RЎRїRµS†RїSЂRѕRµRyeS‚

"RђSЂRiRѕRЅR°RIS‚Rё R’SЃRµSЃRIS–S‚Sѓ": SЏRye SѓRyeSЂR°S—RЅS†S– RїRѕR»RµS‚S–R»Rё RЅR° R’RµRЅRµSЂSѓ

80 SЂRѕRyeS–RI S‚RѕRјSѓ RIRёR№S€RѕRI RgSЂSѓRyeRѕRј RїRµSЂS€RёR№ RI SѓRyeSЂR°S—RЅSЃSЊRyeRёR№ R»S–S‚RµSЂR°S‚SѓSЂS– RЅR°SѓRyeRѕRIRѕ-S„R°RЅS‚R°SЃS‚RёS‡RЅRёR№ SЂRѕRјR°RЅ RїSЂRѕ RјS–R¶RїR»R°RЅRµS‚RЅS– RјR°RЅRgSЂRё. RљRЅRёRiR° R’RѕR»RѕRgRёRјRёSЂR° R’R»R°RgRyeR° RЅR°RgRёS…RЅSѓR»R° R±SЂR°S‚S–RI RЎS‚SЂSѓRiR°S†SЊRyeRёS… S– RџR°RIR»R° RџRѕRїRѕRIRёS‡R°. R’ RЇRїRѕRЅS–S— RIRёRgR°RЅR° S€S–SЃS‚SЊ SЂR°R·S–RI.

RЈ R¶RѕRIS‚RЅS– 1935 SЂRѕRyeSѓ RyeRёS—RISЃSЊRyeRёR№ S‡R°SЃRѕRїRёSЃ "R—RЅR°RЅRЅSЏ S‚R° RїSЂR°S†SЏ" R·R°RIRµSЂS€RёRI RїSѓR±R»S–RyeR°S†S–SЋ S„R°RЅS‚R°SЃS‚RёS‡RЅRѕRiRѕ SЂRѕRјR°RЅSѓ R’RѕR»RѕRgRёRјRёSЂR° R’R»R°RgRyeR° "RђSЂRiRѕRЅR°RIS‚Rё R’SЃRµSЃRIS–S‚Sѓ".

RўRIS–SЂ RїSЂRѕ RyeRѕSЃRјS–S‡RЅSѓ RµRyeSЃRїRµRgRёS†S–SЋ RЅR° R’RµRЅRµSЂSѓ RgSЂSѓRyeSѓRIR°RISЃSЏ S‡R°SЃS‚RёRЅR°RјRё RїSЂRѕS‚SЏRiRѕRј RgRµSЃSЏS‚Rё RјS–SЃSЏS†S–RI.

R R°R· RЅR° RgRIR° S‚RёR¶RЅS– S‡RёS‚R°S‡S– "RЅR°SѓRyeRѕRIRѕ-S‚RµS…RЅS–S‡RЅRѕRiRѕ R¶SѓSЂRЅR°R»Sѓ RgR»SЏ RїS–RѕRЅRµSЂS–RI S– S€RyeRѕR»SЏSЂS–RI" RgS–SЃS‚R°RIR°R»Rё S‡RµSЂRiRѕRIRµ S‡RёSЃR»Rѕ S– SЃS‚RµR¶RёR»Rё R·R° RїSЂRёRiRѕRgR°RјRё S‚SЂSЊRѕS… RјS–R¶RїR»R°RЅRµS‚RЅRёS… RјR°RЅRgSЂS–RIRЅRёRyeS–RI – RyeRµSЂS–RIRЅRёRyeR° RµRyeSЃRїRµRgRёS†S–S— SЃRёRIRѕS‡RѕR»RѕRiRѕ R°RyeR°RgRµRјS–RyeR° RњRёRyeRѕR»Rё R RёRЅRgS–RЅR° S‚R° R№RѕRiRѕ RјRѕR»RѕRgRёS… RyeRѕR»RµRi R’R°RgRёRјR° RЎRѕRyeRѕR»R° S‚R° R‘RѕSЂRёSЃR° R“SѓSЂRѕ.

R’R¶Rµ RїS–Rg S‡R°SЃ RїSѓR±R»S–RyeR°S†S–S— SЂRѕRјR°RЅ RIRёRyeR»RёRyeR°RI S‚R°RyeRёR№ S–RЅS‚RµSЂRµSЃ, S‰Rѕ RIRёRgR°RIRЅRёS†S‚RIRѕ "R”RёS‚RIRёRgR°RI" S‚RµSЂRјS–RЅRѕRIRѕ SѓRyeR»R°R»Rѕ R· 34-SЂS–S‡RЅRёRј R°RIS‚RѕSЂRѕRј SѓRiRѕRgSѓ.

RљRЅRёR¶RyeR° R·SЏRIRёR»R°SЃSЏ RѕRgSЂR°R·Sѓ RїRѕ R·R°RyeS–RЅS‡RµRЅRЅS– R¶SѓSЂRЅR°R»SЊRЅRѕS— RїSѓR±R»S–RyeR°S†S–S— – RIRµR»RёRyeRёRј RЅR°RyeR»R°RgRѕRј Sѓ 20 S‚RёSЃSЏS‡.

RџRµSЂS€Rµ RIRёRgR°RЅRЅSЏ "RђSЂRiRѕRЅR°RIS‚S–RI...", 1935 SЂS–Rye

R”R»SЏ RїRѕSЂS–RIRЅSЏRЅRЅSЏ: SЃRµSЂRµRgRЅS–R№ RЅR°RyeR»R°Rg SѓRyeSЂR°S—RЅSЃSЊRyeRѕS— RyeRЅRёR¶RyeRё SЃRyeR»R°RgR°RI Sѓ S‚S– S‡R°SЃRё 7,5 S‚RёSЃ., R° RїRѕRїSѓR»SЏSЂRЅRёR№ S„R°RЅS‚R°SЃS‚RёS‡RЅRёR№ SЂRѕRјR°RЅ R®SЂS–SЏ RЎRјRѕR»RёS‡R° "R“RѕSЃRїRѕRgR°SЂSЃS‚RIRѕ RgRѕRyeS‚RѕSЂR° R“R°R»SЊRIR°RЅRµSЃRyeSѓ", RIRёRgR°RЅRёR№ RyeS–R»SЊRyeRѕRјR° SЂRѕRyeR°RјRё SЂR°RЅS–S€Rµ, RјR°RI 10 S‚RёSЃ. RїSЂRёRјS–SЂRЅRёRyeS–RI).

 "R†RgSѓS‚SЊ SЂRѕR±RѕS‚R°SЂS–" (1931) - RїRµSЂS€R° S…SѓRgRѕR¶RЅSЏ SЂRѕR±RѕS‚R° R’RѕR»RѕRgRёRјRёSЂR° R’R»R°RgRyeR°, RїS–R·RЅS–S€Rµ RIRёRgR°RIR°R»R°SЃSЏ RїS–Rg RЅR°R·RIRѕSЋ "R—R°R»S–R·RЅRёR№ R±SѓRЅS‚". RџSЂRѕ RїRѕRISЃS‚R°RЅRЅSЏ RјR°S€RёRЅ

R—R°S…RѕRїR»RµRЅRЅSЏ S‡RёS‚R°S‡S–RI R·SЂRѕR·SѓRјS–R»Rµ.

R”RѕR±SЂRµ R·R°RyeSЂSѓS‡RµRЅRёR№ SЃSЋR¶RµS‚, RѕRїRѕRIS–RgSЊ RјS–SЃS‚RёS‚SЊ RyeSѓRїSѓ R°SЃS‚SЂRѕRЅRѕRјS–S‡RЅRёS… S†S–RyeR°RIRёRЅRѕRye, S‰Rµ R№ RµRyeR·RѕS‚RёS‡RЅRёR№ RјR°SЂS€SЂSѓS‚ RјS–R¶RїR»R°RЅRµS‚RЅRѕS— RµRyeSЃRїRµRgRёS†S–S— – RgRѕ R’RµRЅRµSЂRё (R·R°R·RIRёS‡R°R№ RїRёSЃSЊRјRµRЅRЅRёRyeRё "RIS–RgSЂSЏRgR¶R°R»Rё" RїRµSЂSЃRѕRЅR°R¶S–RI RЅR° RњS–SЃSЏS†SЊ R°R±Rѕ RЅR° RњR°SЂSЃ).

RџRµSЂS€Rµ RIRёRgR°RЅRЅSЏ "RђSЂRiRѕRЅR°RIS‚S–RI..." Sѓ RїRµSЂRµRyeR»R°RgS– SЂRѕSЃS–R№SЃSЊRyeRѕSЋ, 1939 SЂS–Rye

Rђ RiRѕR»RѕRIRЅRµ – 17-SЂS–S‡RЅRёR№ RїRµSЂSЃRѕRЅR°R¶ R’R°SЃRёR»SЊ R RёR¶RyeRѕ, SЏRyeRёR№ S‚R°S”RјRЅRѕ RїSЂRѕR±SЂR°RISЃSЏ Sѓ "RїRµSЂS€RёR№ Sѓ SЃRIS–S‚S– RїR°SЃR°R¶RёSЂSЃSЊRyeRёR№ R°SЃS‚SЂRѕRїR»R°RЅ" S– RI S‚R°RyeRёR№ SЃRїRѕSЃS–R± RgRѕR»SѓS‡RёRISЃSЏ RgRѕ S‚SЂSЊRѕS… R·RѕSЂRµRїR»R°RIS–RI.

R¦RµR№ SЋRЅR°Rye – RїRµSЂS€RёR№ SѓRyeSЂR°S—RЅSЃSЊRyeRёR№ "R»S–S‚RµSЂR°S‚SѓSЂRЅRёR№" RyeRѕSЃRјRѕRЅR°RIS‚.

R’RёRgR°RЅRЅSЏ 1947 SЂRѕRyeSѓ

RЎRIRѕS—Rј SѓSЃRїS–S…RѕRј SЂRѕRјR°RЅ R·R°RIRgSЏS‡SѓS” S‚R°RyeRѕR¶ S‚S–R№ RѕR±SЃS‚R°RIRёRЅS–, S‰Rѕ S” RїRµSЂS€RёRј RI SѓRyeSЂR°S—RЅSЃSЊRyeRёR№ R»S–S‚RµSЂR°S‚SѓSЂS– RIRµR»RёRyeRёRј S‚RIRѕSЂRѕRј RїSЂRѕ RїRѕR»S–S‚ RЅR° S–RЅS€S– RїR»R°RЅRµS‚Rё.

RЇRye S„R°RЅS‚R°SЃS‚ R’RѕR»RѕRgRёRјRёSЂ R’R»R°RgRyeRѕ RјR°RI RЅRµR°R±RёSЏRyeRёR№ RgR°SЂ RїRµSЂRµRgR±R°S‡RµRЅRЅSЏ. RћRgRёRЅ R· SЋRЅRёS… S‡RёS‚R°S‡S–RI "RђSЂRiRѕRЅR°RIS‚S–RI" – RџR°RIR»SѓSЃSЊ RџRѕRїRѕRIRёS‡ S–R· R‘S–R»RѕS†RµSЂRyeS–RISЃSЊRyeRѕRiRѕ SЂR°R№RѕRЅSѓ RЅR° RљRёS—RIS‰RёRЅS– – RїRµSЂRµRyeRѕRЅR°RISЃSЏ RI S†SЊRѕRјSѓ RЅR° RIR»R°SЃRЅRѕRјSѓ RgRѕSЃRIS–RgS–.

RЎS‚R°RIS€Rё RyeRѕSЃRјRѕRЅR°RIS‚RѕRј, RџRѕRїRѕRIRёS‡ R·S–R·RЅR°RISЃSЏ: "R”R»SЏ RјRµRЅRµ "RђSЂRiRѕRЅR°RIS‚Rё R’SЃRµSЃRIS–S‚Sѓ" – R±SѓRyeRIR°SЂ RyeRѕSЃRјRѕRЅR°RIS‚RёRyeRё. R’R¶Rµ RyeRѕR»Rё RїRѕR±SѓRIR°RI Sѓ RyeRѕSЃRјRѕSЃS–, R±SѓRI RїSЂRѕSЃS‚Rѕ RISЂR°R¶RµRЅRёR№, SЏRye RїRёSЃSЊRјRµRЅRЅRёRye S‚RѕS‡RЅRѕ SЃRїSЂRѕRiRЅRѕR·SѓRIR°RI SЃRёS‚SѓR°S†S–SЋ, RїRѕRISЏR·R°RЅSѓ R· RЅRµRIR°RiRѕRјS–SЃS‚SЋ".

R’RёRgR°RЅRЅSЏ 1956 SЂRѕRyeSѓ

R‘R°RiR°S‚Rѕ S‡RѕRiRѕ RїRёSЃSЊRјRµRЅRЅRёRye-S„R°RЅS‚R°SЃS‚ RїRµSЂRµRgR±R°S‡RёRI S– Sѓ RїRѕRїRµSЂRµRgRЅSЊRѕRјSѓ SЂRѕRјR°RЅS– "RђRµSЂRѕS‚RѕSЂRїRµRgRё RїRѕRIRµSЂS‚R°SЋS‚SЊ RЅR°R·R°Rg", RЅR°RgSЂSѓRyeRѕRIR°RЅRѕRјSѓ "R”RёS‚RIRёRgR°RIRѕRј" 1934 SЂRѕRyeSѓ.

RЈ RЅSЊRѕRјSѓ S‚R°RyeR° SЃRѕR±S– S”RISЂRѕRїRµR№SЃSЊRyeR° RyeSЂR°S—RЅR° (RЅR° RјR°R»SЋRЅRyeR°S… S—S— RIS–R№SЃSЊRyeRѕRIS– RїRѕRgR°RЅS– R·S– SЃRIR°SЃS‚RёRyeRѕSЋ RЅR° RѕRgSЏR·S–) R°S‚R°RyeSѓS” RЎR RЎR , RїSЂRёS‡RѕRјSѓ R±RѕRјR±R°SЂRgSѓRIR°R»SЊRЅRёRyeRё SЃRyeRёRgR°SЋS‚SЊ RїRµSЂS€S– R±RѕRјR±Rё Rѕ 4-S–R№ SЂR°RЅRyeSѓ (SЃR°RјRµ S‚R°Rye SЃS‚R°R»RѕSЃSЏ S‡RµSЂRµR· SЃS–Rј SЂRѕRyeS–RI – Sѓ S‡RµSЂRIRЅS– 1941-RiRѕ), R° SЃRµSЂRµRg RїRµSЂSЃRѕRЅR°R¶S–RI S” R»RµR№S‚RµRЅR°RЅS‚ R°RIS–R°S†S–S— R“R°RiR°SЂS–RЅ.

 

RќR°RyeR»R°Rg RyeRЅRёR¶RyeRё RIRёR»SѓS‡RёR»Rё R· RїSЂRѕRgR°R¶Sѓ S– R·RЅRёS‰RёR»Rё. R§RѕRјSѓ? R—R°R»RёS€RёR»RѕSЃSЏ S‚R°S”RјRЅRёS†RµSЋ.

R— 10 S‚RёSЃSЏS‡ RїSЂRёRјS–SЂRЅRёRyeS–RI RgRѕRЅRёRЅS– RIS†S–R»S–R»Rё R»RёS€Rµ RgRIR°: RI RќR°S†S–RѕRЅR°R»SЊRЅRѕRјSѓ RјSѓR·RµS— R»S–S‚RµSЂR°S‚SѓSЂRё RI RљRёS”RIS– S– RїSЂRёRIR°S‚RЅS–R№ RyeRѕR»RµRyeS†S–S— RI RGR°SЂRyeRѕRIS–.

R§RµSЂRiRѕRIRµ SЂRѕSЃS–R№SЃSЊRyeRµ RIRёRgR°RЅRЅSЏ, 1957 SЂS–Rye

R’R»R°SЃRЅRµ, S–SЃS‚RѕSЂS–SЏ R· RIRёR»SѓS‡RµRЅRЅSЏRј S‚RёSЂR°R¶Sѓ RIS–RgR±RёR»R°SЃSЏ RЅR° RgRѕR»S– "RђSЂRiRѕRЅR°RIS‚S–RI R’SЃRµSЃRIS–S‚Sѓ".

RџRёSЃSЊRјRµRЅRЅRёRye R·R°RIRµSЂS€RёRI S†RµR№ S‚RIS–SЂ 1933-RiRѕ. R–SѓSЂRЅR°R» "R—RЅR°RЅRЅSЏ S‚R° RїSЂR°S†SЏ" RѕRїRµSЂR°S‚RёRIRЅRѕ RїRѕRgR°RI R°RЅRѕRЅSЃ: RЅR°RgSЂSѓRyeSѓS”RјRѕ SЂRѕRјR°RЅ RЅR°SЃS‚SѓRїRЅRѕRiRѕ SЂRѕRyeSѓ. RџSЂRѕS‚Rµ S†RµRЅR·SѓSЂR° RЅRµ RyeRIR°RїRёR»R°SЃSЏ RgRѕR·RIRѕR»SЏS‚Rё RЅRѕRIRёR№ S‚RIS–SЂ R°RIS‚RѕSЂR°, RyeRЅRёRiSѓ SЏRyeRѕRiRѕ S‰RѕR№RЅRѕ R·R°R±RѕSЂRѕRЅRёR»Rё.

RЈ 1950-S… SЂRѕRyeR°S… "RђSЂRiRѕRЅR°RIS‚S–RI..." S‡SѓRgRѕRIRѕ RїSЂRѕS–R»SЋSЃS‚SЂSѓRIR°RI R“RµRѕSЂRiS–R№ RњR°R»R°RyeRѕRI - SЃS‚R°SЂS€RёR№ R±SЂR°S‚ RyeRёS—RISЃSЊRyeRѕRiRѕ RyeSЂR°S”R·RЅR°RIS†SЏ R”RјRёS‚SЂR° RњR°R»R°RyeRѕRIR°

R RµRgR°RyeS†S–SЏ "RїSЂRѕR±RёRIR°R»R°" SЂSѓRyeRѕRїRёSЃ S†S–R»RёR№ SЂS–Rye. R† RЅR°SЂRµS€S‚S– RїRѕS‡R°R»R° RgSЂSѓRyeSѓRIR°S‚Rё R· SЃS–S‡RЅSЏ 1935-RiRѕ.

RџS–SЃR»SЏ RѕRїSЂRёR»SЋRgRЅRµRЅRЅSЏ "RђSЂRiRѕRЅR°RIS‚S–RI" RїRёSЃSЊRјRµRЅRЅRёRye RyeS–R»SЊRyeR° SЂR°R·S–RI RgRѕRѕRїSЂR°S†SЊRѕRISѓRIR°RI SЃRIRѕS” S‚RIRѕSЂS–RЅRЅSЏ. RЁR»S–S„SѓRIR°RI SЃS‚RёR»S–SЃS‚RёRyeSѓ, RјRѕRgRµSЂRЅS–R·SѓRIR°RI RgS–R°R»RѕRiRё RїRµSЂSЃRѕRЅR°R¶S–RI – RIS–RgRїRѕRIS–RgRЅRѕ RgRѕ RЅRѕRIRёS… RgRѕSЃSЏRiRЅRµRЅSЊ RЅR°SѓRyeRё.

R’RёRgR°RЅRЅSЏ 1974 SЂRѕRyeSѓ

R’RёRgR°RЅRЅSЏ RIR¶Rµ 1956 SЂRѕRyeSѓ RјR°S” RїSЂRёRјS–S‚RyeSѓ: "R RѕRјR°RЅ Sѓ 1955 SЂRѕS†S– R·R°R·RЅR°RI T‘SЂSѓRЅS‚RѕRIRЅRѕS— RїRµSЂRµSЂRѕR±RyeRё Sѓ SЃRIS–S‚R»S– RЅRѕRIS–S‚RЅS–S… RЅR°SѓRyeRѕRIRёS… RgRѕSЃSЏRiRЅRµRЅSЊ, RIS–RЅ R·RЅR°S‡RЅRѕ RgRѕRїRѕRIRЅRµRЅRёR№, RIRIRµRgRµRЅS– RЅRѕRIS– RgS–R№RѕRIS– RѕSЃRѕR±Rё".

RћS†S– RЅRѕRIS– RїRµSЂSЃRѕRЅR°R¶S– – RЅR°SЃRїSЂR°RIRgS– RIS–RgS„RѕSЂRјR°S‚RѕRIR°RЅS– SЃS‚R°SЂS–: R‘RѕSЂRёSЃ R“SѓSЂRѕ RїRµSЂRµS‚RIRѕSЂRёRISЃSЏ RЅR° RyeRёS‚R°R№SЃSЊRyeRѕRiRѕ RїSЂRѕS„RµSЃRѕSЂR° R’R°RЅ R›SѓRЅR° (RI S‚RѕR№ S‡R°SЃ RgSЂSѓR¶R±R° R· RљRёS‚R°S”Rј – S‚SЂRµRЅRg SЂR°RgSЏRЅSЃSЊRyeRѕS— RїRѕR»S–S‚RёRyeRё), R° R’R°SЃRёR»SЊ R RёR¶RyeRѕ "R·RјS–RЅRёRI SЃS‚R°S‚SЊ" – SЃS‚R°RI SЃS‚SѓRgRµRЅS‚RyeRѕSЋ R“R°R»RёRЅRѕSЋ R RёR¶RyeRѕ.

RџSЂRёSЃSѓS‚RЅS–SЃS‚SЊ RgS–RIS‡RёRЅRё RgRѕRgR°R»R° RѕRїRѕRIS–RgS– S€R°SЂRјSѓ, S…RѕS‡R° R°RјSѓSЂRЅRѕS— R»S–RЅS–S— RI SЂRѕRјR°RЅS– RЅRµRјR°.

RЎS‚SЂSѓRiR°S†SЊRyeS– S‚RµR¶ RїRёSЃR°R»Rё RїSЂRѕ R±RѕSЂRѕS‚SЊR±Sѓ SЂR°RgSЏRЅSЃSЊRyeRёS… R»SЋRgRµR№ R· RIRµRЅRµSЂS–R°RЅSЃSЊRyeRѕSЋ SЃS‚RёS…S–S”SЋ, S‚S–R»SЊRyeRё R· R±S–R»SЊS€RёRј RїR°S„RѕSЃRѕRј. RћRgRЅR° R· S–R»SЋSЃS‚SЂR°S†S–R№ RgRѕ "RђSЂRiRѕRЅR°RIS‚S–RI" R“SЂRёRiRѕSЂS–SЏ RњRђR›RђRљRћR’Rђ

RћRЅRѕRIR»RµRЅS– "RђSЂRiRѕRЅR°RIS‚Rё" RgSЂSѓRyeSѓRIR°R»RёSЃSЏ R±RµR·R»S–S‡ SЂR°R·S–RI. RљR°R¶SѓS‚SЊ, RЅR°RIS–S‚SЊ SЃRїSЂRёS‡RёRЅRёR»Rё RїRѕSЏRISѓ RїRµSЂS€RѕS— RyeRЅRёRiRё RђSЂRyeR°RgS–SЏ S– R‘RѕSЂRёSЃR° RЎS‚SЂSѓRiR°S†SЊRyeRёS….

RџSЂRѕS‡RёS‚R°RIS€Rё S‚RIS–SЂ R’RѕR»RѕRgRёRјRёSЂR° R’R»R°RgRyeR° Sѓ SЂRѕSЃS–R№SЃSЊRyeRѕRјSѓ RїRµSЂRµRyeR»R°RgS–, R±SЂR°S‚Rё SЂRѕR·RyeSЂRёS‚RёRyeSѓRIR°R»Rё SЂRѕRјR°RЅ. RGS‚RѕSЃSЊ R·R°SѓRIR°R¶RёRI: RyeSЂRёS‚RёRyeSѓRIR°S‚Rё R»R°RgRЅS– SѓSЃS–, R° RЅR°RїRёSЃR°S‚Rё RyeSЂR°S‰Rµ – RЅS–S…S‚Rѕ.

1957 SЂRѕRyeSѓ RЎS‚SЂSѓRiR°S†SЊRyeS– SЃS‚RIRѕSЂRёR»Rё RIR»R°SЃRЅRёR№ RIR°SЂS–R°RЅS‚ RµRyeSЃRїRµRgRёS†S–S— RЅR° R’RµRЅRµSЂSѓ – RїRѕRIS–SЃS‚SЊ "RљSЂR°S—RЅR° R±R°RiSЂSЏRЅRёS… S…RјR°SЂ". RўR°Rye RїRѕS‡R°R»R°SЃSЏ R»S–S‚RµSЂR°S‚SѓSЂRЅR° SЃR»R°RIR° RIS–RgRѕRјRѕRiRѕ RgSѓRµS‚Sѓ.

RќR°SЃRїSЂR°RIRgS– S‚RµRјRїRµSЂR°S‚SѓSЂR° RЅR° RїRѕRIRµSЂS…RЅS– R’RµRЅRµSЂRё SЃRyeR»R°RgR°S” 460 RiSЂR°RgSѓSЃS–RI R·R° S€RyeR°R»RѕSЋ R¦RµR»SЊSЃS–SЏ (RїSЂRёS‡RёRЅR° - RїR°SЂRЅRёRyeRѕRIRёR№ RµS„RµRyeS‚). RџRµR№R·R°R¶ - RїSѓSЃS‚RµR»SЏ R· RIRёSЃS‚RёRiR»RёS… RїRѕS‚RѕRyeS–RI R»R°RIRё (90% RїRѕRIRµSЂS…RЅS–), SЂRµRiSѓR»SЏSЂRЅR° RISѓR»RyeR°RЅS–S‡RЅR° R°RyeS‚RёRIRЅS–SЃS‚SЊ R·S– SЃRIS–R¶RёRјRё RїRѕS‚RѕRyeR°RјRё R»R°RIRё. R—RѕR±SЂR°R¶RµRЅRЅSЏ: R“RµRѕR»RѕRiS–S‡RЅR° SЃR»SѓR¶R±R° RЎRЁRђ, RЅR° RѕSЃRЅRѕRIS– SЂR°RgS–RѕR»RѕRyeR°S†S–R№RЅRёS… RgR°RЅRёS… RјS–R¶RїR»R°RЅRµS‚RЅRѕS— SЃS‚R°RЅS†S–S— "RњR°RiRµR»R»R°RЅ"

"RђSЂRiRѕRЅR°RIS‚Rё R’SЃRµSЃRIS–S‚Sѓ" RЅRµ RIS‚SЂR°S‚RёR»Rё R°RyeS‚SѓR°R»SЊRЅRѕSЃS‚S– RїS–R·RЅS–S€Rµ, RyeRѕR»Rё RЅR°SЃS‚R°R»R° RµSЂR° SЃRїSЂR°RIR¶RЅS–S…, R° RЅRµ R»RёS€Rµ R»S–S‚RµSЂR°S‚SѓSЂRЅRёS… RїRѕR»SЊRѕS‚S–RI Sѓ RyeRѕSЃRјRѕSЃ.

R RѕRјR°RЅ RїRµSЂRµRIRёRgR°RIR°RISЃSЏ R№ RїS–SЃR»SЏ SЃRјRµSЂS‚S– R°RIS‚RѕSЂR° 1974 SЂRѕRyeSѓ.

R’RѕR»RѕRgRёRјRёSЂ R„SЂRµRјS‡RµRЅRyeRѕ (1900-1974). R’R»R°RgRyeRѕ - R»S–S‚RµSЂR°S‚SѓSЂRЅRёR№ RїSЃRµRIRgRѕRЅS–Rј R°RIS‚RѕSЂR°

RќR° S†SЊRѕRјSѓ S‚RIRѕSЂS– RIRёSЂRѕSЃR»Rѕ RyeS–R»SЊRyeR° RїRѕRyeRѕR»S–RЅSЊ S‡RёS‚R°S‡S–RI RI RЈRyeSЂR°S—RЅS– S‚R° RgR°R»RµRyeRѕ R·R° S—S— RјRµR¶R°RјRё – RyeRЅRёRiR° RїRµSЂRµRyeR»R°RgRµRЅR° R±R°RiR°S‚SЊRјR° RјRѕRIR°RјRё SЃRIS–S‚Sѓ.

RЎRµSЂR±SЃSЊRyeRёR№ RїRµSЂRµRyeR»R°Rg, RIRёRgR°RЅRЅSЏ 1959 SЂRѕRyeSѓ. RћSЃRѕR±R»RёRIRѕ S„R°RЅR°S‚S–R»Rё RIS–Rg "RђSЂRiRѕRЅR°RIS‚S–RI..." Sѓ RЇRїRѕRЅS–S—, SЏRїRѕRЅSЃSЊRyeRѕSЋ RјRѕRIRѕSЋ RyeRЅRёRiR° RIRёS…RѕRgRёR»R° S€S–SЃS‚SЊ SЂR°R·S–RI

RќRёRЅS– "SѓRyeSЂR°S—RЅSЃSЊRyeRёR№ R–SѓR»SЊ R’RµSЂRЅ" (S‚RёS‚SѓR» R’RѕR»RѕRgRёRјRёSЂR° R’R»R°RgRyeR° R·R° R¶RёS‚S‚SЏ) RјR°R№R¶Rµ R·R°R±SѓS‚RёR№.

"RђSЂRiRѕRЅR°RIS‚Rё R’SЃRµSЃRIS–S‚Sѓ" RIRѕSЃS‚R°RЅRЅS” RgSЂSѓRyeSѓRIR°R»RёSЃSЏ SѓRyeSЂR°S—RЅSЃSЊRyeRѕSЋ RјRѕRIRѕSЋ 1990 SЂRѕRyeSѓ.

RђRIS‚RѕSЂ: RЎS‚R°RЅS–SЃR»R°RI R¦RђR›R?Rљ (RљRёS—RI)
R”R¶RµSЂRµR»Rѕ: R‘R»RѕRiRё R‘S–-R‘S–-RЎS–

RўRђRљRћR–:

"R“RѕR±S–S‚" - RїRµSЂS€RёR№ RїRµSЂRµRyeR»R°Rg RўRѕR»RyeS–RЅR° RI RЈRyeSЂR°S—RЅS–

R¤S–R»SЊRј RїSЂRѕ R°S‚R°RyeSѓ RЅR°S†RёSЃS‚S–RI R· RњS–SЃSЏS†SЏ SЃS‚R°RI S…S–S‚RѕRј. R’R†R”R•Rћ

RћR±RyeR»R°RgRёRЅRyeRё SЂR°RЅRЅS–S… RIRёRgR°RЅSЊ R’SЃRµRIRѕR»RѕRgR° RќRµSЃS‚R°R№RyeR°. RЎRљRђRќR?

R–SѓSЂRЅR°R» "R’SЃRµSЃRIS–S‚". R R°SЂRёS‚RµS‚RЅS– RѕR±RyeR»R°RgRёRЅRyeRё XX SЃS‚RѕSЂS–S‡S‡SЏ. RЎRљRђRќR?

R¤SѓS‚SѓSЂRёSЃS‚ S– R±S–S‚RЅRёRye. RџRѕRµS‚-RgSЂSѓRi RЎRµRјRµRЅRyeR° RЅRµ SЂRѕR·RyeR°SЏRISЃSЏ RїS–SЃR»SЏ R“RЈR›RђR“Sѓ

RЈRyeSЂR°S—RЅRѕ RЅR°S€R° RyeRѕSЃRјS–S‡RЅR°. R†SЃS‚RѕSЂS–SЏ RiR°R»SѓR·S– RIS–Rg RљRёR±R°R»SЊS‡RёS‡R° RgRѕ "RњRѕSЂSЃSЊRyeRѕRiRѕ SЃS‚R°SЂS‚Sѓ"

NASA RIRёRyeR»R°R»R° RI S–RЅS‚RµSЂRЅRµS‚ SѓRIRµSЃSЊ S„RѕS‚RѕR°SЂS…S–RI R· RIRёSЃR°RgRyeRё RЅR° RњS–SЃSЏS†SЊ. R¤RћRўRћ

RљRЅRёRiRѕRIRёRgR°RЅRЅSЏ RI RЈR RЎR . RЎRyeS–R»SЊRyeRё SЂRѕSЃS–R№SЃSЊRyeRѕSЋ S– SѓRyeSЂR°S—RЅSЃSЊRyeRѕSЋ. RЎRўRђRўR?RЎRўR?RљRђ

RњSѓR·RµR№ RyeRѕSЃRјRѕRЅR°RIS‚RёRyeRё RI R–RёS‚RѕRјRёSЂS– - RЅR° R±R°S‚SЊRyeS–RIS‰RёRЅS– RљRѕSЂRѕR»SЊRѕRIR°. R¤RћRўRћ

200 SЂRѕRyeS–RI S‚RѕRјSѓ RIRёR№S€R»Rё "RљR°R·RyeRё" R±SЂR°S‚S–RI TђSЂS–RјRј. RЇRye S†Rµ R±SѓR»Rѕ

RџR°RIR»Rѕ RџRѕRїRѕRIRёS‡. RџRµSЂS€RёR№ SѓRyeSЂR°S—RЅRµS†SЊ Sѓ RyeRѕSЃRјRѕSЃS–

R†RЅS€Rµ R·R° S‚RµRјRѕSЋ "RљRћRЎRњRћRќRђR’RўR?RљRђ"

R†RЅS€Rµ R·R° S‚RµRјRѕSЋ "R›R†RўR•R RђRўRЈR Rђ"

R†RЅS€Rµ R·R° S‚RµRјRѕSЋ "R”R†RўR?"

100 RyeRЅRёRi RќRµR·R°R»RµR¶RЅRѕSЃS‚S–. "R†SЃS‚RѕSЂRёS‡RЅR° RїSЂR°RIRgR°" SЂRµRyeRѕRјRµRЅRgSѓS”

RџRµSЂRµR»S–Rye RIRёRgR°RЅSЊ, SЏRyeS– RIRёR№S€R»Rё R·R° S‡R°SЃS–RI RЅRµR·R°R»RµR¶RЅRѕSЃS‚S– S– SЏRyeS– RgR°SЋS‚SЊ RјRѕR¶R»RёRIS–SЃS‚SЊ RїS–R·RЅR°S‚Rё S–SЃS‚RѕSЂS–SЋ RЈRyeSЂR°S—RЅRё, R„RISЂRѕRїRё, RЅR°S€RёS… SЃSѓSЃS–RgS–RI, RѕRyeSЂRµRјRёS… R»SЋRgRµR№ S– SЏRIRёS‰. R† SЏRyeS– SЂRѕR±R»SЏS‚SЊ S†Rµ R· SЂS–R·RЅRёS… RїRµSЂSЃRїRµRyeS‚RёRI. RџRµRIRЅS–, S‰Rѕ S‡R°SЃ, RIRёS‚SЂR°S‡RµRЅRёR№ RЅR° S‡RёS‚R°RЅRЅSЏ RЅRµ R±SѓRgRµ RIS‚SЂR°S‡RµRЅRёRј.

RЈRyeSЂR°S—RЅS†S–. RќR°R№RЅRµS‰R°SЃR»RёRIS–S€R° RЅR°S†S–SЏ S‡RѕS‚RёSЂSЊRѕS… RyeRѕRЅS‚RёRЅRµRЅS‚S–RI

RЈRyeSЂR°S—RЅS†S– vЂ” RЅR°R№RЅRµS‰R°SЃR»RёRIS–S€R° RЅR°S†S–SЏ R„RISЂRѕRїRё, RѕR±RѕS… RђRјRµSЂRёRye S‚R° RђRISЃS‚SЂR°R»S–S—. RўR°RyeRёRј S” RїS–RgSЃSѓRјRѕRye RЅR°S€RѕRiRѕ SЂRѕR·RIRёS‚RyeSѓ RЅR°RїRµSЂRµRgRѕRgRЅS– 28-S— SЂS–S‡RЅRёS†S– RќRµR·R°R»RµR¶RЅRѕSЃS‚Rё. RЇRye SѓRyeSЂR°S—RЅS†S– R·RјS–RЅSЋRIR°R»RёSЃSЏ RїSЂRѕS‚SЏRiRѕRј SЂRѕRyeS–RI RќRµR·R°R»RµR¶RЅRѕSЃS‚S–? R§RѕRјSѓ RјRё RIRїSЂRёS‚SѓR» RЅRµ RїRѕRјS–S‡R°S”RјRѕ, S‰Rѕ RЅR°SЃRїSЂR°RIRgS– RЈRyeSЂR°S—RЅR° vЂ” RЅRµ RЈRiR°RЅRgR°!?

RЈRyeSЂR°S—RЅSЃSЊRyeRёR№ RїR°SЂR°Rg Sѓ SЃS‚RѕR»RёS†S– R RѕSЃS–S—

RњSЂS–SЏ? RќS– vЂ“ S†Rµ RIR¶Rµ R±SѓR»Rѕ. R† RЅRµ RѕRgRёRЅ SЂR°R·. RџRѕR±SѓS‚SѓS” RgSѓRјRyeR°, S‰Rѕ RI RЅR°S€S–R№ S–SЃS‚RѕSЂS–S— RјR°R»Rѕ SЃRIS–S‚R»RёS… SЃS‚RѕSЂS–RЅRѕRye S– RїRµSЂRµRјRѕRi. R“SЂR°RЅRgS–RѕR·RЅRёR№ SѓRyeSЂR°S—RЅSЃSЊRyeRёR№ RIS–R№SЃSЊRyeRѕRIRёR№ RїR°SЂR°Rg RI SЃS‚RѕR»RёS†S– R RѕSЃS–S—: SЏRye S†Rµ R±SѓR»Rѕ?

RћRјRµR»SЏRЅ RљRѕRIS‡ vЂ” SЃRISЏS‰RµRЅRёRye, RїR°S‚SЂS–RѕS‚ S‚R° RїSЂR°RIRµRgRЅRёRye

"RљRѕRIS‡, SЏRyeRёR№ RgRѕSЃRyeRѕRЅR°R»Rѕ R·RЅR°RI RЅS–RјRµS†SЊRyeSѓ RјRѕRISѓ, RyeSЂRёRyeRЅSѓRI RgRѕ RЅS–RјRµS†SЊRyeRёS… SЃRѕR»RgR°S‚S–RI, S‰RѕR± RgRѕRїSѓSЃS‚RёR»Rё R№RѕRiRѕ RgRѕ SЃRёRЅR°RiRѕRiRё. RћSЃS‚R°RЅRЅS– RѕRЅS–RјS–R»Rё RIS–Rg R·RgRёRISѓRIR°RЅRЅSЏ S– RїSѓSЃS‚RёR»Rё R№RѕRiRѕ, R° RѕS‚RµS†SЊ RyeRёRЅSѓRISЃSЏ RIRёRЅRѕSЃRёS‚Rё R»SЋRgRµR№ S–R· RїR°R»R°SЋS‡RѕS— SЃRёRЅR°RiRѕRiRё. RЎRµSЂRµRg S–RЅS€RёS…, SЏRyeRёS… RISЂSЏS‚SѓRIR°RI Rѕ. RљRѕRIS‡, R±SѓRI SЂR°R±RёRЅ Rј. R‘RµR»R· RђR°SЂRѕRЅ R RѕRyeRµR°S…".