊ R±S–R»SЊS€S–SЃS‚SЊ SѓRyeSЂR°S—RЅSЃSЊRyeRёS… S‚R° RїRѕRѕRgRёRЅRѕRyeS– SЂRѕSЃS–R№SЃSЊRyeS– S–SЃS‚RѕSЂRёRyeRё R·R°S…RёS‰R°SЋS‚SЊ "RgRѕRIRiSѓ" S…SЂRѕRЅRѕR»RѕRiS–SЋ.

R—SЂRѕR·SѓRјS–R»Rѕ, S‰Rѕ RїRѕR»S–S‚RёS‡RЅR° R°RЅRiR°R¶RѕRIR°RЅS–SЃS‚SЊ SЃRµSЂR№RѕR·RЅRѕ RIRїR»RёRIR°S” RЅR° RIS–RgR±S–SЂ RgR¶RµSЂRµR» RgR»SЏ RѕR±T‘SЂSѓRЅS‚SѓRIR°RЅRЅSЏ S‚S–S”S— S‡Rё S–RЅS€RѕS— RїRѕR·RёS†S–S—, RIS‚S–Rј, R·R°R»SѓS‡RµRЅRЅSЏ RISЃSЊRѕRiRѕ RјRѕR¶R»RёRIRѕRiRѕ RyeRѕSЂRїSѓSЃSѓ SЃRIS–RgRѕS†S‚RI, RїRµSЂRµRgRѕRISЃS–Rј RЅS–RјRµS†SЊRyeRёS…, RgR°S” R·RјRѕRiSѓ RѕRgRЅRѕR·RЅR°S‡RЅRѕ RIS–RgRїRѕRIS–SЃS‚Rё RЅR° RѕR·RISѓS‡RµRЅRµ Sѓ R·R°RiRѕR»RѕRIRyeSѓ RїRёS‚R°RЅRЅSЏ.

RўSЂR°RgRёS†S–SЏ "RyeRѕSЂRѕS‚RyeRѕS—" S…SЂRѕRЅRѕR»RѕRiS–S—

R’ RїRµSЂS€RѕRјSѓ R·R±S–SЂRЅRёRyeSѓ "R RµRIRѕR»SЋS†RёSЏ RI RљSЂS‹RјSѓ", RѕRїSѓR±R»S–RyeRѕRIR°RЅRѕRјSѓ 1922 SЂRѕRyeSѓ, RI RјR°S‚RµSЂS–R°R»S– SЃRїS–RISЂRѕR±S–S‚RЅRёRyeR° RљSЂRёRјSЃSЊRyeRѕRiRѕ S–SЃS‚RїR°SЂS‚Sѓ (RљRѕRјS–SЃS–S— RgR»SЏ R·R±RёSЂR°RЅRЅSЏ S– RIRёRIS‡RµRЅRЅSЏ RјR°S‚RµSЂS–R°R»S–RI R· S–SЃS‚RѕSЂS–S— R–RѕRIS‚RЅRµRIRѕS— SЂRµRIRѕR»SЋS†S–S— S‚R° S–SЃS‚RѕSЂS–S— R RѕSЃS–R№SЃSЊRyeRѕS— RљRѕRјSѓRЅS–SЃS‚RёS‡RЅRѕS— RїR°SЂS‚S–S—) R’RѕR»RѕRgRёRјRёSЂR° R„R»R°RiS–RЅR° "R•RIRїR°S‚RѕSЂRёR№SЃRyeRёR№ RћRyeS‚SЏR±SЂSЊ Rё RЅR°S‡R°R»Rѕ RЎRѕRIRIR»R°SЃS‚Rё" R·R°R·RЅR°S‡RµRЅRѕ: "21-RiRѕ RyeRIS–S‚RЅSЏ RЎS–RјS„RµSЂRѕRїRѕR»SЊ R±SѓRI R·R°R№RЅSЏS‚RёR№ R±RµR· R±RѕSЋ RiR°R№RgR°RјR°S†SЊRyeRёRјRё R±R°RЅRgR°RјRё "S‰RёSЂRёS… SѓRyeSЂR°S—RЅS†S–RI", R° RЅR° RЅR°SЃS‚SѓRїRЅRёR№ RgRµRЅSЊ RїRµSЂRµRgRѕRIRёRјRё SЂRѕR·’S—R·RgR°RјRё S‡SѓRgRѕRIRёS… RЅS–RјRµS†SЊRyeRёS… SѓR»R°RЅ" [1, SЃ. 58].

R©Rѕ RїRѕRyeR°R·RѕRIRѕ, RI SЃS‚R°S‚S‚S– RЅRµRјR°S” R¶RѕRgRЅRѕRiRѕ RїRѕSЃRёR»R°RЅRЅSЏ. RЈ RgSЂSѓRiRѕRјSѓ R·R±S–SЂRЅRёRyeSѓ, S‰Rѕ RIRёR№S€RѕRI RЅR°SЃS‚SѓRїRЅRѕRiRѕ SЂRѕRyeSѓ, RIS–RЅ RїRѕR»RµRјS–R·SѓRIR°RI S–R· RїSЂRµRgSЃS‚R°RIRЅRёRyeR°RјRё S–RЅS€RёS… S‚RѕS‡RѕRye R·RѕSЂSѓ S– RЅR°RїRѕR»SЏRiR°RI, S‰Rѕ RЎS–RјS„RµSЂRѕRїRѕR»SЊ "R±SѓRI R·R°R»RёS€RµRЅRёR№ 21 RyeRIS–S‚RЅSЏ R±RµR· R¶RѕRgRЅRѕRiRѕ RїRѕSЃS‚SЂS–R»Sѓ".

RЎS‚RѕSЂS–RЅRyeR° R· RїSЂR°S†S– R’. R„R»R°RiS–RЅR°, SЏRyeR°, R№RјRѕRIS–SЂRЅRѕ, R·R°RїRѕS‡R°S‚RyeSѓRIR°R»R° "RyeRѕSЂRѕS‚RyeSѓ" S…SЂRѕRЅRѕR»RѕRiS–SЋ

R’ SЋRIS–R»RµR№RЅRѕRјSѓ R·R±S–SЂRЅRёRyeSѓ "R RµRIRѕR»SЋS†RёSЏ RI RљSЂS‹RјSѓ" RgRѕ 10-SЂS–S‡S‡SЏ SЂRµRIRѕR»SЋS†S–S— RI SЂRѕR·RgS–R»S– "RGSЂRѕRЅS–RyeR°" S‚R°RyeRѕR¶ R±SѓR»Rѕ RIRyeR°R·R°RЅRѕ, S‰Rѕ 21 RyeRIS–S‚RЅSЏ RЎS–RјS„RµSЂRѕRїRѕR»SЊ "R·R°R№RЅSЏS‚RёR№ R±RµR· R±RѕSЋ RiR°R№RgR°RјR°S†SЊRyeRёRјRё R±R°RЅRgR°RјRё" [2, SЃ. 285].

RџRѕSЃRёR»R°R»RёSЃSЏ SѓRyeR»R°RgR°S‡S–, R·SЂRѕR·SѓRјS–R»Rѕ, RЅR° SЃS‚R°S‚S‚SЋ R’. R„R»R°RiS–RЅR°.

Rђ RѕS‚ RI RїRµSЂS€S–R№ R· SѓR·R°RiR°R»SЊRЅSЋSЋS‡RёS… SЂR°RgSЏRЅSЃSЊRyeRёS… RїSЂR°S†SЊ, "R RµRIRѕR»SЋS†RёSЏ Rё R“SЂR°R¶RgR°RЅSЃRyeR°SЏ RIRѕR№RЅR° RI RљSЂS‹RјSѓ (1917–1920)" RњR°RyeSЃRёRјR° R‘SѓRЅS”RiS–RЅR°, RIRёRgR°RЅS–R№ S‚RѕRiRѕ R¶ 1927 SЂRѕRyeSѓ, R±SѓR»Rѕ RIRyeR°R·R°RЅRѕ, S‰Rѕ "22 RyeRIS–S‚RЅSЏ RїRѕS‡R°R»R°SЃSЏ RµRIR°RyeSѓR°S†S–SЏ RЎS–RјS„RµSЂRѕRїRѕR»SЏ" [3, SЃ. 157].

RЈ RgSЂSѓRiRѕRјSѓ S‚RѕRјS– "RћS‡RµSЂRyeRѕRI RїRѕ RёSЃS‚RѕSЂRёRё RљSЂS‹RјR°" RџR°RIR»R° RќR°RgS–RЅSЃSЊRyeRѕRiRѕ, S‰Rѕ RIRёR№S€RѕRI RgSЂSѓRyeRѕRј 1957 SЂRѕRyeSѓ S– R±SѓRI SЃRIRѕRiRѕ SЂRѕRgSѓ RѕS„S–S†S–R№RЅRёRј RIRёRyeR»R°RgRѕRј SЂR°RgSЏRЅSЃSЊRyeRѕRiRѕ R±R°S‡RµRЅRЅSЏ S‚RёS… RїRѕRgS–R№, RiRѕRIRѕSЂRёR»RѕSЃSЏ, S‰Rѕ "22 RyeRIS–S‚RЅSЏ RЅS–RјRµS†SЊRyeS– RIS–R№SЃSЊRyeR° RѕRIRѕR»RѕRgS–R»Rё R„RIRїR°S‚RѕSЂS–S”SЋ S‚R° RЎS–RјS„RµSЂRѕRїRѕR»RµRј" [4, SЃ. 91].

R©RѕRїSЂR°RIRgR°, RќR°RgS–RЅSЃSЊRyeRёR№ RIRёR·RЅR°RI, S‰Rѕ RїRµSЂS€RёRјRё RISЃS‚SѓRїRёR»Rё RI RјS–SЃS‚Rѕ "RiR°R№RgR°RјR°RyeRё".

RќR°SЃS‚SѓRїRЅRѕRiRѕ SЂRѕRyeSѓ S„RѕSЂRјSѓR»SЋRIR°RЅRЅSЏ "22 RyeRIS–S‚RЅSЏ RїR°RI RЎS–RјS„RµSЂRѕRїRѕR»SЊ" [5, SЃ. 231] RїRѕS‚SЂR°RїRёR»Rѕ RgRѕ S‚SЂRµS‚SЊRѕRiRѕ S‚RѕRјSѓ RјRѕRЅSѓRјRµRЅS‚R°R»SЊRЅRѕRiRѕ Rї’SЏS‚RёS‚RѕRјRЅRѕRiRѕ R·R°RiR°R»SЊRЅRѕSЃRѕSЋR·RЅRѕRiRѕ RIRёRgR°RЅRЅSЏ "R?SЃS‚RѕSЂRёSЏ R“SЂR°R¶RgR°RЅSЃRyeRѕR№ RIRѕR№RЅS‹ RI RЎRЎRЎR ", S‰Rѕ R№RѕRiRѕ RiRѕS‚SѓRIR°RI R†RЅSЃS‚RёS‚SѓS‚ RјR°SЂRyeSЃRёR·RјSѓ-R»RµRЅS–RЅS–R·RјSѓ RїSЂRё R¦Rљ RљRџR RЎ S‚R° RgSЂSѓRyeSѓRIR°R»Rѕ R”RµSЂR¶R°RIRЅRµ RIRёRgR°RIRЅRёS†S‚RIRѕ RїRѕR»S–S‚RёS‡RЅRѕS— R»S–S‚RµSЂR°S‚SѓSЂRё (RїRµSЂS€RёR№ S‚RѕRј SЂRµRgR°RiSѓRIR°RI RѕSЃRѕR±RёSЃS‚Rѕ R™RѕSЃRёS„ RЎS‚R°R»S–RЅ).

RџRµS‚SЂRѕ R‘RѕR»R±RѕS‡R°RЅ Sѓ S‡R°SЃRё SЃR»SѓR¶R±Rё RI R RѕSЃS–R№SЃSЊRyeS–R№ S–RјRїRµSЂR°S‚RѕSЂSЃSЊRyeS–R№ R°SЂRјS–S—

RџS–SЃR»SЏ S†SЊRѕRiRѕ "22 RyeRIS–S‚RЅSЏ" S– RISЃSЏ "RyeRѕSЂRѕS‚RyeR°" S…SЂRѕRЅRѕR»RѕRiS–SЏ SЃS‚R°R»Rё R·R°RiR°R»SЊRЅRёRј RјS–SЃS†RµRј SЂR°RgSЏRЅSЃSЊRyeRѕS— S–SЃS‚RѕSЂS–RѕRiSЂR°S„S–S—, RїRѕRIS‚RѕSЂSЋSЋS‡RёSЃSЊ R· RѕRgRЅRѕRiRѕ RIRёRgR°RЅRЅSЏ RI S–RЅS€Rµ.

R©RѕRїSЂR°RIRgR°, RїRµRIRЅS– "RIRѕR»SЊRЅRѕSЃS‚S–" RјRѕRiR»R° SЃRѕR±S– RgRѕR·RIRѕR»RёS‚Rё RјRµRјSѓR°SЂRЅR° R»S–S‚RµSЂR°S‚SѓSЂR°. RЈ R±S–RѕRiSЂR°S„S–S— RyeSЂRёRјSЃSЊRyeRѕRiRѕ RyeRѕRјR°RЅRgR°SЂRјR° R†RIR°RЅR° R¤RµRgSЊRyeR° RIRyeR°R·R°RЅRѕ, S‰Rѕ RIS–RЅ S†S–R»RёR№ RgRµRЅSЊ 21 RyeRIS–S‚RЅSЏ RIS–RI R±RѕSЂRѕS‚SЊR±Sѓ R·R° R”R¶R°RЅRyeRѕR№, R° RїRѕS‚S–Rј S‰Rµ RyeS–R»SЊRyeR° RgRЅS–RI RIS–RgR±RёRIR°RISЃSЏ RIS–Rg RїSЂRѕS‚RёRIRЅRёRyeS–RI RЅR° SЃS‚R°RЅS†S–S— RљRѕR»R°R№ (RЅRёRЅS– – RђR·RѕRISЃSЊRyeRµ) [6, SЃ. 20–25], R° RgR°S‚Rё RїR°RgS–RЅRЅSЏ RЎS–RјS„RµSЂRѕRїRѕR»SЏ Sѓ RyeRЅRёR·S– RЅRµRјR°S”.

RЈ SЃRїRѕRiR°RgR°S… RyeSЂRёRјSЃSЊRyeRѕRiRѕ RїRѕRµS‚R° R†R»R»S– RЎRµR»SЊRIS–RЅSЃSЊRyeRѕRiRѕ R±RѕS— R·R° RџRµSЂRµRyeRѕRї S‚R° R”R¶R°RЅRyeRѕR№ RgR°S‚RѕRIR°RЅS– R°R¶ 22-24 RyeRIS–S‚RЅSЏ [7].

RўRёRј RЅRµ RјRµRЅS€Rµ, RїR°RgS–RЅRЅSЏ RЎS–RјS„RµSЂRѕRїRѕR»SЏ RїR°SЂR°R»RµR»SЊRЅRѕ RgR°S‚SѓRIR°R»RѕSЃSЏ 22 RyeRIS–S‚RЅSЏ S– RЅR°RgR°R»S– [8, SЃ. 87]. R’ S–RЅS€RёS… RIRёRїR°RgRyeR°S… RѕR±S…RѕRgRёR»RёSЃSЏ RIR·R°RiR°R»S– R±RµR· RyeRѕRЅRyeSЂRµS‚RЅRёS… RgR°S‚.

RЎS‚RѕSЂS–RЅRyeR° R· RїSЂR°S†S– Rў. R‘RёRyeRѕRIRѕS—

RџS–SЃR»SЏ R·RgRѕR±SѓS‚S‚SЏ RЅRµR·R°R»RµR¶RЅRѕSЃS‚S– RЈRyeSЂR°S—RЅRѕSЋ "RyeRѕSЂRѕS‚RyeR°" S…SЂRѕRЅRѕR»RѕRiS–SЏ RїSЂRѕRgRѕRIR¶RёR»R° RyeRѕSЂRёSЃS‚SѓRIR°S‚RёSЃSЏ RїRѕRїSѓR»SЏSЂRЅS–SЃS‚SЋ Sѓ RIS–S‚S‡RёR·RЅSЏRЅRёS… RgRѕSЃR»S–RgRЅRёRyeS–RI.

R’ SѓR·R°RiR°R»SЊRЅSЋSЋS‡S–R№ RїSЂR°S†S– RўRµS‚SЏRЅRё R‘RёRyeRѕRIRѕS— "RЎS‚RIRѕSЂRµRЅRЅSЏ RљSЂRёRјSЃSЊRyeRѕS— RђRЎR R " 2011 SЂRѕRyeSѓ R±SѓRyeRIR°R»SЊRЅRѕ RїRѕRIS‚RѕSЂRµRЅR° (R±RµR· RїRѕSЃRёR»R°RЅRЅSЏ) S†RёS‚R°S‚R° RќR°RgS–RЅSЃSЊRyeRѕRiRѕ RїSЂRѕ RIR·SЏS‚S‚SЏ 22 RyeRIS–S‚RЅSЏ R„RIRїR°S‚RѕSЂS–S— S‚R° RЎS–RјS„RµSЂRѕRїRѕR»SЏ [9, SЃ. 76].

RЎRµSЂRµRg S–RЅS€RёS… Sѓ 2015 SЂRѕS†S– "RyeRѕSЂRѕS‚RyeSѓ" S…SЂRѕRЅRѕR»RѕRiS–SЋ RїS–RgS‚SЂRёRјR°R»Rё R†RiRѕSЂ R“SЂRёS†RµRЅRyeRѕ ("R—R° RgRµRЅSЊ RgRѕ S†SЊRѕRiRѕ, 23 RyeRIS–S‚RЅSЏ 1918 SЂ., RyeRѕR»Rё RЅS–RјRµS†SЊRyeS– RIS–R№SЃSЊRyeR° S‚R° RIS–RgRgS–R»Rё RЈRќR  RIR¶Rµ R±SѓR»Rё RI RЎS–RјS„RµSЂRѕRїRѕR»S–…" [10, SЃ. 80] S–R· RїRѕSЃRёR»R°RЅRЅSЏRј RЅR° SЂR°RgSЏRЅSЃSЊRyeRµ RIRёRgR°RЅRЅSЏ 1979 SЂRѕRyeSѓ) S‚R° R RѕRјR°RЅ RўSЋS‚RµRЅRyeRѕ ("22 RyeRIS–S‚RЅSЏ RЎS–RјS„RµSЂRѕRїRѕR»SЊ R±SѓRI RIR·SЏS‚RёR№" [11, SЃ. 48] S–R· RїRѕSЃRёR»R°RЅRЅSЏRј RЅR° RyeRёS—RISЃSЊRyeSѓ RiR°R·RµS‚Sѓ "R‘RѕSЂRѕS‚SЊR±R°" R·R° 24 RyeRIS–S‚RЅSЏ 1918 SЂRѕRyeSѓ).

RњRµS‡RµS‚SЊ RI RђR»SѓS€S‚S–, RїRѕS‡R°S‚RѕRye 20-S… SЂRѕRyeS–RI RGRG SЃS‚RѕR»S–S‚S‚SЏ. R¤RѕS‚Rѕ R· RyeRѕR»RµRyeS†S–S— RќS–R·R°RјS– R†R±SЂR°S—RјRѕRIR° R”R¶RµSЂRµR»Rѕ: avdet.org

RќR°RIS–S‚SЊ Sѓ RgRёSЃRµSЂS‚R°S†S–S— 2016 SЂRѕRyeSѓ RўR°SЂR°SЃR° R’S–RЅS†RyeRѕRISЃSЊRyeRѕRiRѕ "R¤RѕSЂRјSѓRIR°RЅRЅSЏ S– RgS–SЏR»SЊRЅS–SЃS‚SЊ RјS–SЃS†RµRIRёS… RѕSЂRiR°RЅS–RI RIR»R°RgRё RїRµSЂS€RѕS— RЈRќR  RЅR° RїS–RIRgRЅS– RЈRyeSЂR°S—RЅRё" [12, SЃ. 289–290] R·R°R·RЅR°S‡R°S”S‚SЊSЃSЏ:

"RќRµ SЂR°RЅS–S€Rµ 23 RyeRIS–S‚RЅSЏ, RїS–SЃR»SЏ RISЃS‚SѓRїSѓ RgRѕ RЎS–RјS„RµSЂRѕRїRѕR»SЏ RЅS–RјRµS†SЊRyeRёS… S– SѓRyeSЂR°S—RЅSЃSЊRyeRёS… RIS–R№SЃSЊRye RїS–Rg RyeRѕRјR°RЅRgSѓRIR°RЅRЅSЏRј RѕS‚R°RјR°RЅR° Rћ. RќR°S‚S–S”RIR°, RgRѕ RiSѓR±RµSЂRЅSЃSЊRyeRѕRiRѕ S†RµRЅS‚SЂR° R±SѓRI RIS–RgSЂSЏRgR¶RµRЅRёR№ SѓSЂSЏRgRѕRIRµS†SЊ RgR»SЏ R·R°SЃRЅSѓRIR°RЅRЅSЏ RI RјS–SЃS‚S– S„S–R»S–S— R†RЅS„RѕSЂRјR°S†S–R№RЅRѕRiRѕ R±SЋSЂRѕ RњS–RЅS–SЃS‚RµSЂSЃS‚RIR° RIRЅSѓS‚SЂS–S€RЅS–S… SЃRїSЂR°RI RЈRќR …

R’S…RѕRgR¶RµRЅRЅSЏ RїS–RgSЂRѕR·RgS–R»S–RI R—R°RїRѕSЂS–R·SЊRyeRѕS— RgRёRIS–R·S–S— R°SЂRјS–S— RЈRќR  RgRѕ RЎS–RјS„RµSЂRѕRїRѕR»SЏ SЃSѓRїSЂRѕRIRѕRgR¶SѓRIR°R»RѕSЃSЏ S‡RёSЃR»RµRЅRЅRёRјRё RїSЂRёRIS–S‚R°R»SЊRЅRёRјRё RїRѕS‡RµSЃS‚SЏRјRё, R°RgR¶Rµ R·R° RїRµSЂS–RѕRg R±S–R»SЊS€RѕRIRёS†SЊRyeRѕS— RgRёRyeS‚R°S‚SѓSЂRё RјRµS€RyeR°RЅS†S– RiSѓR±RµSЂRЅSЃSЊRyeRѕRiRѕ S†RµRЅS‚SЂSѓ RїRµSЂRµR¶RёR»Rё SЃRyeR»R°RgRЅS– S‡R°SЃRё S‡RµSЂRIRѕRЅRѕRiRѕ S‚RµSЂRѕSЂSѓ.

R’R¶Rµ 23 RyeRIS–S‚RЅSЏ, RїS–SЃR»SЏ RIR·SЏS‚S‚SЏ RјS–SЃS‚R°, SЏRye RѕS‡RµRIRёRgRЅRѕ R· RµRјRѕS†S–R№RЅRёRј RїRµSЂRµR±S–R»SЊS€RµRЅRЅSЏRј RїRёSЃR°R»R° S‚RѕRiRѕS‡R°SЃRЅR° RїSЂRµSЃR°, "RЅRµ R±SѓR»Rѕ R¶RѕRgRЅRѕRiRѕ RyeRѕR·R°RyeR° R±RµR· R¶RјSѓS‚Sѓ RyeRIS–S‚S–RI", R° RЅR° RISЃS–S… RgRµSЂR¶R°RIRЅRёS… SѓSЃS‚R°RЅRѕRIR°S… R·R°RјR°R№RѕSЂS–RI SѓRyeSЂR°S—RЅSЃSЊRyeRёR№ RїSЂR°RїRѕSЂ. R’S–RЅ S‚R°RyeRѕR¶ RїSЂRёRyeSЂR°S€R°RI R±R°RiR°S‚Rѕ RїSЂRёRIR°S‚RЅRёS… R±SѓRgRёRЅRyeS–RI. RќR°Rg RїSЂRёRјS–S‰RµRЅRЅSЏRјRё S‚R°S‚R°SЂSЃSЊRyeRёS… RѕSЂRiR°RЅS–R·R°S†S–R№ RIRёSЃS–R»Rё RЅR°S†S–RѕRЅR°R»SЊRЅS– SЃS‚SЏRiRё".

RџSЂRё S†SЊRѕRјSѓ RgRѕSЃR»S–RgRЅRёRye RїRѕSЃRёR»R°S”S‚SЊSЃSЏ RЅR° RѕRgRµSЃSЊRyeSѓ RiR°R·RµS‚Sѓ "R’S–R»SЊRЅRµ R¶RёS‚S‚SЏ" R·R° 26 RyeRIS–S‚RЅSЏ.

RўSЂR°RgRёS†S–SЏ "RgRѕRIRiRѕS—" S…SЂRѕRЅRѕR»RѕRiS–S—

RђR¶ 28 RyeRIS–S‚RЅSЏ RgR°S‚SѓRIR°RI RїR°RgS–RЅRЅSЏ RЎS–RјS„RµSЂRѕRїRѕR»SЏ RЎRµSЂRiS–R№ RЁRµRјRµS‚ Sѓ SЂRѕR·RIS–RgS†S– "RџRѕR»RyeRѕRIRЅRёRye RџRµS‚SЂRѕ R‘RѕR»R±RѕS‡R°RЅ", RѕRїSѓR±R»S–RyeRѕRIR°RЅS–R№ 1923 SЂRѕRyeSѓ [13, SЃ. 206]. R’R·SЏS‚S‚SЏ RЎS–RјS„RµSЂRѕRїRѕR»SЏ RЅR° 25 RyeRIS–S‚RЅSЏ RIS–RgRЅRµSЃR»Rё R°RIS‚RѕSЂRё "R†SЃS‚RѕSЂS–S— SѓRyeSЂR°S—RЅSЃSЊRyeRѕRiRѕ RIS–R№SЃSЊRyeR°" R·R° SЂRµRg. R†RIR°RЅR° RљSЂRёRї’SЏRyeRµRIRёS‡R°, RIRёRgR°RЅRѕS— Sѓ R›SЊRIRѕRIS– 1936 SЂRѕRyeSѓ [14, SЃ. 418], S‰Rѕ RIS–RgRѕR±SЂR°R¶RµRЅRѕ RЅR° RIS–RgRїRѕRIS–RgRЅS–R№ RјR°RїS– (RїRѕSЃRёR»R°SЋSЃSЏ RЅR° 2-Rµ RIRёRgR°RЅRЅSЏ 1953 SЂRѕRyeSѓ, RI SЏRyeRѕRјSѓ S†RµR№ S„SЂR°RiRјRµRЅS‚ RїRµSЂRµRgSЂSѓRyeRѕRIR°RЅRёR№ R±RµR· R·RјS–RЅ).

RњR°RїR° RїRѕS…RѕRgSѓ R‘RѕR»R±RѕS‡R°RЅR° RЅR° RљSЂRёRј R·R° "R†SЃS‚RѕSЂS–S”SЋ SѓRyeSЂR°S—RЅSЃSЊRyeRѕRiRѕ RIS–R№SЃSЊRyeR°"

24 RyeRIS–S‚RЅSЏ RЅR°R·RIR°RЅRµ Sѓ RћR»RµRyeSЃR°RЅRgSЂR° RЈRgRѕRIRёS‡RµRЅRyeR° RI SЂRѕR±RѕS‚S– "RЈRyeSЂR°S—RЅR° Sѓ RIS–R№RЅS– R·R° RgRµSЂR¶R°RIRЅS–SЃS‚SЊ. R†SЃS‚RѕSЂS–SЏ RѕSЂRiR°RЅS–R·R°S†S–S— S– R±RѕR№RѕRIRёS… RgS–R№ RЈRyeSЂR°S—RЅSЃSЊRyeRёS… R—R±SЂRѕR№RЅRёS… RЎRёR» 1917-1921 SЂSЂ." 1954 SЂRѕRyeSѓ [15, SЃ. 37].

RџSЂRёR¶RёR»R°SЃSЏ "RgRѕRIRiR°" S…SЂRѕRЅRѕR»RѕRiS–SЏ S– RI RЅRѕRIS–S‚RЅS–R№ S–SЃS‚RѕSЂS–RѕRiSЂR°S„S–S—. R’R·SЏS‚S‚SЏ RЎS–RјS„RµSЂRѕRїRѕR»SЏ 24 RyeRIS–S‚RЅRµRј RgR°S‚SѓRIR°R»Rё RЇSЂRѕSЃR»R°RI RЁS‚RµRЅRgRµSЂR° [16, SЃ. 57], R’RѕR»RѕRgRёRјRёSЂ RЎS–RgR°Rye S–R· SЃRїS–RIR°RIS‚RѕSЂR°RјRё [17, SЃ. 25] S‚R° RЎRµSЂRiS–R№ R SѓRgSЊRyeRѕ [18, SЃ. 143]. R¦S–RyeR°RIRѕ, S‰Rѕ SЂRѕSЃS–R№SЃSЊRyeRёR№ RgRѕSЃR»S–RgRЅRёRye RћR»RµRyeSЃR°RЅRgSЂ RџSѓS‡RµRЅRyeRѕRI, S…RѕS‡R° S– RЅRµ RЅR°R·RёRIR°S” RgR°S‚Rё RїR°RgS–RЅRЅSЏ RЎS–RјS„RµSЂRѕRїRѕR»SЏ, R·R°R·RЅR°S‡R°S”, S‰Rѕ SѓRyeSЂR°S—RЅSЃSЊRyeS– RIS–R№SЃSЊRyeR° "RЅR°RјR°RiR°R»RёSЃSЏ RIRёRїRµSЂRµRgRёS‚Rё RЅS–RјS†S–RI" [19, SЃ. 130]. RђRIS‚RѕSЂRё SЃSѓS‡R°SЃRЅRѕS— (2016 SЂ.) "R†SЃS‚RѕSЂS–S— SѓRyeSЂR°S—RЅSЃSЊRyeRѕRiRѕ RIS–R№SЃSЊRyeR°" SЃR»S–RgRѕRј R·R° RљSЂRёRї’SЏRyeRµRIRёS‡RµRј RgR°S‚SѓSЋS‚SЊ RIR·SЏS‚S‚SЏ RЎS–RјS„RµSЂRѕRїRѕR»SЏ 25 RyeRIS–S‚RЅSЏ [20, SЃ. 306].

R’ RїRµRIRЅRѕRјSѓ SЃRµRЅSЃS– "RїSЂRѕRјS–R¶RЅRµ" SЃS‚R°RЅRѕRIRёS‰Rµ R·R°R№RјR°SЋS‚SЊ RѕRgRёRЅ R· RЅR°R№R±S–R»SЊS€RёS… R·RЅR°RIS†S–RI RyeSЂRёRјSЃSЊRyeRѕ-SѓRyeSЂR°S—RЅSЃSЊRyeRёS… SЃS‚RѕSЃSѓRЅRyeS–RI R’RѕR»RѕRgRёRјRёSЂ RЎRµSЂRiS–R№S‡SѓRye S‚R° R°RIS‚RѕSЂ RЅR°R№T‘SЂSѓRЅS‚RѕRIRЅS–S€RѕRiRѕ RgRѕSЃR»S–RgR¶RµRЅRЅSЏ SЂRµRIRѕR»SЋS†S–S— RI RљSЂRёRјSѓ R’’SЏS‡RµSЃR»R°RI R—R°SЂSѓR±S–RЅ.

RЈ S—S…RЅS–S… RїSЂR°S†SЏS…, "RЈRyeSЂR°S—RЅSЃSЊRyeRёR№ RљSЂRёRј" [21] S‚R° "R‘RµR· RїRѕR±RµRgRёS‚RµR»RµR№" [22], S‚RѕS‡RЅRѕS— S…SЂRѕRЅRѕR»RѕRiS–S— RїRѕS…RѕRgSѓ SѓRyeSЂR°S—RЅSЃSЊRyeRёS… RIS–R№SЃSЊRye RЅRµRјR°S”, S…RѕS‡R° R—R°SЂSѓR±S–RЅ RI RѕRgRЅS–R№ S–R· RїRѕRїRµSЂRµRgRЅS–S… SЃS‚R°S‚RµR№ RgR°S‚SѓRIR°RI RїR°RgS–RЅRЅSЏ RЎS–RјS„RµSЂRѕRїRѕR»SЏ RIR·R°RiR°R»S– 21 RyeRIS–S‚RЅSЏ.

 RЎRѕS‚RЅRёRye RђSЂRјS–S— RЈRќR  R‘RѕSЂRёSЃ RњRѕRЅRyeRµRIRёS‡, R°RIS‚RѕSЂ RyeRЅRёRiRё "RџRѕS…S–Rg R‘RѕR»R±RѕS‡R°RЅR° RЅR° RљSЂRёRј"

RўR°RyeRёRј S‡RёRЅRѕRј, RїS–RgS‚RIRµSЂRgR¶SѓS”S‚SЊSЃSЏ RIRёRiRѕR»RѕS€RµRЅR° RЅR° RїRѕS‡R°S‚RyeSѓ S‚RµR·R°, S‰Rѕ RI SЃSѓS‡R°SЃRЅS–R№ SѓRyeSЂR°S—RЅSЃSЊRyeS–R№ S–SЃS‚RѕSЂS–RѕRiSЂR°S„S–S— RїRёS‚R°RЅRЅSЏ S…SЂRѕRЅRѕR»RѕRiS–S— RїRѕS…RѕRgSѓ R‘RѕR»R±RѕS‡R°RЅR° RЅR° RљSЂRёRј RI S†S–R»RѕRјSѓ RЅRµ RIRёSЂS–S€RµRЅRµ.

RђRIS‚RѕSЂRё, S‰Rѕ SЃRїRёSЂR°SЋS‚SЊSЃSЏ SЂR°RgSЏRЅSЃSЊRyeSѓ S‚SЂR°RgRёS†S–SЋ R°R±Rѕ RЅR° RiR°R·RµS‚Rё, S‰Rѕ RѕRїRёSЃSѓRIR°R»Rё RїRѕRgS–S— RyeS–R»SЊRyeRѕRјR° RgRЅSЏRјRё RїS–R·RЅS–S€Rµ, RїRµSЂRµRIR°R¶RЅRѕ SЃS…RёR»SЏSЋS‚SЊSЃSЏ RgRѕ "RyeRѕSЂRѕS‚RyeRѕS—" S…SЂRѕRЅRѕR»RѕRiS–S—. R§RёRј R¶Rµ RѕR±T‘SЂSѓRЅS‚RѕRISѓSЋS‚SЊ SЃRIRѕSЋ RїRѕR·RёS†S–SЋ S—S…RЅS– RѕRїRѕRЅRµRЅS‚Rё?

RЎRIS–RgS‡RµRЅRЅSЏ RѕS‡RµRIRёRgS†S–RI

RЇRyeS‰Rѕ RЅRµ S†S–R»RyeRѕRIRёS‚RѕSЋ, S‚Rѕ RISЃRµ R¶ RїSЂRѕS‚RёR»RµR¶RЅS–SЃS‚SЋ SЂR°RgSЏRЅSЃSЊRyeS–R№/SЂRѕSЃS–R№SЃSЊRyeS–R№ S‚SЂR°RgRёS†S–S— RIRёSЃS‚SѓRїR°S” SѓRyeSЂR°S—RЅSЃSЊRyeR° S‚SЂR°RgRёS†S–SЏ, R·S–RїRµSЂS‚R° RЅR° SЃRIS–RgS‡RµRЅRЅSЏS… R±RµR·RїRѕSЃRµSЂRµRgRЅS–S… SѓS‡R°SЃRЅRёRyeS–RI RїRѕS…RѕRgSѓ.

RќR°R№RIRёRgR°S‚RЅS–S€RѕSЋ, S–, RїRѕ SЃSѓS‚S–, S”RgRёRЅRѕSЋ RgRѕ SЃSЊRѕRiRѕRgRЅS– RyeRѕRјRїR»RµRyeSЃRЅRѕSЋ RїSЂR°S†RµSЋ RїSЂRѕ RљSЂRёRјSЃSЊRyeSѓ RѕRїRµSЂR°S†S–SЋ S” RyeRЅRёRiR° R‘RѕSЂRёSЃR° RњRѕRЅRyeRµRIRёS‡R° "RџRѕS…S–Rg R‘RѕR»R±RѕS‡R°RЅR° RЅR° RљSЂRёRј" [23], S‰Rѕ R±SѓR»R° RIRёRgR°RЅR° Sѓ R›SЊRIRѕRIS– 1928 SЂRѕRyeSѓ S– RїRѕS”RgRЅSѓRIR°R»R° RI SЃRѕR±S– RјRµRјSѓR°SЂRё S‚R° RgRѕRyeSѓRјRµRЅS‚R°R»SЊRЅRµ RgRѕSЃR»S–RgR¶RµRЅRЅSЏ.

RЎR°RјRµ S‚SѓS‚ R±SѓRI RЅR°RIRµRgRµRЅRёR№ RЅR°R№R±S–R»SЊS€ RgRµS‚R°R»SЊRЅRёR№ RѕRїRёSЃ RIR·SЏS‚S‚SЏ RЎS–RјS„RµSЂRѕRїRѕR»SЏ [23, SЃ. 141] S– RЅR°R·RIR°RЅR° RgR°S‚R° 24 RyeRIS–S‚RЅSЏ.

"…RI RЎS–RјS„RµSЂRѕRїRѕR»S– R·SЂRѕR·SѓRјS–R»Rё, S‰Rѕ SѓRyeSЂR°S—RЅSЃSЊRyeRµ RIS–R№SЃSЊRyeRѕ R·RѕRISЃS–Rј R±R»RёR·SЊRyeRѕ. RђR»Rµ RїSЂRёR№RЅSЏS‚Rё SЏRyeS–SЃSЊ RјS–SЂRё "RЁS‚R°R± RћR±RѕSЂRѕRЅRё" RIR¶Rµ RЅRµ RISЃRїS–RI, R±Rѕ RIS–RgRgS–R» R—R°RїRѕSЂS–R¶S†S–RI, SЏRyeRёR№ RЅR°SЃS‚SѓRїR°RI S€R»SЏS…RѕRј R”R¶R°RЅRyeRѕR№ – RЎS–RјS„RµSЂRѕRїRѕR»SЊ, Sѓ 10 RiRѕRgRёRЅ SЂR°RЅRyeSѓ 24 RyeRIS–S‚RЅSЏ RЅR°RiR»Rѕ RISЃRyeRѕS‡RёRI Sѓ RЎS–RјS„RµSЂRѕRїRѕR»SЊ… RўSЂSѓRgRЅRѕ SѓSЏRIRёS‚Rё SЃRѕR±S– RїR°RЅS–RyeSѓ, SЏRyeR° R·S‡RёRЅRёR»R°SЃSЏ RI RјS–SЃS‚S–, RyeRѕR»Rё R°RIR°RЅRiR°SЂRg RїRµSЂS€RѕRiRѕ RIS–RgRgS–R»Sѓ RIRgRµSЂSЃSЏ RЅR° SЃR°RјRѕS…RѕRgR°S… Sѓ SЃR°RјRёR№ S†RµRЅS‚SЂ RЎS–RјS„RµSЂRѕRїRѕR»SЏ, RgRµ R·RЅR°S…RѕRgRёRISЃSЏ "RЁS‚R°R± RћR±RѕSЂRѕRЅRё RљSЂRёRјSЃSЊRyeRѕS— R RµSЃRїSѓR±R»S–RyeRё".

R—R°R»RѕRiR° RЎS–RјS„RµSЂRѕRїRѕR»SЏ SЂRѕR·SЃRёRїR°R»R°SЃSЊ RїRѕ S†S–R»RѕRјSѓ RјS–SЃS‚Sѓ, RЅRµ RIRёSЏRIR»SЏSЋS‡Rё R¶R°RgRЅRѕRiRѕ SЃRїSЂRѕS‚RёRISѓ. RќR°SЃRµR»RµRЅRЅSЏ RјS–SЃS‚R°, RЅRµ RѕSЂS–S”RЅS‚SѓSЋS‡RёSЃSЊ R·S– SЃS‚SЂR°S…Sѓ RїRѕS…RѕRIR°R»RѕSЃSЏ. R’RIRµSЃSЊ "RЁS‚R°R± RћR±RѕSЂRѕRЅRё" RI RyeRѕRјRїR»S”S‚S– R·R°S…RѕRїRёR»Rё RI RїRѕR»RѕRЅ RЅR°S€S– RIS–R№SЃSЊRyeR°… R’ RgRIS– RiRѕRgRёRЅS– RїRѕ R·R°R№RЅSЏS‚S‚SЋ RЅR°S€RёRј R°RIR°RЅRiR°SЂRgRѕRј RЎS–RјS„RµSЂRѕRїRѕR»SЏ, RїSЂRёR±SѓR»Rё RiRѕR»RѕRIRЅS– SЃRёR»Rё SѓRyeSЂR°S—RЅSЃSЊRyeRѕRiRѕ RIS–R№SЃSЊRyeR° RµS€RµR»RѕRЅR°RјRё R· R±SЂRѕRЅRµRїRѕS‚SЏRiR°RјRё S– S€S‚R°R± RљSЂRёRјSЃSЊRyeRѕS— RiSЂSѓRїRё.

R—R°SЂR°R·-R¶Rµ RїSЂRёSЃS‚SѓRїR»RµRЅRѕ RgRѕ RїR»R°RЅRѕRIRѕRiRѕ RѕS‡RёS‰RµRЅRЅSЏ RјS–SЃS‚R° RIS–Rg R±S–R»SЊS€RѕRIRёRyeS–RI, RyeRѕS‚SЂS– R· RїSЂRёRIRѕRgSѓ RЅR°RiR»RѕRiRѕ R·R°S…RѕRїR»RµRЅRЅSЏ RјS–SЃS‚R°, RЅRµ RISЃRїS–R»Rё R№RѕRiRѕ R·R°R»RёS€RёS‚Rё. RњS–SЃS‚Rѕ RѕR±RЅSЏS‚Rѕ S‚S–SЃRЅRёRј RyeRѕSЂRgRѕRЅRѕRј. R’SЃS– RIRёS…RѕRgRё R·R°RјRyeRЅRµRЅRѕ R№ RїRѕS‡R°R»RѕSЃSЏ RIRёR»RѕRIR»SЋRIR°RЅRЅSЏ R±S–R»SЊS€RѕRIRёRyeS–RI".

RЎS‚RѕSЂS–RЅRyeR° R· RїSЂR°S†S– R‘. RњRѕRЅRyeRµRIRёS‡R°

R’ RјRµRјSѓR°SЂR°S… S–RЅS€RёS… R±RµR·RїRѕSЃRµSЂRµRgRЅS–S… SѓS‡R°SЃRЅRёRyeS–RI SЂRµR№RgSѓ RЅR° RљSЂRёRј: "RЎRїRѕRјRёRЅR°S… R· S‡R°SЃS–RI SѓRyeSЂR°S—RЅSЃSЊRyeRѕS— SЂRµRIRѕR»SЋS†S–S—" R’SЃRµRIRѕR»RѕRgR° RџRµS‚SЂS–RIR° [24] (RїRµSЂS€Rµ RIRёRgR°RЅRЅSЏ – 1930 SЂ.), "RЎRёR»S– RgRѕR±R»RµSЃS‚S–" RџR°RIR»R° RЁR°RЅRgSЂSѓRyeR° [25] (1959 SЂ.) S‚R° "RЎRїRѕRјRёRЅR°S… R·R°RїRѕSЂRѕR¶S†SЏ" RќRёRyeRёS„RѕSЂR° RђRISЂR°RјRµRЅRyeR° [26] (RїS–RgRiRѕS‚RѕRIR»RµRЅS– RЅR° RїRѕS‡R°S‚RyeSѓ 70-S… SЂSЂ.), – S‚RѕS‡RЅRѕS— RgR°S‚Rё RIR·SЏS‚S‚SЏ RЎS–RјS„RµSЂRѕRїRѕR»SЏ RЅRµRјR°S”, R°R»Rµ Sѓ RgRIRѕS… RїRµSЂS€RёS… S” RѕRїRѕSЃRµSЂRµRgRyeRѕRIR°RЅS– RgR°RЅS–.

RџRµS‚SЂS–RI RїRёS€Rµ, S‰Rѕ 23 RyeRIS–S‚RЅSЏ 1918 SЂRѕRyeSѓ RIS–RЅ RїRµSЂRµR±SѓRIR°RI Sѓ RЎSѓR»S‚R°RЅ-R‘R°R·R°SЂS– (RЅRёRЅS– – RњRѕSЃS‚RѕRIRµ) [24, SЃ. 504], S‰Rѕ SЏRyeSЂR°R· R·RЅR°S…RѕRgRёS‚SЊSЃSЏ RїRѕSЃRµSЂRµRgRёRЅS– RјS–R¶ R”R¶R°RЅRyeRѕS”Rј S‚R° RЎS–RјS„RµSЂRѕRїRѕR»RµRј. RЁR°RЅRgSЂSѓRye R·RiR°RgSѓS”, S‰Rѕ RIS–RЅ RIS–RI R±RѕS— RЅR° RїS–RgSЃS‚SѓRїR°S… RgRѕ RyeSЂRёRјSЃSЊRyeRѕS— SЃS‚RѕR»RёS†S– RЅR°SЃS‚SѓRїRЅRѕRiRѕ RgRЅSЏ RїS–SЃR»SЏ R”R¶R°RЅRyeRѕSЏ [25, SЃ. 37–38].

R§RѕRјSѓ R¶ RIR·SЏS‚S‚SЏ R”R¶R°RЅRyeRѕSЏ RјR°S” S‚R°RyeRµ R·RЅR°S‡RµRЅRЅSЏ RgR»SЏ RIRёSЂS–S€RµRЅRЅSЏ RЅR°S€RѕRiRѕ RїRёS‚R°RЅRЅSЏ?

R§RѕRЅRiR°SЂ S– R”R¶R°RЅRyeRѕR№

RЈ 2015 SЂRѕS†S– RЅR°R±SѓRI RїRѕS€RёSЂRµRЅRЅSЏ R·R°RјR°SЃRyeRѕRIR°RЅRёR№ RїS–Rg RЅR°SѓRyeRѕRISѓ SЂRѕR·RIS–RgRyeSѓ RїRѕR»S–S‚RёS‡RЅRёR№ RїR°RјS„R»RµS‚ S–R· R·R°RiRѕR»RѕRIRyeRѕRј "R RѕSЃSЃRёSЏ, RЈRyeSЂR°RёRЅR° Rё RљSЂS‹Rј. RџSЂRёS‡RёRЅS‹ Rё RѕSЃRѕR±RµRЅRЅRѕSЃS‚Rё S‚.RЅ. RЈRyeSЂR°RёRЅRѕ-RљSЂS‹RјSЃRyeRѕR№ RIRѕR№RЅS‹ 1918 Ri." [27]. R’ RЅSЊRѕRјSѓ RiSЂR°RЅRёS‡RЅRѕ RIS–RgRIRµSЂS‚Rѕ RїRѕSЏSЃRЅSЋRIR°R»R°SЃSЏ RyeRѕRЅ’SЋRЅRyeS‚SѓSЂR° RgR°S‚SѓRIR°RЅRЅSЏ RїRѕS…RѕRgSѓ R‘RѕR»R±RѕS‡R°RЅR° RЅR° RљSЂRёRј.

"RќRёR·RyeR° SѓRyeSЂR°S—RЅSЃSЊRyeRёS… "RїRѕR»RyeRѕRIRѕRgS†S–RI" S‚R° S–SЃS‚RѕSЂRёRyeS–RI SЃS‚RIRµSЂRgR¶SѓS”, S‰Rѕ R”R¶R°RЅRyeRѕR№ RIR·SЏR»Rё R· R±RѕS”Rј, "R·RIS–R»SЊRЅRёR»Rё" (Sѓ RЅS–RјS†S–RI RIS–RgR±RёR»Rё?). R¦RµR№ "S„R°RyeS‚" RIRyeR»SЋS‡RµRЅRёR№ RI SѓSЃS– SѓRyeSЂR°S—RЅSЃSЊRyeS– RgR¶RµSЂRµR»R°, RIRyeR»SЋS‡R°SЋS‡Rё S‚R°RyeRёR№ SЃRѕR»S–RgRЅRёR№, SЏRye "R•RЅS†RёRyeR»RѕRїRµRgS–SЏ RЈRyeSЂR°S—RЅRѕR·RЅR°RISЃS‚RIR°". R† RIS–Rg SЂRµR°R»SЊRЅRѕS— RgR°S‚Rё RїSЂRёR±SѓS‚S‚SЏ RїRµSЂRµRgRѕRIRёS… RїS–RgSЂRѕR·RgS–R»S–RI "SѓRyeSЂR°S—RЅS†S–RI" Sѓ R”R¶R°RЅRyeRѕR№ 22 RyeRIS–S‚RЅSЏ RIS–RgRyeSЂSѓS‚RёS‚RёSЃSЏ RЅS–RyeSѓRgRё, S—S— R·R°RЅR°RgS‚Rѕ S‡R°SЃS‚Rѕ RїRѕRIS‚RѕSЂSЋSЋS‚SЊ.

RџSЂRёSЃRIRѕS—S‚Rё R»R°RISЂRё "R—R°RIRѕR№RѕRIRЅRёRyeR° RљSЂRёRјSѓ" RїRѕR»RyeRѕRIRЅRёRyeSѓ R‘RѕR»R±RѕS‡R°RЅSѓ – RјRµSЂS‚RIRѕRЅR°SЂRѕRgR¶RµRЅR° R·R°S‚S–SЏ. RџRѕ-RїRµSЂS€Rµ, RIS–RЅ RIS–RgSЃS‚R°RIR°RI RIS–Rg RЅS–RјRµS†SЊRyeRёS… RIS–R№SЃSЊRye RЅR° RgRIR° RgRЅS–. RџRѕ-RgSЂSѓRiRµ, S”RgRёRЅRёRј RѕRїRёSЃR°RЅRёRј R±RѕR№RѕRIRёRј R·S–S‚RyeRЅRµRЅRЅSЏRј, RI SЏRyeRѕRјSѓ RIR·SЏR»Rё SѓS‡R°SЃS‚SЊ "R·R°RїRѕSЂRѕR¶S†S–", R±SѓR»Rѕ S„RѕSЂSЃSѓRIR°RЅRЅSЏ RЎRёRIR°SЃSЊRyeRѕRiRѕ RјRѕSЃS‚Sѓ.

RЎRїRѕRiR°RgRё RyeRѕRјRµRЅRgR°RЅS‚R° S€S‚R°R±Sѓ RћRyeSЂRµRјRѕS— R—R°RїRѕSЂS–R·SЊRyeRѕS— RgRёRIS–R·S–S— RќRёRyeRёS„RѕSЂR° RђRISЂR°RјRµRЅRyeR° - SѓS‡R°SЃRЅRёRyeR° RїRѕS…RѕRgSѓ RљSЂRёRјSЃSЊRyeRѕS— RiSЂSѓRїRё R·R°RїRѕSЂRѕR¶S†S–RI RЅR° RљSЂRёRј

R‘S–R»SЊS€Rµ R¶RѕRgRЅRѕRiRѕ RѕRїRёSЃSѓ R±RѕSЋ SѓS‡R°SЃRЅRёRyeRё RїRѕS…RѕRgSѓ S– S–SЃS‚RѕSЂRёRyeRё RЅRµ RIRёSЏRIRёR»Rё. RљSЂS–Rј S…S–R±R° SЏRyeRёS…RѕSЃSЊ RЅRµSЏSЃRЅRёS… R·RiR°RgRѕRye RїSЂRѕ "SЂRѕR·RIS–RgSѓRIR°R»SЊRЅS–" RiSЂSѓRїRё, SЏRyeS– RgS–R№S€R»Rё RgRѕ RЎSѓRgR°RyeR°, R„RIRїR°S‚RѕSЂS–S— S‚RѕS‰Rѕ.

RЎRyeSѓRїS– R·RiR°RgRyeRё RїSЂRѕ RIR·SЏS‚S‚SЏ R· R±RѕS”Rј "SѓRyeSЂR°S—RЅS†SЏRјRё" RњRµR»S–S‚RѕRїRѕR»SЏ, R”R¶R°RЅRyeRѕSЏ S– RЎS–RјS„RµSЂRѕRїRѕR»SЏ RIRёRiR»SЏRgR°SЋS‚SЊ RIR·R°RiR°R»S– SЏRye RїR°SЂR°RЅRѕS—RgR°R»SЊRЅR° RјR°SЏS‡RЅSЏ. R— RyeRёRј RIRѕRЅRё S‚R°Rј R±S–R№ RIRµR»Rё – R·S– SЃRIRѕS—RјRё SЃRѕSЋR·RЅRёRyeR°RјRё RЅS–RјS†SЏRјRё?".

R¦S–R»RyeRѕRј SЃR»SѓS€RЅRѕ, S‰Rѕ SЏRyeS‰Rѕ 22 RyeRIS–S‚RЅSЏ R‘RѕR»R±RѕS‡R°RЅ R»RёS€Rµ R·R°R№RЅSЏRI R”R¶R°RЅRyeRѕR№, R° RЅS–RјS†S–, RIS–RgRїRѕRIS–RgRЅRѕ RgRѕ "RyeRѕSЂRѕS‚RyeRѕS—" S…SЂRѕRЅRѕR»RѕRiS–S—, Sѓ S†RµR№ S‡R°SЃ RIR¶Rµ R±SѓR»Rё RI RЎS–RјS„RµSЂRѕRїRѕR»S–, S‚Rѕ RISЃSЏ RљSЂRёRјSЃSЊRyeR° RѕRїRµSЂR°S†S–SЏ RIS–R№SЃSЊRye RЈRќR  RЅRµ RјR°R»R° R¶RѕRgRЅRѕRiRѕ SЃRµRЅSЃSѓ.

R’S–RgS‚R°Rye SѓS‚RѕS‡RЅRµRЅRЅSЏ RgR°S‚SѓRIR°RЅRЅSЏ RIR·SЏS‚S‚SЏ R§RѕRЅRiR°SЂR° S– R”R¶R°RЅRyeRѕSЏ RјR°S” RЅRµ RјRµRЅS€Rµ R·RЅR°S‡RµRЅRЅSЏ, RЅS–R¶ RЎS–RјS„RµSЂRѕRїRѕR»SЏ, RgRѕ RїR°RgS–RЅRЅSЏ SЏRyeRѕRiRѕ RјRё S‰Rµ RїRѕRIRµSЂRЅRµRјRѕSЃSЏ.

RћS‚R¶Rµ, R·R° RњRѕRЅRyeRµRIRёS‡RµRј, 20 RyeRIS–S‚RЅSЏ RIRЅRѕS‡S– (S‚RѕR±S‚Rѕ, R№RјRѕRIS–SЂRЅRѕ, RIR¶Rµ 21-RiRѕ) R‘RѕR»R±RѕS‡R°RЅ R·SѓRїRёRЅRёRISЃSЏ RI RќRѕRIRѕRѕR»RµRyeSЃS–S—RIS†S– [23, SЃ. 129] (R·R° 40 RyeRј RgRѕ RјRѕSЃS‚Sѓ RјS–R¶ RїS–RIRѕSЃS‚SЂRѕRIRѕRј R§RѕRЅRiR°SЂ S‚R° RљSЂRёRјRѕRј), R° RїRµSЂRµRg RјRѕSЃS‚RѕRј R·RЅR°S…RѕRgRёR»RёSЃSЏ R»RёS€Rµ RїRµSЂRµRgRѕRIS– R·R°RiRѕRЅRё, S‰Rѕ RIRёRgR°RIR°R»Rё SЃRµR±Rµ R·R° SЂRѕR·R±RёS‚RёS… S‡RµSЂRIRѕRЅRѕR°SЂRјS–R№S†S–RI.

RџRѕS‚S–Rј S†S– "RїRµSЂRµRgRѕRIS– S‡R°SЃS‚RёRЅRё RјRѕRiR»Rё RїSЂRѕRIS–SЂRёS‚Rё S– RЅR°R»R°RiRѕRgRёS‚Rё S€RёRЅRё. RЎRїS–S€RЅRѕ RїSЂRёR№RјR°R»RёSЃSЊ RјS–SЂRё RgRѕ S„RѕSЂSЃSѓRIR°RЅRЅSЏ RЎRёRIR°S€SЃSЊRyeRёS… RїRµSЂRµRїSЂR°RI".

RЎRyeS–R»SЊRyeRё S‡R°SЃSѓ R·R°R№RЅSЏR»Rё RїSЂRёRiRѕS‚SѓRIR°RЅRЅSЏ, RЅRµRIS–RgRѕRјRѕ, R°R»Rµ RїS–SЃR»SЏ RЅRёS…, RISЂR°S…RѕRISѓSЋS‡Rё RЅRѕRIS– RѕR±SЃS‚R°RIRёRЅRё, "R‘RѕR»R±RѕS‡R°RЅ RIS–RgRyeRёRЅSѓRI RїRѕRїRµSЂRµRgRЅS–R№ RїR»R°RЅ S„RѕSЂSЃSѓRIR°RЅRЅSЏ RЎRёRIR°S€R° RјRѕS‚RѕSЂRѕRIRёRјRё RyeR°S‚RµSЂR°RјRё S– SЂS–S€RёRI SЂR°RїS‚RѕRIRёRј RЅR°SЃRyeRѕRyeRѕRј R·R°S…RѕRїRёS‚Rё R±RµR·RїRѕSЃRµSЂRµRgRЅSЊRѕ R·R°R»S–R·RЅRёS‡RЅSѓ RїRµSЂRµRїSЂR°RISѓ". R—R°R·RЅR°S‡RµRЅS– RyeR°S‚RµSЂRё R±SѓR»Rё R·R°S…RѕRїR»RµRЅS– Sѓ R±S–R»SЊS€RѕRIRёRyeS–RI S‰Rµ RI RњRµR»S–S‚RѕRїRѕR»S–.

R—R° RgRѕRїRѕRјRѕRiRѕSЋ RIS–R№SЃSЊRyeRѕRIRѕS— S…RёS‚SЂRѕSЃS‚S– RIRЅRѕS‡S– (R±RµR· SѓS‚RѕS‡RЅRµRЅRЅSЏ RgR°S‚Rё) RјS–SЃS‚ R±SѓRI R·R°S…RѕRїR»RµRЅRёR№ S– RЅR° SЂR°RЅRѕRye (R·RЅRѕRISѓ R±RµR· RgR°S‚Rё) SѓRyeSЂR°S—RЅS†S– RѕRIRѕR»RѕRgS–R»Rё SЃS‚R°RЅS†S–S”SЋ RўR°RiR°RЅR°S€ (RЅRёRЅS– – RЎRѕR»RѕRЅRµ RћR·RµSЂRѕ) RЅR° RyeSЂRёRјSЃSЊRyeRѕRјSѓ R±RѕS†S– RЎRёRIR°S€Sѓ. RџS–SЃR»SЏ S‚RѕRiRѕ R‘RѕR»R±RѕS‡R°RЅ RїS–RgS‚SЏRiRЅSѓRI SЂRµR·RµSЂRIRё S‚R°, RЅRµ R·RIRѕR»S–RyeR°SЋS‡Rё, SЂSѓS€RёRI RЅR° R”R¶R°RЅRyeRѕR№ (R·R° 30 RyeRј RIS–Rg RјRѕSЃS‚Sѓ), R·R°S…RѕRїR»RµRЅRЅSЏ SЏRyeRѕRiRѕ RїS–SЃR»SЏ RЅRµRIRµR»RёRyeRѕRiRѕ R±RѕSЋ RIS–RgR±SѓR»RѕSЃSЏ 22 RyeRIS–S‚RЅSЏ RIRIRµS‡RµSЂS– [23, SЃ. 133]. RћSЃRyeS–R»SЊRyeRё RѕS‡RµRIRёRgRЅRѕ, S‰Rѕ RїRµRIRЅRѕRiRѕ S‡R°SЃSѓ RIRёRјR°RiR°R»Rё:

R°) SЂRѕR·RIS–RgRyeR° RјS–SЃS†RµRIRѕSЃS‚S– S‚R° RїS–RgRiRѕS‚RѕRIRyeR° RgRѕ S„RѕSЂSЃSѓRIR°RЅRЅSЏ RЎRёRIR°S€Sѓ RЅR° RyeR°S‚RµSЂR°S…;

R±) RѕRїSЂR°S†SЋRIR°RЅRЅSЏ RЅRѕRIRѕRiRѕ RїR»R°RЅSѓ RgS–R№ RїS–SЃR»SЏ SЃRyeR°SЃSѓRIR°RЅRЅSЏ RїRѕS‡R°S‚RyeRѕRIRѕRiRѕ;

RI) RїS–RgRiRѕS‚RѕRIRyeR° R±SЂRѕRЅRµRїRѕS—R·RgS–RI RgRѕ RЅR°SЃS‚SѓRїSѓ;

S‚Rѕ, RIS–RgRїRѕRIS–RgRЅRѕ, R°S‚R°RyeR° RЅRµ RјRѕRiR»R° RIS–RgR±SѓS‚RёSЃSЏ "R· RyeRѕR»S–SЃ" S‚RѕRgS– R¶ R· 20 RЅR° 21 RyeRIS–S‚RЅSЏ, R° SЃS‚R°R»R°SЃSЏ RIR¶Rµ RЅR°SЃS‚SѓRїRЅRѕS— RЅRѕS‡S–, S‚RѕR±S‚Rѕ R· 21 RЅR° 22 RyeRIS–S‚RЅSЏ. R R°RЅRyeRѕRј 22 RyeRIS–S‚RЅSЏ R‘RѕR»R±RѕS‡R°RЅ R±SѓRI Sѓ RўR°RiR°RЅR°S€S–, RIRIRµS‡RµSЂS– – Sѓ R”R¶R°RЅRyeRѕS—, S‰Rѕ RїRѕRIRЅS–SЃS‚SЋ RIS–RgRїRѕRIS–RgR°S” RiRµRѕRiSЂR°S„S–S— SЂRµRiS–RѕRЅSѓ R· SѓSЂR°S…SѓRIR°RЅRЅSЏRј S‡R°SЃSѓ RЅR° RїRµSЂRµRyeRёRgR°RЅRЅSЏ RѕSЃRЅRѕRIRЅRёS… SЃRёR» S– SЃRїSЂRѕS‚RёRI S‡RµSЂRIRѕRЅRѕRiRIR°SЂRgS–R№S†S–RI.

RђR±SЃRѕR»SЋS‚RЅRѕ RѕRgRЅRѕR·RЅR°S‡RЅRѕ RI S‚RѕRјSѓ R¶ RgSѓSЃS– RIRёSЃR»RѕRIR»SЋS”S‚SЊSЃSЏ Sѓ SЃRIRѕS—S… RјRµRјSѓR°SЂR°S… "R§RѕSЂRЅS– R·R°RїRѕSЂRѕR¶S†S–" (RЅR°RїRёSЃR°RЅS– RЅRµ RїS–R·RЅS–S€Rµ 1959 SЂ.) S–RЅS€RёR№ SѓS‡R°SЃRЅRёRye S€S‚SѓSЂRјSѓ R§RѕRЅRiR°SЂSѓ RџRµS‚SЂRѕ R”SЏS‡RµRЅRyeRѕ [28, SЃ. 23].

"21 RyeRIS–S‚RЅSЏ RїRµSЂRµRgRѕRIS– S‡R°SЃS‚RёRЅRё R—R°RїRѕSЂRѕR¶S†S–RI RЅR°R±R»RёR·RёR»RёSЃSЏ RgRѕ RЎRёRIR°SЃSЊRyeRѕRiRѕ R·R°R»S–R·RЅRёS‡RЅRѕRiRѕ RјRѕSЃS‚Sѓ, SЏRyeRёR№ RЅR° SЃRIS–S‚R°RЅRyeSѓ RgSЂSѓRiRѕRiRѕ RgRЅSЏ RЅRµSЃRїRѕRgS–RIR°RЅRѕ R·R°R№RЅSЏR»R° 1-S€R° SЃRѕS‚RЅSЏ RїS–Rg RyeRѕRјR°RЅRgRѕSЋ SЃRѕS‚RЅRёRyeR° [RњRёS…R°R№R»R°] R—S–R»RёRЅSЃSЊRyeRѕRiRѕ (S‡R°SЃRѕRј RїRёS€SѓS‚SЊ R—RµR»S–RЅSЃSЊRyeRёR№. – R RµRg.). RљS–RЅRЅR° SЃRѕS‚RЅSЏ R±SЂR°R»R° S‡RёRЅRЅSѓ SѓS‡R°SЃS‚SЊ Sѓ RЅR°SЃS‚SѓRїS– RЅR° R”R¶R°RЅRyeRѕR№".

RЎS‚RѕSЂS–RЅRyeR° R· RyeRЅRёRiRё Rџ. R”SЏS‡RµRЅRyeR°

R‘S–R»SЊS€S–SЃS‚SЊ SЃSѓS‡R°SЃRЅRёS… RgRѕSЃR»S–RgRЅRёRyeS–RI S€R»SЏS…Sѓ RїRѕR»RyeRѕRIRЅRёRyeR° RIRёR·RЅR°SЋS‚SЊ SЃR»SѓS€RЅS–SЃS‚SЊ S†S–S”S— SЃS…RµRјRё, S…RѕS‡R° S” S– R°R»SЊS‚RµSЂRЅR°S‚RёRIRЅS– RgSѓRјRyeRё: RЇSЂRѕSЃR»R°RI RўRёRЅS‡RµRЅRyeRѕ RgR°S‚SѓS” RIR·SЏS‚S‚SЏ RјRѕSЃS‚Sѓ RЅS–S‡S‡SЋ RЅR° 20 RyeRIS–S‚RЅSЏ [29], R° R‘RѕRiRgR°RЅ R“SЂSѓS€RµS†SЊRyeRёR№ – RIR·R°RiR°R»S– RЅS–S‡S‡SЋ RЅR° 19 RyeRIS–S‚RЅSЏ [30].

R©RѕRїSЂR°RIRgR° RџRµS‚SЂS–RI Sѓ "RЎRїRѕRјRёRЅR°S…" RїRёS€Rµ, S‰Rѕ RїSЂRѕS—S…R°RI R§RѕRЅRiR°SЂSЃSЊRyeRёR№ RјS–SЃS‚ "SѓRgRѕSЃRIS–S‚R° 21 RyeRIS–S‚RЅSЏ" [24, SЃ. 501], R° RЁR°RЅRgSЂSѓRye RIR·R°RiR°R»S– RЅRµ RїRѕRgR°S” R¶RѕRgRЅRѕS— RgR°S‚Rё. R’S‚S–Rј, SЏRye SЏ RIR¶Rµ R·R°R·RЅR°S‡RёRI RIRёS‰Rµ, RџRµS‚SЂS–RI RїRѕRiRѕRgR¶SѓS”S‚SЊSЃSЏ, S‰Rѕ 23 RyeRIS–S‚RЅSЏ RЎS–RјS„RµSЂRѕRїRѕR»SЊ S‰Rµ RЅRµ R±SѓRI RIR·SЏS‚RёR№, R° RЁR°RЅRgSЂSѓRye RgR°S‚SѓS” R±RѕS— RїS–Rg RјS–SЃS‚RѕRј RЅR°SЃS‚SѓRїRЅRёRј RgRЅRµRј RїS–SЃR»SЏ R”R¶R°RЅRyeRѕSЏ, S‚RѕR±S‚Rѕ, R·R° SЃS…RµRјRѕSЋ RњRѕRЅRyeRµRIRёS‡R°, S‚R°RyeRѕR¶ 23 RyeRIS–S‚RЅSЏ.

RЎR°Rј RњRѕRЅRyeRµRIRёS‡ RgR°S‚SѓS” R±RёS‚RISѓ SѓRyeSЂR°S—RЅS†S–RI R· R±S–R»SЊS€RѕRIRёRyeR°RјRё RЅR° SЃS‚R°RЅS†S–S— RЎR°SЂR°R±SѓR· (RЅRёRЅS– – R“RIR°SЂRgS–R№SЃSЊRyeRµ) RїS–Rg RyeSЂRёRјSЃSЊRyeRѕSЋ SЃS‚RѕR»RёS†RµSЋ SЏRyeSЂR°R· 23 RyeRIS–S‚RЅSЏ [23, SЃ. 138].

RўR°RyeRёRј S‡RёRЅRѕRј, RїRѕSЂS–RIRЅSЏRIS€Rё SЃRїRѕRiR°RgRё SѓS‡R°SЃRЅRёRyeS–RI R·R°S…RѕRїR»RµRЅRЅSЏ R§RѕRЅRiR°SЂSѓ S‚R° RIR·SЏRIS€Rё RgRѕ SѓRIR°RiRё RѕSЃRѕR±R»RёRIRѕSЃS‚S– RiRµRѕRiSЂR°S„S–S— SЂRµRiS–RѕRЅSѓ, RјRѕR¶RЅR° SЃS‚RIRµSЂRgR¶SѓRIR°S‚Rё, S‰Rѕ SЃS…RµRјR° RњRѕRЅRyeRµRIRёS‡R°: S„RѕSЂSЃSѓRIR°RЅRЅSЏ RЎRёRIR°S€Sѓ RЅR° SЃRIS–S‚R°RЅRyeSѓ 22 RyeRIS–S‚RЅSЏ – RIR·SЏS‚S‚SЏ R”R¶R°RЅRyeRѕSЏ RIRIRµS‡RµSЂS– 22 RyeRIS–S‚RЅSЏ – R±S–R№ RїS–Rg RЎR°SЂR°R±SѓR·RѕRј 23 RyeRIS–S‚RЅSЏ – R·R°S…RѕRїR»RµRЅRЅSЏ RЎS–RјS„RµSЂRѕRїRѕR»SЏ RISЂR°RЅS†S– 24 RyeRIS–S‚RЅSЏ, – S” R°R±SЃRѕR»SЋS‚RЅRѕ R»RѕRiS–S‡RЅRѕSЋ S‚R° RIRЅSѓS‚SЂS–S€RЅSЊRѕ RЅRµSЃSѓRїRµSЂRµS‡R»RёRIRѕSЋ.

R”R»SЏ S‚RѕRiRѕ, S‰RѕR± SЃS‚RIRµSЂRgRёS‚Rё R°R±SЃRѕR»SЋS‚RЅSѓ RЅRµRїRѕRјRёR»SЊRЅS–SЃS‚SЊ RgR°S‚SѓRIR°RЅSЊ RњRѕRЅRyeRµRIRёS‡R°, R·R°R»RёS€RёR»RѕSЃSЏ, RЅR°SЂRµS€S‚S–, RIRёR·RЅR°S‡RёS‚Rё, RyeRѕR»Rё R¶ R±SѓRI R·R°S…RѕRїR»RµRЅRёR№ RЎS–RјS„RµSЂRѕRїRѕR»SЊ. RЇRyeS‰Rѕ RIS–SЂRЅRѕSЋ RIRёSЏRIRёS‚SЊSЃSЏ "RyeRѕSЂRѕS‚RyeR°" S…SЂRѕRЅRѕR»RѕRiS–SЏ, SѓRyeSЂR°S—RЅSЃSЊRyeSѓ RIRµSЂSЃS–SЋ "RїRѕS…RѕRgSѓ RЅR° RљSЂRёRј" SЃR»S–Rg R±SѓRgRµ RїRµSЂRµRiR»SЏRЅSѓS‚Rё. Rђ Sѓ SЂR°R·S– RїSЂR°RIRёR»SЊRЅRѕSЃS‚S– "RgRѕRIRiRѕS—" S…SЂRѕRЅRѕR»RѕRiS–S— RїSЂR°RIRёR»SЊRЅRѕSЋ R±SѓRgRµ S– SЃS…RµRјR° RњRѕRЅRyeRµRIRёS‡R°.

RЈRyeSЂR°S—RЅSЃSЊRyeS– S‚R° RЅS–RјRµS†SЊRyeS– SЃS‚R°SЂS€RёRЅRё RЅR° RЎRѕS„S–R№SЃSЊRyeS–R№ RїR»RѕS‰S– RI RљRёS”RIS–, R±RµSЂRµR·RµRЅSЊ 1918 SЂRѕRyeSѓ

R—R°S…RѕRїR»RµRЅRЅSЏ RЎS–RјS„RµSЂRѕRїRѕR»SЏ

RЇRye R±RµR·R°RїRµR»SЏS†S–R№RЅRѕ RЅR°RiRѕR»RѕS€SѓSЋS‚SЊ R°RIS‚RѕSЂRё "RЈRyeSЂR°RёRЅRѕ-RљSЂS‹RјSЃRyeRѕR№ RIRѕR№RЅS‹" [27], "RќR°SЏRIRЅS– RI SЂRѕR·RїRѕSЂSЏRgR¶RµRЅRЅS– R°RIS‚RѕSЂR° RЅS–RјRµS†SЊRyeS– RgR¶RµSЂRµR»R° RѕR±RјRµR¶SѓSЋS‚SЊSЃSЏ RїSЂRѕSЃS‚RѕSЋ RyeRѕRЅSЃS‚R°S‚R°S†S–S”SЋ S„R°RyeS‚S–RI RїSЂRѕ RїSЂRѕSЃSѓRIR°RЅRЅSЏ RЅS–RјRµS†SЊRyeRёS… RIS–R№SЃSЊRye, S—S…RЅS–R№ SЃRyeR»R°Rg S– RgR°S‚Rё R·R°RЅSЏS‚S‚SЏ RЅR°SЃRµR»RµRЅRёS… RїSѓRЅRyeS‚S–RI. RЈ S‚RѕR№ R¶Rµ S‡R°SЃ RјRµRјSѓR°SЂRЅR° R»S–S‚RµSЂR°S‚SѓSЂR° S‚R° S–SЃS‚RѕSЂRёS‡RЅS– RgRѕSЃR»S–RgR¶RµRЅRЅSЏ, S‰Rѕ RЅR°R»RµR¶R°S‚SЊ RѕS„S–S†RµSЂR°Rј SѓRyeSЂR°S—RЅSЃSЊRyeRёS… RїS–RgSЂRѕR·RgS–R»S–RI, SЂSЏSЃRЅS–SЋS‚SЊ RїR»SѓS‚R°RЅRёRЅRѕSЋ RI RgR°S‚R°S…, RїSЂRѕS‚RёSЂS–S‡S‡SЏRјRё S– SЏRIRЅRёRјRё S„R°R»SЊSЃRёS„S–RyeR°S†S–SЏRјRё.

RЇRyeS‰Rѕ R±SЂRµS…R°S‚Rё, S‚R°Rye RyeSЂR°SЃRёRIRѕ R№ RgRѕR»R°RgRЅRѕ, S‚R°Rye S‰RѕR± SЃR°RјRѕRјSѓ R±SѓR»Rѕ RїSЂRёS”RјRЅRѕ. Rђ S‚Rѕ, S‰Rѕ RIRёS…RѕRgRёS‚SЊ: RiRµSЂRјR°RЅS†S– S‰Rµ 9(22) RyeRIS–S‚RЅSЏ R±RµR· R±RѕSЋ SѓRIS–R№S€R»Rё RI RЎS–RјS„RµSЂRѕRїRѕR»SЊ, S‰Rѕ RїS–RgS‚RIRµSЂRgR¶SѓSЋS‚SЊ S– SЂR°RgSЏRЅSЃSЊRyeS–, S– RЅS–RјRµS†SЊRyeS– RgRѕSЃR»S–RgRЅRёRyeRё".

R’ RѕSЃS‚R°RЅRЅSЊRѕRјSѓ R°R±R·R°S†S– S” S‚SЂRё RїRѕSЃRёR»R°RЅRЅSЏ: RЅR° RѕRgRЅRµ SЂR°RgSЏRЅSЃSЊRyeRµ RgR¶RµSЂRµR»Rѕ S– RgRIR° RЅS–RјRµS†SЊRyeRёS…. R©Rѕ RЅR°RїRёSЃR°RЅRѕ RI SЂR°RgSЏRЅSЃSЊRyeRѕRјSѓ RgR¶RµSЂRµR»S–, RјRё S– S‚R°Rye R·RЅR°S”RјRѕ, R° RѕS‚ RЅS–RјRµS†SЊRyeS– RIRёRyeR»RёRyeR°SЋS‚SЊ RIRёRїSЂR°RIRgR°RЅRёR№ S–RЅS‚RµSЂRµSЃ. RљRѕRјSѓ, SЏRye RЅRµ RѕS„S–S†RµSЂR°Rј R R°R№SЃS…RiRµRµSЂSѓ (Reichsheer) RyeSЂR°S‰Rµ R·RЅR°S‚Rё, RyeRѕR»Rё RIRѕRЅRё RѕRїRёRЅRёR»RёSЃSЏ Sѓ RЎS–RјS„RµSЂRѕRїRѕR»S–? RЎRIS–RgS‡RµRЅRЅSЏ RIS–R№SЃSЊRyeRѕRIRёS… RyeR°R№R·RµSЂR° RјRѕR¶Rµ RѕSЃS‚R°S‚RѕS‡RЅRѕ SЂRѕR·RI’SЏR·R°S‚Rё SЃSѓRїRµSЂRµS‡RyeSѓ S‰RѕRgRѕ RgR°S‚Rё RїRѕS…RѕRgSѓ R‘RѕR»R±RѕS‡R°RЅR°.

RђRIS‚RѕSЂRё RїR°RјS„R»RµS‚Sѓ RЅR°RIRѕRgSЏS‚SЊ RїRѕSЃRёR»R°RЅRЅSЏ RЅR° 384 SЃS‚RѕSЂS–RЅRyeSѓ 13 S‚RѕRјSѓ "Der Weltkrieg 1914 bis 1918" S‚R° 89 SЃS‚RѕSЂS–RЅRyeSѓ "Das Landwehr-Infanterie-Regiment 53 im Weltkrieg", S‰Rѕ RЅS–R±RёS‚Rѕ RїSЂRѕRјRѕRIR»SЏSЋS‚SЊ RЅR° RyeRѕSЂRёSЃS‚SЊ 22 RyeRIS–S‚RЅSЏ. R©RѕRgRѕ RїRµSЂS€RѕRiRѕ, S‚Rѕ, SЏRye RјRѕR¶RЅR° RїRµSЂRµSЃRIS–RgS‡RёS‚RёSЃSЏ, RЅR° RIRyeR°R·R°RЅS–R№ RЅRёRјRё SЃS‚RѕSЂS–RЅS†S– RIR·R°RiR°R»S– RIS–RgSЃSѓS‚RЅSЏ RgR°S‚R° RIR·SЏS‚S‚SЏ RЎS–RјS„RµSЂRѕRїRѕR»SЏ.

RќR°RIS–S‚SЊ SЏRyeS‰Rѕ RIRё RЅRµ RIRѕR»RѕRgS–S”S‚Rµ RЅS–RјRµS†SЊRyeRѕSЋ, RIRё R· R»RµRiRyeS–SЃS‚SЋ RїRѕR±R°S‡RёS‚Rµ, S‰Rѕ SЃR»RѕRIRѕSЃRїRѕR»SѓS‡RµRЅRЅSЏ "22 RyeRIS–S‚RЅSЏ" RЅRµRјR°S”, R° RїS–Rg 26 RyeRIS–S‚RЅSЏ R·RiR°RgSѓS”S‚SЊSЃSЏ R·R°S‚SЂRёRјRyeR° RI RЎS–RјS„RµSЂRѕRїRѕR»S– S‚SЂR°RЅSЃRїRѕSЂS‚S–RI R· SѓRyeSЂR°S—RЅSЃSЊRyeRёRјRё RIS–R№SЃSЊRyeR°RјRё [31, s. 384]. RќRµRјR° RgR°S‚Rё RїR°RgS–RЅRЅSЏ SЃS‚RѕR»RёS†S– RљSЂRёRјSѓ S– RЅR° SЃSѓSЃS–RgRЅS–S… SЃS‚RѕSЂS–RЅRyeR°S….

RЎS‚RѕSЂS–RЅRyeR° R· RЅS–RјRµS†SЊRyeRѕRiRѕ RIRёRgR°RЅRЅSЏ [31] R±RµR· RgR°S‚Rё RIR·SЏS‚S‚SЏ RЎS–RјS„RµSЂRѕRїRѕR»SЏ

Rђ RѕS‚ S–RЅS„RѕSЂRјR°S†S–SЏ S–R· RgSЂSѓRiRѕRiRѕ RIRёRgR°RЅRЅSЏ RIR·R°RiR°R»S– SЃSѓRїRµSЂRµS‡RёS‚SЊ "SѓR»SЋR±R»RµRЅS–R№" R°RIS‚RѕSЂR°RјRё "RyeRѕSЂRѕS‚RyeS–R№" S…SЂRѕRЅRѕR»RѕRiS–S—.

RўR°Rј RIRјS–S‰RµRЅRёR№ RyeR°R»RµRЅRgR°SЂ SЂSѓS…Sѓ 53-RiRѕ RїS–S…RѕS‚RЅRѕRiRѕ RїRѕR»RyeSѓ R»R°RЅRgRIRµSЂSѓ, RїRѕS‚SЂS–R±RЅRёR№ S„SЂR°RiRјRµRЅS‚ R· SЏRyeRѕRiRѕ RIRёRiR»SЏRgR°S” RЅR°SЃS‚SѓRїRЅRёRј S‡RёRЅRѕRј [32, s. 89]: 21.4.18 II S– III R±R°S‚R°R»SЊR№RѕRЅRё S†SЊRѕRiRѕ RїRѕR»RyeSѓ RIRёSЂSѓS€RёR»Rё R·R°R»S–R·RЅRёS†RµSЋ RgRѕ RљSЂRёRјSѓ R· RњRµR»S–S‚RѕRїRѕR»SЏ, 22.4.18 RIRѕRЅRё R¶ RїSЂRѕRgRѕRIR¶RёR»Rё S—S…R°S‚Rё R·R°R»S–R·RЅRёS†RµSЋ R· R”R¶R°RЅRyeRѕSЋ RgRѕ SЃS‚R°RЅS†S–S— "RљS–SЃRѕR№" ("Kisoj"). Rђ 23.4.18 RIS–Rg RЎR°SЂR°R±SѓR·R° SЂSѓS€RёR»Rё RїS–S€RёRј RјR°SЂS€RµRј RЅR° RЎS–RјS„RµSЂRѕRїRѕR»SЊ.

RЇRye RїRѕSЏSЃRЅRёRI RI RїSЂRёRIR°S‚RЅS–R№ SЂRѕR·RјRѕRIS– R·RЅR°RIRµS†SЊ RyeSЂRёRјSЃSЊRyeRѕS— S‚RѕRїRѕRЅS–RјS–RyeRё RћR»RµRyeSЃR°RЅRgSЂ R“RѕSЂSЏS—RЅRѕRI, "Kisoj" – S†Rµ RїRµSЂRµRyeSЂSѓS‡RµRЅR° RЅR°R·RIR° R·R°R»S–R·RЅRёS‡RЅRѕS— SЃS‚R°RЅS†S–S— RљRёS‚R°R№ ("Qıtay"), RI SЏRyeS–R№ R»S–S‚RµSЂR° "t" R±SѓR»R° RїRѕRјRёR»RyeRѕRIRѕ R·R°RїRёSЃR°RЅR° SЏRye "RgRѕRIRiR° S" – "ſ". RЎS‚R°RЅS†S–SЏ RљRёS‚R°R№ (RЅRёRЅS– – RЁRёSЂRѕRyeRµ) SЏRyeSЂR°R· R·RЅR°S…RѕRgRёS‚SЊSЃSЏ RЅR° S€R»SЏS…Sѓ RIS–Rg R”R¶R°RЅRyeRѕSЏ RgRѕ RЎR°SЂR°R±SѓR·R°.

RўR°RyeRёRј S‡RёRЅRѕRј, S– S‚SѓS‚ RЅS– RїSЂRѕ SЏRyeRµ R·R°S…RѕRїR»RµRЅRЅSЏ RЎS–RјS„RµSЂRѕRїRѕR»SЏ 22 RyeRIS–S‚RЅSЏ RЅRµ RјRѕR¶Rµ R№S‚Rё S– RјRѕRIRё.

R† S‰RѕR±Rё RѕSЃS‚R°S‚RѕS‡RЅRѕ RїRѕSЃS‚R°RIRёS‚Rё RyeSЂR°RїRyeSѓ RI S†SЊRѕRјSѓ RїRёS‚R°RЅRЅS–, R·RIRµSЂRЅS–RјRѕSЃSЏ RgRѕ RЅR°R№R°RIS‚RѕSЂRёS‚RµS‚RЅS–S€RѕRiRѕ R· RјRѕR¶R»RёRIRёS… RЅS–RјRµS†SЊRyeRёS… RgR¶RµSЂRµR», R° SЃR°RјRµ RgRѕ R·RIRµRgRµRЅSЊ R“RµRЅRµSЂR°R»SЊRЅRѕRiRѕ S€S‚R°R±Sѓ, RIRёRgR°RЅRёS… R±R°RiR°S‚RѕS‚RѕRјRЅRѕSЋ SЃRµSЂS–S”SЋ RIS–RgSЂR°R·Sѓ RїS–SЃR»SЏ R·R°RyeS–RЅS‡RµRЅRЅSЏ RIS–R№RЅRё.

R’ 7 S‚RѕRјS– RїS–Rg 24 RyeRIS–S‚RЅSЏRј RI SЂSѓR±SЂRёS†S– "Ukraine" R·RЅR°S…RѕRgRёRјRѕ RЅR°SЃS‚SѓRїRЅRёR№ RyeRѕSЂRѕS‚RyeRёR№ R·R°RїRёSЃ [33, s. 2700]: "In der Krim haben Truppen des Generals Kosch Simferopol erreicht", S‰Rѕ RїRµSЂRµRyeR»R°RgR°S”S‚SЊSЃSЏ SЏRye "RќR°SЏRIRЅS– RI RљSЂRёRјSѓ RIS–R№SЃSЊRyeR° RiRµRЅRµSЂR°R»R° RљRѕS€R° RgS–SЃS‚R°R»RёSЃSЏ RЎS–RјS„RµSЂRѕRїRѕR»SЏ". RћSЃSЊ SЏRye RIRёRiR»SЏRgR°R»Rѕ S†Rµ RїRѕRIS–RgRѕRјR»RµRЅRЅSЏ:

RЎS‚RѕSЂS–RЅRyeR° R· SЂRµR»SЏS†S–S”SЋ RЅS–RјRµS†SЊRyeRѕRiRѕ R“RµRЅS€S‚R°R±Sѓ [33] RїSЂRѕ RISЃS‚SѓRї RgRѕ RЎS–RјS„RµSЂRѕRїRѕR»SЏ 24 RyeRIS–S‚RЅSЏ

R—RIRµSЂS‚R°S” RЅR° SЃRµR±Rµ SѓRIR°RiSѓ RIRёRyeRѕSЂRёSЃS‚R°RЅRЅSЏ RgS–S”SЃR»RѕRIR° "RgS–SЃS‚R°R»RёSЃSЏ/RgS–R№S€R»Rё/RgRѕSЃSЏRiR»Rё", R° RЅRµ, SЃRyeR°R¶S–RјRѕ, "RIR·SЏR»Rё" S‡Rё "R·R°S…RѕRїRёR»Rё". R¦Rµ S–RgRµR°R»SЊRЅRѕ SѓR·RiRѕRgR¶SѓS”S‚SЊSЃSЏ S–R· RgR°RЅRёRјRё RњRѕRЅRyeRµRIRёS‡R° RїSЂRѕ R·RgRѕR±SѓS‚S‚SЏ RЎS–RјS„RµSЂRѕRїRѕR»SЏ SѓRyeSЂR°S—RЅSЃSЊRyeRёRјRё RIS–R№SЃSЊRyeR°RјRё RISЂR°RЅS†S– 24 RyeRIS–S‚RЅSЏ S‰Rµ RgRѕ RїS–RgS…RѕRgSѓ RЅS–RјS†S–RI.

RўR°RyeRёRј S‡RёRЅRѕRј, RїRёS‚R°RЅRЅSЏ RїSЂRѕ RgR°S‚Sѓ RIR·SЏS‚S‚SЏ RЎS–RјS„RµSЂRѕRїRѕR»SЏ S‚R° RIS–SЂRЅS–SЃS‚SЊ RISЃS–S”S— S…SЂRѕRЅRѕR»RѕRiS–S— RїRѕS…RѕRgSѓ R‘RѕR»R±RѕS‡R°RЅR° RЅR° RљSЂRёRј RјRѕR¶RЅR° RIRIR°R¶R°S‚Rё RIRёSЂS–S€RµRЅRёRј.

RЈRyeSЂR°S—RЅSЃSЊRyeS– RIS–R№SЃSЊRyeR° R·RgRѕR»R°R»Rё R±S–R»SЊS€RѕRIRёS†SЊRyeSѓ RѕR±RѕSЂRѕRЅSѓ RЅR° R§RѕRЅRiR°SЂS– S– S„RѕSЂSЃSѓRIR°R»Rё RЎRёRIR°S€ RЅR° SЃRIS–S‚R°RЅRyeSѓ 22 RyeRIS–S‚RЅSЏ, RIRIRµS‡RµSЂS– 22 RyeRIS–S‚RЅSЏ RѕRIRѕR»RѕRgS–R»Rё R”R¶R°RЅRyeRѕS”Rј, 23 RyeRIS–S‚RЅSЏ RїRµSЂRµRјRѕRiR»Rё RI R±RѕSЋ RїS–Rg RЎR°SЂR°R±SѓR·RѕRј, R° RISЂR°RЅS†S– 24 RyeRIS–S‚RЅSЏ R·R°S…RѕRїRёR»Rё RЎS–RјS„RµSЂRѕRїRѕR»SЊ, RIRёRїRµSЂRµRgRёRIS€Rё RЅS–RјS†S–RI S‰RѕRЅR°R№RјRµRЅS€Rµ RЅR° RyeS–R»SЊRyeR° RiRѕRgRёRЅ.

RќSѓ S– RgR»SЏ S€R°RЅSѓRIR°R»SЊRЅRёRyeS–RI – RIRёS€RµRЅSЊRyeR° RЅR° S‚RѕSЂS‚RёRyeSѓ. RџRѕRIS–RgRѕRјR»RµRЅRЅSЏ R°RјRµSЂRёRyeR°RЅSЃSЊRyeRѕS— RiR°R·RµS‚Rё "The New York Times" RIS–Rg 25 RyeRIS–S‚RЅSЏ 1918 SЂRѕRyeSѓ SЃR»RѕRIRѕ RI SЃR»RѕRIRѕ RїRѕRIS‚RѕSЂSЋS” R·RIRµRgRµRЅRЅSЏ RЅS–RјRµS†SЊRyeRѕRiRѕ R“RµRЅS€S‚R°R±Sѓ R·R° RїRѕRїRµSЂRµRgRЅS–R№ RgRµRЅSЊ, S†S–R»RyeRѕRIRёS‚Rѕ R·RЅS–RјR°SЋS‡Rё RїRёS‚R°RЅRЅSЏ RїSЂRѕ RјRѕR¶R»RёRIS– RїS–SЃR»SЏRIRѕS”RЅRЅS– RїRѕRјRёR»RyeRё S‡Rё RїS–RgS‡RёSЃS‚RyeRё R±RµSЂR»S–RЅSЃSЊRyeRёS… RIRёRgR°RIS†S–RI.

RџRѕRIS–RgRѕRјR»RµRЅRЅSЏ The New York Times RїSЂRѕ RISЃS‚SѓRї RЅS–RјS†S–RI RgRѕ RЎS–RјS„RµSЂRѕRїRѕR»SЏ 24 RyeRIS–S‚RЅSЏ 1918 SЂRѕRyeSѓ

R’RёSЃRЅRѕRIRyeRё

1. R”Rѕ SЃSЊRѕRiRѕRgRЅS– RI SѓRyeSЂR°S—RЅSЃSЊRyeS–R№ S–SЃS‚RѕSЂS–RѕRiSЂR°S„S–S— RїR°RЅSѓSЋS‚SЊ RgRIS– S‚RѕS‡RyeRё R·RѕSЂSѓ RЅR° S…SЂRѕRЅRѕR»RѕRiS–SЋ RїRѕS…RѕRgSѓ RIS–R№SЃSЊRye RЈRќR  RЅR° RљSЂRёRј Sѓ RyeRIS–S‚RЅS– 1918 SЂRѕRyeSѓ: "RyeRѕSЂRѕS‚RyeR°" S‚R° "RgRѕRIRiR°". R’S–RgRїRѕRIS–RgRЅRѕ RgRѕ RїRµSЂS€RѕS— RЅS–RјRµS†SЊRyeS– RIS–R№SЃSЊRyeR°, S‰Rѕ RЅR°SЃS‚SѓRїR°R»Rё R· RџRµSЂRµRyeRѕRїSѓ, RIR·SЏR»Rё RЎS–RјS„RµSЂRѕRїRѕR»SЊ 22 RyeRIS–S‚RЅSЏ, R° SѓRyeSЂR°S—RЅSЃSЊRyeS– RїS–RgSЂRѕR·RgS–R»Rё Sѓ S†RµR№ S‡R°SЃ RїRµSЂRµR±SѓRIR°R»Rё R»RёS€Rµ Sѓ R”R¶R°RЅRyeRѕS—. R’S–RgRїRѕRIS–RgRЅRѕ RgRѕ RgSЂSѓRiRѕS— S†Rµ SЃR°RјRµ R·R°RiRѕRЅRё RЈRќR , RЅR°SЃS‚SѓRїR°SЋS‡Rё R· R§RѕRЅRiR°SЂSѓ, RїRµSЂS€RёRјRё RISЃS‚SѓRїRёR»Rё RgRѕ RЎS–RјS„RµSЂRѕRїRѕR»SЏ 24 RyeRIS–S‚RЅSЏ, RIRёRїRµSЂRµRgRёRIS€Rё RЅS–RјS†S–RI RЅR° RyeS–R»SЊRyeR° RiRѕRgRёRЅ.

2. R¦SЏ SЂRѕR·R±S–R¶RЅS–SЃS‚SЊ Sѓ RgR°S‚SѓRIR°RЅRЅS– RIRёR№S€R»R° R·R° RјRµR¶S– S–SЃS‚RѕSЂS–RѕRiSЂR°S„S–S‡RЅRѕS— SЃSѓRїRµSЂRµS‡RyeRё S– RЅR°R±SѓR»R° RIRёSЂR°R·RЅRѕRiRѕ RїRѕR»S–S‚RёS‡RЅRѕRiRѕ R·R°R±R°SЂRIR»RµRЅRЅSЏ. RЇRyeS‰Rѕ RIS–SЂRЅRѕSЋ S” "RyeRѕSЂRѕS‚RyeR°" S…SЂRѕRЅRѕR»RѕRiS–SЏ, S‚Rѕ SЃS‚RѕR»RёS†SЋ RљSЂRёRјSѓ R·R°S…RѕRїRёR»Rё RЅS–RјS†S– S‰Rµ RgRѕ S‚RѕRiRѕ, SЏRye SѓRyeSЂR°S—RЅSЃSЊRyeS– RIS–R№SЃSЊRyeR° RgS–SЃS‚R°R»RёSЃSЏ R”R¶R°RЅRyeRѕSЏ, R° RIS–RgS‚R°Rye RїRѕRgR°R»SЊS€RёR№ RїRѕS…S–Rg R‘RѕR»R±RѕS‡R°RЅR° RЅRµ RјR°RI R¶RѕRgRЅRѕRiRѕ RIS–R№SЃSЊRyeRѕRIRѕRiRѕ S‚R° RїRѕR»S–S‚RёS‡RЅRѕRiRѕ SЃRµRЅSЃSѓ.

RќR°S‚RѕRјS–SЃS‚SЊ, SЏRyeS‰Rѕ RїSЂR°RIRgRёRIRѕSЋ RIRёSЏRIRёS‚SЊSЃSЏ "RgRѕRIRiR°" S…SЂRѕRЅRѕR»RѕRiS–SЏ, S‚Rѕ S†Rµ SЃR°RјRµ SѓRyeSЂR°S—RЅS†S– S–R· RIRёRїRµSЂRµRgR¶RµRЅRЅSЏRј Sѓ RїS–RIRgRѕR±Rё R·RIS–R»SЊRЅSЏR»Rё RјS–SЃS‚R° RљSЂRёRјSѓ RIS–Rg RyeRѕRјSѓRЅS–SЃS‚RёS‡RЅRѕS— RIR»R°RgRё, R° S‚RѕRјSѓ RјR°R»Rё RїSЂR°RIRѕ RїSЂRµS‚RµRЅRgSѓRIR°S‚Rё RЅR° RyeRѕRЅS‚SЂRѕR»SЊ RЅR°Rg RїS–RIRѕSЃS‚SЂRѕRIRѕRј.

3. RџSЂRёS…RёR»SЊRЅRёRyeRё "RyeRѕSЂRѕS‚RyeRѕS—" S…SЂRѕRЅRѕR»RѕRiS–S— R°RїRµR»SЋSЋS‚SЊ RgRѕ SЂR°RgSЏRЅSЃSЊRyeRёS… RgR¶RµSЂRµR» RїRѕS‡R°S‚RyeSѓ 20-S… SЂSЂ. RGRG SЃS‚., RїSЂRёR±S–S‡RЅRёRyeRё "RgRѕRIRiRѕS—" RїRѕSЃRёR»R°SЋS‚SЊSЃSЏ RЅR° SЃRIS–RgS‡RµRЅRЅSЏ SѓRyeSЂR°S—RЅSЃSЊRyeRёS… SѓS‡R°SЃRЅRёRyeS–RI RїRѕS…RѕRgSѓ RЅR° RљSЂRёRј. R’ SЃS‚R°S‚S‚S– R’RѕR»RѕRgRёRјRёSЂR° R„R»R°RiS–RЅR° 1922 SЂRѕRyeSѓ, S‰Rѕ, RIS–SЂRѕRiS–RgRЅRѕ, R·R°RїRѕS‡R°S‚RyeSѓRIR°R»R° "RyeRѕSЂRѕS‚RyeSѓ" S…SЂRѕRЅRѕR»RѕRiS–SЋ, RЅRµRјR°S” RїS–RgS‚RIRµSЂRgR¶RµRЅSЊ RЅR°R·RIR°RЅRѕS— S—Rј RgR°S‚Rё RIR·SЏS‚S‚SЏ RЎS–RјS„RµSЂRѕRїRѕR»SЏ – 21 RyeRIS–S‚RЅSЏ.

RЈ 1957 SЂRѕS†S– RџR°RIR»Rѕ RќR°RgS–RЅSЃSЊRyeRёR№ R·R°RїSЂRѕRїRѕRЅSѓRIR°RI S–RЅS€Sѓ RgR°S‚Sѓ – 22 RyeRIS–S‚RЅSЏ – SЏRyeR° RЅRµRIRgRѕRIR·S– SЃS‚R°R»R° RyeR°RЅRѕRЅS–S‡RЅRѕSЋ. R’ RјRµRјSѓR°SЂR°S… SѓRyeSЂR°S—RЅSЃSЊRyeRёS… RIS–R№SЃSЊRyeRѕRIRёS… S‚R°RyeRѕR¶ S” SЂRѕR·R±S–R¶RЅRѕSЃS‚S–, R°R»Rµ R‘RѕSЂRёSЃ RњRѕRЅRyeRµRIRёS‡ RїRѕRgR°S” RgR°S‚Sѓ 24 RyeRIS–S‚RЅSЏ, R° Sѓ SЂRµS€S‚Rё RЅRµRјR°S” R¶RѕRgRЅRёS… RIRyeR°R·S–RIRѕRye, S‰Rѕ R·R°S…RѕRїR»RµRЅRЅSЏ RyeSЂRёRјSЃSЊRyeRѕS— SЃS‚RѕR»RёS†S– RIS–RgR±SѓR»RѕSЃSЏ SЂR°RЅS–S€Rµ.

4. R—R°R»SѓS‡RµRЅRЅSЏ S–RЅS„RѕSЂRјR°S†S–S— S‚SЂRµS‚SЊRѕS— SЃS‚RѕSЂRѕRЅRё – R° SЃR°RјRµ RЅS–RјRµS†SЊRyeRёS… RgR¶RµSЂRµR» – RgRѕR·RIRѕR»SЏS” RѕSЃS‚R°S‚RѕS‡RЅRѕ SЂRѕR·RI’SЏR·R°S‚Rё RїRёS‚R°RЅRЅSЏ S…SЂRѕRЅRѕR»RѕRiS–S— RљSЂRёRјSЃSЊRyeRѕS— RѕRїRµSЂR°S†S–S— 1918 SЂRѕRyeSѓ. R’S–RgRїRѕRIS–RgRЅRѕ RgRѕ R·RIRµRgRµRЅSЊ RЅS–RјRµS†SЊRyeRѕRiRѕ R“RµRЅRµSЂR°R»SЊRЅRѕRiRѕ S€S‚R°R±Sѓ, RїS–RgS‚RIRµSЂRgR¶RµRЅRёS… SЃRёRЅS…SЂRѕRЅRЅRѕSЋ RїSѓR±R»S–RyeR°S†S–S”SЋ Sѓ RiR°R·RµS‚S– "The New York Times", RI RљSЂRёRјSѓ RIS–R№SЃSЊRyeR° RiRµRЅRµSЂR°R»R° RљRѕS€R° RgS–SЃS‚R°R»RёSЃSЏ RЎS–RјS„RµSЂRѕRїRѕR»SЏ SЃR°RјRµ 24 RyeRIS–S‚RЅSЏ. 

RћS‚R¶Rµ, RЅS– RїSЂRѕ SЏRyeRµ "22 RyeRIS–S‚RЅSЏ" RI SЏRyeRѕSЃS‚S– RgR°S‚Rё RIR·SЏS‚S‚SЏ RјS–SЃS‚R° RЅS–RјS†SЏRјRё RЅRµ RјRѕR¶Rµ R±SѓS‚Rё R№ RјRѕRIRё. R”RѕR·RIRѕR»SЋ SЃRѕR±S– RїSЂRёRїSѓS‰RµRЅRЅSЏ, S‰Rѕ SЂR°RЅRЅS– SЂR°RgSЏRЅSЃSЊRyeS– R°RIS‚RѕSЂRё SЃRїR»SѓS‚R°R»Rё RgRµRЅSЊ RїRѕS‡R°S‚RyeSѓ RµRIR°RyeSѓR°S†S–S— R· RЎS–RјS„RµSЂRѕRїRѕR»SЏ RIRёS‰RѕRiRѕ RyeRµSЂS–RIRЅRёS†S‚RIR° (21 RyeRIS–S‚RЅSЏ, SЏRye RIRIR°R¶R°RI, RЅR°RїSЂRёRyeR»R°Rg RЎ. RџRѕRїR»R°RISЃSЊRyeRёR№ [34, SЃ. 113]) S–R· RgRЅRµRј RїR°RgS–RЅRЅSЏ RјS–SЃS‚R°, R° RїS–R·RЅS–S€S– RgRѕSЃR»S–RgRЅRёRyeRё RЅRµ R·RјRѕRiR»Rё S‡Rё RЅRµ R·R°S…RѕS‚S–R»Rё RїRѕSЂSѓS€RёS‚Rё SѓSЃS‚R°R»RµRЅSѓ S‚SЂR°RgRёS†S–SЋ.

R‘S–R±R»S–RѕRiSЂR°S„S–SЏ

  1. R•R»R°RiRёRЅ R’. R•RIRїR°S‚RѕSЂRёR№SЃRyeRёR№ RћRyeS‚SЏR±SЂSЊ Rё RЅR°S‡R°R»Rѕ RЎRѕRIRIR»R°SЃS‚Rё // R RµRIRѕR»SЋS†RёSЏ RI RљSЂS‹RјSѓ. R?SЃS‚RѕSЂRёS‡RµSЃRyeR°SЏ R±RёR±R»RёRѕS‚RµRyeR° R?SЃS‚RїR°SЂS‚R° Rћ. Rљ. RљSЂS‹RјR°. – v„–. 1. – RЎRёRјS„RµSЂRѕRїRѕR»SЊ: RљSЂS‹RјRёR·RgR°S‚, 1922. – RЎ. 41–58.
  2. R RµRIRѕR»SЋS†RёSЏ RI RљSЂS‹RјSѓ. RЎR±RѕSЂRЅRёRye RјR°S‚RµSЂRёR°R»RѕRI Rye 10-R№ RiRѕRgRѕRIS‰RёRЅRµ RћRyeS‚SЏR±SЂSЊSЃRyeRѕR№ SЂRµRIRѕR»SЋS†RёRё. – v„– 1(7). – RЎRёRјS„RµSЂRѕRїRѕR»SЊ: RљSЂS‹RјRiRѕSЃRёR·RgR°S‚, 1927. – 288 SЃ.
  3. R‘SѓRЅRµRiRёRЅ Rњ. R RµRIRѕR»SЋS†RёSЏ Rё R“SЂR°R¶RgR°RЅSЃRyeR°SЏ RIRѕR№RЅR° RI RљSЂS‹RјSѓ (1917–1920). – RЎRёRјS„RµSЂRѕRїRѕR»SЊ: RљSЂS‹RјRiRѕSЃRёR·RgR°S‚, 1927. – 336 SЃ.
  4. RќR°RgRёRЅSЃRyeRёR№ Rџ. RћS‡RµSЂRyeRё RїRѕ RёSЃS‚RѕSЂRёRё RљSЂS‹RјR°. – Rў. 2. – RЎRёRјS„RµSЂRѕRїRѕR»SЊ: RљSЂS‹RјRёR·RgR°S‚, 1957. – 303 SЃ.
  5. R?SЃS‚RѕSЂRёSЏ R“SЂR°R¶RgR°RЅSЃRyeRѕR№ RIRѕR№RЅS‹ RI RЎRЎRЎR . – Rў. 3. – Rњ.: R“RѕSЃRїRѕR»RёS‚RёR·RgR°S‚, 1958. – 679 SЃ.
  6. RћR±RµSЂS‚R°SЃ R?. RљRѕRјR°RЅRgR°SЂRј R¤RµRgSЊRyeRѕ. – Rњ.: R’RѕRµRЅRёR·RgR°S‚, 1973. – 165 SЃ.
  7. RЎRµR»SЊRIRёRЅSЃRyeRёR№ R?. R§RµSЂS‚S‹ RјRѕRµR№ R¶RёR·RЅRё // RљSЂS‹RјSЃRyeRёRµ RїRµRЅR°S‚S‹. – v„– 2. – RЎRёRјS„RµSЂRѕRїRѕR»SЊ, 1996. – RЎ. 5–20.
  8. RGSЂRѕRЅRёRyeR° SЂRµRIRѕR»SЋS†RёRѕRЅRЅS‹S… SЃRѕR±S‹S‚RёR№ RI RљSЂS‹RјSѓ (1917–1920) / SЃRѕSЃS‚.: R?. RљRѕRЅRgSЂR°RЅRѕRI Rё R’. RЁRёSЂRѕRyeRѕRI. – RЎRёRјS„RµSЂRѕRїRѕR»SЊ: RљSЂS‹Rј, 1969. – 190 SЃ.
  9. R‘RёRyeRѕRIR° Rў. RЎS‚RIRѕSЂRµRЅRЅSЏ RљSЂRёRјSЃSЊRyeRѕS— RђRЎR R  (1917–1921 SЂSЂ.) – Rљ., 2011. – 247 SЃ.
  10. R“SЂRёS†RµRЅRyeRѕ R†. RЈRyeSЂR°S—RЅSЃSЊRyeRёR№ R”RµSЂR¶R°RIRЅRёR№ R¤R»RѕS‚ RI 1917–1919 pp. – Rљ.: R’RёRg. Rћ. R¤S–R»SЋRye, 2015. – 232 SЃ.
  11. RўSЋS‚RµRЅRyeRѕ R . RџRµSЂS€RёR№ R RµSЃRїSѓR±R»S–RyeR°RЅSЃSЊRyeRёR№ RїS–S€RёR№ RїRѕR»Rye Rџ. R‘RѕR»R±RѕS‡R°RЅR° S‚R° R№RѕRiRѕ SѓS‡R°SЃS‚SЊ RI R±RѕSЂRѕS‚SЊR±S– R·R° SѓRyeSЂR°S—RЅSЃSЊRyeSѓ RgRµSЂR¶R°RIRЅS–SЃS‚SЊ (SЃRµSЂRїRµRЅSЊ 1917 – RyeRIS–S‚RµRЅSЊ 1918 SЂSЂ.)" // RњR°S‚-R»Rё R’SЃRµSѓRyeSЂ. RЅR°SѓRye. RyeRѕRЅS„. "R’S–R№RЅRё S– R·R±SЂRѕR№RЅS– RyeRѕRЅS„R»S–RyeS‚Rё Sѓ RЎS…S–RgRЅS–R№ R„RISЂRѕRїS– RI RGRG – RЅR° RїRѕS‡R°S‚RyeSѓ RGRGR† SЃS‚RѕR»S–S‚SЊ". – R–RёS‚RѕRјRёSЂ, 2015. – RЎ 45–49.
  12. R’S–RЅS†RyeRѕRISЃSЊRyeRёR№ Rў. R¤RѕSЂRјSѓRIR°RЅRЅSЏ S– RgS–SЏR»SЊRЅS–SЃS‚SЊ RјS–SЃS†RµRIRёS… RѕSЂRiR°RЅS–RI RIR»R°RgRё RїRµSЂS€RѕS— RЈRќR  RЅR° RїS–RIRgRЅS– RЈRyeSЂR°S—RЅRё: RgRёSЃ… RgRѕRye. S–SЃS‚. RЅR°SѓRye. – RћRgRµSЃR°, 2016. – 414 SЃ.
  13. RЁRµRјRµS‚ RЎ. RџRѕR»RyeRѕRIRЅRёRye RџRµS‚SЂRѕ R‘RѕR»R±RѕS‡R°RЅ // RGR»S–R±RѕSЂRѕR±SЃSЊRyeR° RЈRyeSЂR°S—RЅR°. – RљRЅ. 4. – R’RёRї. 7/8. – R’S–RgRµRЅSЊ, 1923. – RЎ. 200–236.
  14. R†SЃS‚RѕSЂS–SЏ SѓRyeSЂR°S—RЅSЃSЊRyeRѕRiRѕ RIS–R№SЃSЊRyeR° / R·R° SЂRµRg. Rњ. R›RµRIRёS†SЊRyeRѕRiRѕ. – 2-RiRµ RIRёRg., RgRѕRї. – R’S–RЅRЅS–RїRµRi: R’RёRg. R†. RўRёRyeS‚RѕSЂ, 1953. – 837 SЃ.
  15. RЈRgRѕRIRёS‡RµRЅRyeRѕ Rћ. RЈRyeSЂR°S—RЅR° Sѓ RIS–R№RЅS– R·R° RgRµSЂR¶R°RIRЅS–SЃS‚SЊ. R†SЃS‚RѕSЂS–SЏ RѕSЂRiR°RЅS–R·R°S†S–S— S– R±RѕR№RѕRIRёS… RgS–R№ RЈRyeSЂR°S—RЅSЃSЊRyeRёS… R—R±SЂRѕR№RЅRёS… RЎRёR» 1917–1921 SЂSЂ. – RљRёS—RI: RЈRyeSЂR°S—RЅR°, 1995 . – 206 SЃ.
  16. RЁS‚RµRЅRgRµSЂR° RЇ. R—R°SЃSѓRgR¶RµRЅRёR№ RgRѕ SЂRѕR·SЃS‚SЂS–R»Sѓ. – R›SЊRIS–RI: R§RµSЂRIRѕRЅR° RyeR°R»RёRЅR°, 1995. – 256 SЃ.
  17. RЎS–RgR°Rye R’., RћSЃS‚R°S€RyeRѕ Rў., R’SЂRѕRЅSЃSЊRyeR° Rў. RџRѕR»RyeRѕRIRЅRёRye RџRµS‚SЂRѕ R‘RѕR»R±RѕS‡R°RЅ: S‚SЂR°RiRµRgS–SЏ SѓRyeSЂR°S—RЅSЃSЊRyeRѕRiRѕ RgRµSЂR¶R°RIRЅRёRyeR°. – 2-Rµ RIRёRg, RgRѕRї. – Rљ.: RўRµRјRїRѕSЂR°, 2009. – 426 SЃ.
  18. R SѓRgSЊRyeRѕ RЎ. RљSЂRёRјSЃSЊRyeR° RѕRїRµSЂR°S†S–SЏ RIS–R№SЃSЊRye R¦RµRЅS‚SЂR°R»SЊRЅRѕS— SЂR°RgRё // RќR°SѓRyeRѕRIS– R·R°RїRёSЃRyeRё RќR°S†S–RѕRЅR°R»SЊRЅRѕRiRѕ SѓRЅS–RIRµSЂSЃRёS‚RµS‚Sѓ "RћSЃS‚SЂRѕR·SЊRyeR° R°RyeR°RgRµRјS–SЏ": R†SЃS‚RѕSЂRёS‡RЅS– RЅR°SѓRyeRё. – 2011. – R’RёRї. 17. – RЎ.134–148.
  19. RџSѓS‡RµRЅRyeRѕRI Rђ. RЈRyeSЂR°RёRЅR° Rё RљSЂS‹Rј RI 1918 – RЅR°S‡R°R»Rµ 1919 RiRѕRgR°. RћS‡RµSЂRyeRё RїRѕR»RёS‚RёS‡RµSЃRyeRѕR№ RёSЃS‚RѕSЂRёRё. – RЎRџR±.: RќRµSЃS‚RѕSЂ-R?SЃS‚RѕSЂRёSЏ, 2013. – 340 SЃ.
  20. R†SЃS‚RѕSЂS–SЏ SѓRyeSЂR°S—RЅSЃSЊRyeRѕRiRѕ RIS–R№SЃSЊRyeR° / R·R° R·R°Ri. SЂRµRg. R’. RџR°RIR»RѕRIR°. – RG.: RљRЎR”, 2016. – 416 SЃ.
  21. RЎRµSЂRiS–R№S‡SѓRye R’. RЈRyeSЂR°S—RЅSЃSЊRyeRёR№ RљSЂRёRј. – Rљ.: RЈRyeSЂR°S—RЅSЃSЊRyeR° R’RёRgR°RIRЅRёS‡R° RЎRїS–R»RyeR°, 2001. – 304 SЃ.
  22. R—R°SЂSѓR±RёRЅ Rђ., R—R°SЂSѓR±RёRЅ R’. R‘RµR· RїRѕR±RµRgRёS‚RµR»RµR№: R?R· RёSЃS‚RѕSЂRёRё R“SЂR°R¶RgR°RЅSЃRyeRѕR№ RIRѕR№RЅS‹ RI RљSЂS‹RјSѓ. – 2-Rµ RёR·Rg., RёSЃRїSЂ. Rё RgRѕRї. – RЎRёRјS„RµSЂRѕRїRѕR»SЊ: RђRЅS‚RёRyeRIR°, 2008. – 728 SЃ.
  23. RњRѕRЅRyeRµRIRёS‡ R‘. RЎR»S–RgR°RјRё RЅRѕRIS–S‚RЅS–S… R·R°RїRѕSЂRѕR¶S†S–RI. RџRѕS…S–Rg R‘RѕR»R±RѕS‡R°RЅR° RЅR° RљSЂRёRј. – RќSЊSЋ-R™RѕSЂRye, 1956. – 288 SЃ.
  24. RџRµS‚SЂS–RI R’. R’S–R№SЃSЊRyeRѕRIRѕ-S–SЃS‚RѕSЂRёS‡RЅS– RїSЂR°S†S–, SЃRїRѕRјRёRЅRё. – Rљ.: RџRѕR»S–RiSЂR°S„RyeRЅRёRiR°, 2002. – 639 SЃ.
  25. RЁR°RЅRgSЂSѓRye Rџ. RЎRёR»R° RgRѕR±R»RµSЃS‚S–. – Rљ.: R’RёS‰R° S€RyeRѕR»R°, 1999. – 240 SЃ.
  26. RђRISЂR°RјRµRЅRyeRѕ Rќ. RЎRїRѕRјRёRЅRё R·R°RїRѕSЂRѕR¶S†SЏ. – Rљ.: RўRµRјRїRѕSЂR°, 2007. – 456 SЃ.
  27. R‘RѕR±RyeRѕRI Rђ., R‘SѓS‚RѕRISЃRyeRёR№ Rђ. R RѕSЃSЃRёSЏ, RЈRyeSЂR°RёRЅR° Rё RљSЂS‹Rј. RџSЂRёS‡RёRЅS‹ Rё RѕSЃRѕR±RµRЅRЅRѕSЃS‚Rё S‚.RЅ. RЈRyeSЂR°RёRЅRѕ-RљSЂS‹RјSЃRyeRѕR№ RIRѕR№RЅS‹ 1918 Ri. R¦Rµ R¶: R‘RѕR±RyeRѕRI Rђ. R R°R·RIRѕSЂRѕS‚ SЃRѕR»RЅS†R° RЅR°Rg RђRyeRIRёR»RѕRЅRѕRј RISЂSѓS‡RЅSѓSЋ. R¤RµRѕRgRѕSЃRёSЏ Rё S„RµRѕRgRѕSЃRёR№S†S‹ RI R SѓSЃSЃRyeRѕR№ SЃRјSѓS‚Rµ. R“RѕRg 1918. – R¤RµRѕRgRѕSЃRёSЏ-RЎRёRјS„RµSЂRѕRїRѕR»SЊ: RћSЂRёRiRёRЅR°R»-Rњ, 2008. – RЎ. 223–230.
  28. R”SЏS‡RµRЅRyeRѕ Rџ. R§RѕSЂRЅS– R·R°RїRѕSЂRѕR¶S†S–. RЎRїRѕRјRёRЅRё RyeRѕRјR°RЅRgRёSЂR° 1-RiRѕ RyeS–RЅRЅRѕRiRѕ RїRѕR»RyeSѓ R§RѕSЂRЅRёS… R·R°RїRѕSЂRѕR¶S†S–RI RђSЂRјS–S— RЈRyeSЂR°S—RЅSЃSЊRyeRѕS— RќR°SЂRѕRgRЅRѕS— R RµSЃRїSѓR±R»S–RyeRё. – Rљ.: RЎS‚S–RyeSЃ, 2010. – 448 SЃ.
  29. RўRёRЅS‡RµRЅRyeRѕ RЇ. RќRµR·R°RIRёSЃRёRјS‹R№ S‚R°S‚R°SЂSЃRyeRёR№ RљSЂS‹Rј // RљRёRµRISЃRyeRёRµ RIRµRgRѕRјRѕSЃS‚Rё. – 2003. – v„– 143(2948). R¦S–S”S— R¶ RgR°S‚Rё RIS–RЅ RgRѕS‚SЂRёRјSѓRIR°RISЃSЏ S– RI RЅR°SЃS‚SѓRїRЅRёS… RїSЂR°S†SЏS….
  30. R“SЂSѓS€RµS†SЊRyeRёR№ R‘. RћR±RѕSЂRѕRЅR° RїRµSЂRµRyeRѕRїSЃRyeRёS… Rё S‡RѕRЅRiR°SЂSЃRyeRёS… RїRѕR·RёS†RёR№ RIRѕR№SЃRyeR°RјRё RЎRѕRIRµS‚SЃRyeRѕR№ R RµSЃRїSѓR±R»RёRyeRё RўR°RISЂRёRgR° RI R°RїSЂRµR»Rµ 1918 RiRѕRgR° // R’RµSЃS‚RЅRёRye RљSЂS‹RјSЃRyeRёS… S‡S‚RµRЅRёR№ R?. RЎRµR»SЊRIRёRЅSЃRyeRѕRiRѕ. – R’S‹Rї. 8. – RЎRёRјS„RµSЂRѕRїRѕR»SЊ: RљSЂS‹RјSЃRyeRёR№ RђSЂS…RёRI, 2011. – RЎ. 41–52.
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  34. RџRѕRїR»R°RISЃRyeRёR№ RЎ. R•RIRїR°S‚RѕSЂRёSЏ SЃ S„RµRISЂR°R»SЏ 1917 Ri. RgRѕ RѕRyeRyeSѓRїR°S†RёRё RЅRµRјS†RµRI // R RµRIRѕR»SЋS†RёSЏ RI RљSЂS‹RјSѓ. R?SЃS‚RѕSЂRёS‡RµSЃRyeR°SЏ R±RёR±R»RёRѕS‚RµRyeR° R?SЃS‚RїR°SЂS‚R° Rћ. Rљ. RљSЂS‹RјR°. – v„–. 2. – RЎRёRјS„RµSЂRѕRїRѕR»SЊ: R?R·Rg. R?SЃS‚RїR°SЂS‚R°, 1922. –  RЎ. 107–113.

R”R¶RµSЂRµR»Rѕ: LIKR‘R•R—. R†SЃS‚RѕSЂRёS‡RЅRёR№ S„SЂRѕRЅS‚.

R§RёS‚R°R№S‚Rµ S‚R°RyeRѕR¶:

R’S–RgR±SѓRgRѕRIR° RљSЂRёRјSѓ RЈRyeSЂR°S—RЅSЃSЊRyeRѕSЋ R RЎR  RїS–SЃR»SЏ RIS–R№RЅRё

R‘R°RЅRgRµSЂS–RIS†S– Sѓ RљSЂRёRјSѓ. RџSЂRѕ RїS–RgRїS–R»R»SЏ RћRЈRќ RЅR° RїS–RIRѕSЃS‚SЂRѕRIS–

RЇRye RgRµRїRѕSЂS‚SѓRIR°R»Rё RyeSЂRёRјSЃSЊRyeRёS… S‚R°S‚R°SЂ S– S‰Rѕ R· S†SЊRѕRiRѕ RIRёR№S€R»Rѕ

RЎRѕSЋR· RyeRѕR·R°RyeS–RI S– S‚R°S‚R°SЂ Sѓ R±RѕSЂRѕS‚SЊR±S– R·R° RЅRµR·R°R»RµR¶RЅS–SЃS‚SЊ RљSЂRёRјSѓ

RџRѕSЃS‚R°RЅRѕRIR° RїSЂRѕ RїRµSЂRµS‚RIRѕSЂRµRЅRЅSЏ RљSЂRёRјSѓ RЅR° RѕR±R»R°SЃS‚SЊ R R R¤RЎR 

RљSЂRёRјSЃSЊRyeRёR№ RїRѕS…S–Rg 1918 SЂRѕRyeSѓ. RЈRyeSЂR°S—RЅSЃSЊRyeR° R°SЂRјS–SЏ RЅR° RїS–RIRѕSЃS‚SЂRѕRIS–

"R”RѕS†S–R»SЊRЅRѕ RїSЂRѕRIRµSЃS‚Rё RIRёSЃRµR»RµRЅRЅSЏ". R§RµSЂRIRЅRµRIR° RgRµRїRѕSЂS‚R°S†S–SЏ RЅR°SЂRѕRgS–RI RљSЂRёRјSѓ

RќRµRїRёSЃR°RЅR° S–SЃS‚RѕSЂS–SЏ: "RџRѕRyeRё S‚R°S‚R°SЂRё RIRѕSЋRIR°R»Rё, S—S…RЅS– SЃS–RјS— RIRёSЃRµR»RёR»Rё RI RЈR·R±RµRyeRёSЃS‚R°RЅ"

R—RЅRµRIR°R¶RµRЅRёR№ RiRµSЂRѕR№. RџSЂRѕ R»RµRiRµRЅRgR°SЂRЅRѕRiRѕ SЂR°RgSЏRЅSЃSЊRyeRѕRiRѕ RїS–R»RѕS‚R° RђRјRµS‚-S…R°RЅR° RЎSѓR»S‚R°RЅR°

R†SЃS‚RѕSЂRёRye R“SѓR»SЊRЅR°SЂR° R‘RµRyeS–SЂRѕRIR°: "R“SЂSѓRїSѓ RЎR‘RЈ R· RgRѕSЃR»S–RgR¶RµRЅRЅSЏ RgRµRїRѕSЂS‚R°S†S–S— SЂRѕR·S„RѕSЂRјRѕRIR°RЅRѕ"

"RџSЂRёRЅSѓR¶RgRµRЅRёRµ Rye SЃRѕSЋR·Sѓ": SЏRye RљSЂRёRј SЃS‚R°RI "S–SЃRyeRѕRЅRЅRѕ SЂSѓSЃSЃRyeS–Rј"

R•RyeRѕRЅRѕRјS–S‡RЅR° R±R»RѕRyeR°RgR° RљSЂRёRјSѓ. RЇRye S†Rµ SЂRѕR±RёR»Rё RI R“RµS‚SЊRјR°RЅR°S‚S–

R¤R°RЅS‚RѕRјRЅS– R±RѕR»S– R†RјRїRµSЂS–S—. RGRѕR»RѕRgRЅR° RIS–R№RЅR° R·R° RљSЂRёRј Sѓ 1990-S…

R’S–RgR±SѓRgRѕRIR° RљSЂRёRјSѓ RЈRyeSЂR°S—RЅSЃSЊRyeRѕSЋ R RЎR  RїS–SЃR»SЏ RIS–R№RЅRё

R†RЅS€S– RјR°S‚RµSЂS–R°R»Rё R·R° S‚RµRјRѕSЋ "RљSЂRёRјSЃSЊRyeS– S‚R°S‚R°SЂRё"

...S– S‰Rµ 250 RјR°S‚RµSЂS–R°R»S–RI R·R° S‚RµRјRѕSЋ "RљSЂRёRј"

 

100 RyeRЅRёRi RќRµR·R°R»RµR¶RЅRѕSЃS‚S–. "R†SЃS‚RѕSЂRёS‡RЅR° RїSЂR°RIRgR°" SЂRµRyeRѕRјRµRЅRgSѓS”

RџRµSЂRµR»S–Rye RIRёRgR°RЅSЊ, SЏRyeS– RIRёR№S€R»Rё R·R° S‡R°SЃS–RI RЅRµR·R°R»RµR¶RЅRѕSЃS‚S– S– SЏRyeS– RgR°SЋS‚SЊ RјRѕR¶R»RёRIS–SЃS‚SЊ RїS–R·RЅR°S‚Rё S–SЃS‚RѕSЂS–SЋ RЈRyeSЂR°S—RЅRё, R„RISЂRѕRїRё, RЅR°S€RёS… SЃSѓSЃS–RgS–RI, RѕRyeSЂRµRјRёS… R»SЋRgRµR№ S– SЏRIRёS‰. R† SЏRyeS– SЂRѕR±R»SЏS‚SЊ S†Rµ R· SЂS–R·RЅRёS… RїRµSЂSЃRїRµRyeS‚RёRI. RџRµRIRЅS–, S‰Rѕ S‡R°SЃ, RIRёS‚SЂR°S‡RµRЅRёR№ RЅR° S‡RёS‚R°RЅRЅSЏ RЅRµ R±SѓRgRµ RIS‚SЂR°S‡RµRЅRёRј.

RЈRyeSЂR°S—RЅS†S–. RќR°R№RЅRµS‰R°SЃR»RёRIS–S€R° RЅR°S†S–SЏ S‡RѕS‚RёSЂSЊRѕS… RyeRѕRЅS‚RёRЅRµRЅS‚S–RI

RЈRyeSЂR°S—RЅS†S– vЂ” RЅR°R№RЅRµS‰R°SЃR»RёRIS–S€R° RЅR°S†S–SЏ R„RISЂRѕRїRё, RѕR±RѕS… RђRјRµSЂRёRye S‚R° RђRISЃS‚SЂR°R»S–S—. RўR°RyeRёRј S” RїS–RgSЃSѓRјRѕRye RЅR°S€RѕRiRѕ SЂRѕR·RIRёS‚RyeSѓ RЅR°RїRµSЂRµRgRѕRgRЅS– 28-S— SЂS–S‡RЅRёS†S– RќRµR·R°R»RµR¶RЅRѕSЃS‚Rё. RЇRye SѓRyeSЂR°S—RЅS†S– R·RјS–RЅSЋRIR°R»RёSЃSЏ RїSЂRѕS‚SЏRiRѕRј SЂRѕRyeS–RI RќRµR·R°R»RµR¶RЅRѕSЃS‚S–? R§RѕRјSѓ RјRё RIRїSЂRёS‚SѓR» RЅRµ RїRѕRјS–S‡R°S”RјRѕ, S‰Rѕ RЅR°SЃRїSЂR°RIRgS– RЈRyeSЂR°S—RЅR° vЂ” RЅRµ RЈRiR°RЅRgR°!?

RЈRyeSЂR°S—RЅSЃSЊRyeRёR№ RїR°SЂR°Rg Sѓ SЃS‚RѕR»RёS†S– R RѕSЃS–S—

RњSЂS–SЏ? RќS– vЂ“ S†Rµ RIR¶Rµ R±SѓR»Rѕ. R† RЅRµ RѕRgRёRЅ SЂR°R·. RџRѕR±SѓS‚SѓS” RgSѓRјRyeR°, S‰Rѕ RI RЅR°S€S–R№ S–SЃS‚RѕSЂS–S— RјR°R»Rѕ SЃRIS–S‚R»RёS… SЃS‚RѕSЂS–RЅRѕRye S– RїRµSЂRµRјRѕRi. R“SЂR°RЅRgS–RѕR·RЅRёR№ SѓRyeSЂR°S—RЅSЃSЊRyeRёR№ RIS–R№SЃSЊRyeRѕRIRёR№ RїR°SЂR°Rg RI SЃS‚RѕR»RёS†S– R RѕSЃS–S—: SЏRye S†Rµ R±SѓR»Rѕ?

RћRјRµR»SЏRЅ RљRѕRIS‡ vЂ” SЃRISЏS‰RµRЅRёRye, RїR°S‚SЂS–RѕS‚ S‚R° RїSЂR°RIRµRgRЅRёRye

"RљRѕRIS‡, SЏRyeRёR№ RgRѕSЃRyeRѕRЅR°R»Rѕ R·RЅR°RI RЅS–RјRµS†SЊRyeSѓ RјRѕRISѓ, RyeSЂRёRyeRЅSѓRI RgRѕ RЅS–RјRµS†SЊRyeRёS… SЃRѕR»RgR°S‚S–RI, S‰RѕR± RgRѕRїSѓSЃS‚RёR»Rё R№RѕRiRѕ RgRѕ SЃRёRЅR°RiRѕRiRё. RћSЃS‚R°RЅRЅS– RѕRЅS–RјS–R»Rё RIS–Rg R·RgRёRISѓRIR°RЅRЅSЏ S– RїSѓSЃS‚RёR»Rё R№RѕRiRѕ, R° RѕS‚RµS†SЊ RyeRёRЅSѓRISЃSЏ RIRёRЅRѕSЃRёS‚Rё R»SЋRgRµR№ S–R· RїR°R»R°SЋS‡RѕS— SЃRёRЅR°RiRѕRiRё. RЎRµSЂRµRg S–RЅS€RёS…, SЏRyeRёS… RISЂSЏS‚SѓRIR°RI Rѕ. RљRѕRIS‡, R±SѓRI SЂR°R±RёRЅ Rј. R‘RµR»R· RђR°SЂRѕRЅ R RѕRyeRµR°S…".