RќRµRїRѕRјS–S‡RµRЅR° SЂRµRIRѕR»SЋS†S–SЏ. R§Rё R·SЂRѕR±RёR»R° RџRѕR»S‚R°RIR° RЁRIRµS†S–SЋ RIS–R»SЊRЅRѕSЋ

RџSЂRѕ RїSЂR°RIR° S– SЃRIRѕR±RѕRgRё SЃS‚R°RЅS–RI RЅR° SЃRIRѕS—R№ R±R°S‚SЊRyeS–RIS‰RёRЅS– RљR°SЂR» RGR†R† S– S‡SѓS‚Rё RЅRµ S…RѕS‚S–RI. R RѕR·RiSЂRѕRј RїS–Rg RџRѕR»S‚R°RIRѕSЋ RЅRµ R»RёS€Rµ RЅRµ R·SЂRѕR±RёRI R№RѕRiRѕ RїRѕSЃS‚SѓRїR»RёRIS–S€RёRј RI S†SЊRѕRјSѓ RїRёS‚R°RЅRЅS–. RќR°RIRїR°RyeRё RIS–RЅ RїSЂR°RiRЅSѓRI S‰Rµ R±S–R»SЊS€RѕS— RyeRѕRЅS†RµRЅS‚SЂR°S†S–S— RIR»R°RgRё. RЇRyeS‰Rѕ RџRѕR»S‚R°RIR° S– SЃRїSЂR°RIRgS– S‰RѕSЃSЊ R·RјS–RЅRёR»R° Sѓ RЁRIRµS†S–S—, S‚R°Rye S†Rµ RЅR°SЃS‚SЂRѕS— SЃR°RјRёS… SЃS‚R°RЅS–RI. RџSЂRѕ RЅRµRѕR±S…S–RgRЅS–SЃS‚SЊ RѕR±RјRµR¶RµRЅRЅSЏ RyeRѕSЂRѕR»S–RISЃSЊRyeRѕS— SЃRIR°RIRѕR»S– RЅR° RѕRgRЅS–R№ R· RїR°SЂR»R°RјRµRЅS‚SЃSЊRyeRёS… RyeRѕRјS–SЃS–R№ R·R°RiRѕRIRѕSЂRёR»Rё RIR¶Rµ RI 1710 SЂRѕS†S–.

R—R° SЂR°RgSЏRЅSЃSЊRyeRёS… S‡R°SЃS–RI S€RyeRѕR»SЏSЂS–RI S– SЃS‚SѓRgRµRЅS‚S–RI – Sѓ SЃSѓRIRѕSЂS–R№ RIS–RgRїRѕRIS–RgRЅRѕSЃS‚S– RgRѕ RЅR°SЃS‚R°RЅRѕRI "S”RgRёRЅRѕ RїSЂR°RIRёR»SЊRЅRѕRiRѕ RIS‡RµRЅRЅSЏ" - RїSЂRёRIS‡R°R»Rё R±R°S‡RёS‚Rё RI S–SЃS‚RѕSЂS–S— SЃSѓS†S–R»SЊRЅSѓ RyeR»R°SЃRѕRISѓ R±RѕSЂRѕS‚SЊR±Sѓ, RїRѕRISЃS‚R°RЅRЅSЏ RїSЂRёRiRЅRѕR±R»RµRЅRёS… S‚R° RyeSЂRёRIR°RIS– SЂRµRIRѕR»SЋS†S–S—.

RђR»Rµ S†S–RyeR°RIRѕ, S‰Rѕ RїSЂRё S†SЊRѕRјSѓ RїS–RgSЂSѓS‡RЅRёRyeRё RgRѕSЃRёS‚SЊ RgRѕRyeR»R°RgRЅRѕ SЂRѕR·RїRѕRIS–RgR°R»Rё RїSЂRѕ RђRЅRiR»S–R№SЃSЊRyeSѓ S– R¤SЂR°RЅS†SѓR·SЊRyeSѓ SЂRµRIRѕR»SЋS†S–S—, RїSЂRѕ RђRјRµSЂRёRyeR°RЅSЃSЊRyeSѓ RIS–R№RЅSѓ R·R° RќRµR·R°R»RµR¶RЅS–SЃS‚SЊ S– RЅR°RIS–S‚SЊ RїSЂRѕ R·RIS–R»SЊRЅRµRЅRЅSЏ RќS–RgRµSЂR»R°RЅRgS–RI RIS–Rg S–SЃRїR°RЅSЃSЊRyeRѕS— RIR»R°RgRё, RїSЂRѕS‚Rµ R°RЅS– SЃR»RѕRIRѕRј RЅRµ RїRѕRIS–RgRѕRјR»SЏR»Rё RїSЂRѕ SЃRїSЂR°RIRgS– SЂRµRIRѕR»SЋS†S–R№RЅS– R·RјS–RЅRё, SЏRyeS– RIS–RgR±SѓRIR°R»RёSЃSЏ RјR°R№R¶Rµ RI S‚RѕR№ SЃR°RјRёR№, "SЂR°RЅRЅSЊRѕRјRѕRgRµSЂRЅRёR№" S‡R°SЃ, SЃRyeR°R¶S–RјRѕ, Sѓ RЁRIRµS†S–S—.

RњRѕR¶Rµ S‚RѕRјSѓ, S‰Rѕ RЅRµ RIRїRёSЃSѓRIR°R»RёSЃSЏ S‚S– RїRѕRgS–S— RI SЃS†RµRЅR°SЂS–S—, R·RIRёS‡RЅS– RgR»SЏ R±S–R»SЊS€RѕRIRёRyeS–RI, RЅRµ SЃSѓRїSЂRѕRIRѕRgR¶SѓRIR°R»RёSЃSЏ RIS–RgS‡R°R№RgSѓS€RЅRёRјRё RyeR»R°SЃRѕRIRёRјRё R±RѕSЏRјRё, RIRёSЃS‚SѓRїR°RјRё RЅR°SЂRѕRgRЅRёS… RIR°S‚R°R¶RyeS–RI S– SЃS‚SЂR°S‚R°RјRё RyeRѕSЂRѕR»S–RI. RўR° R№ "SЃRyeR°RЅRgRёRЅR°RISЃSЊRyeS– SЃRIRѕR±RѕRgRё", RIRѕS‡RµRIRёRgSЊ, RЅRµ RIRIR°R¶R°R»Rё RїRѕ S–RЅS€RёR№ R±S–Rye "R·R°R»S–R·RЅRѕS— R·R°RIS–SЃRё" RїSЂRёRyeR»R°RgRѕRј,RiS–RgRЅRёRј RgR»SЏ RЅR°SЃR»S–RgSѓRIR°RЅRЅSЏ.

 

RЁRIRµS†S–SЏ S– RїSЂRёS”RgRЅR°RЅS– RgRѕ RЅRµS— R·RµRјR»S– RI XVII SЃS‚RѕSЂS–S‡S‡S–
RЁRIRµS†S–SЏ S– RїSЂRёS”RgRЅR°RЅS– RgRѕ RЅRµS— R·RµRјR»S– RI XVII SЃS‚RѕSЂS–S‡S‡S–

RџSЂRѕ "S€RIRµRgSЃSЊRyeRёR№ S€R»SЏS…" S€RIRёRgS€Rµ RјRѕR¶RЅR° R±SѓR»Rѕ RgS–R·RЅR°S‚RёSЃSЏ R· RїRѕRїSѓR»SЏSЂRЅRёS… "RyeSЂR°S”R·RЅR°RIS‡RёS…" R¶SѓSЂRЅR°R»S–RI RЅR° RyeS€S‚R°R»S‚ "R’RѕRyeSЂSѓ RiSЃRIRµS‚R°". RђR±Rѕ R· S‚R°RyeRѕRiRѕ R¶ S‚RёRїSѓ RyeRЅRёR¶RѕRye, SЏRyeS– RgR»SЏ RјRµS€RyeR°RЅS†S–RI RЎR RЎR  RїRёSЃR°R»Rё R·R°RyeRѕSЂRgRѕRЅRЅS– RyeRѕSЂRµSЃRїRѕRЅRgRµRЅS‚Rё SЂR°RgSЏRЅSЃSЊRyeRѕRiRѕ S‚RµR»RµR±R°S‡RµRЅRЅSЏ.

R— RЅRёS… RgRµS…S‚Rѕ RјS–Ri RЅR°RIS–S‚SЊ RїRѕS‡SѓS‚Rё, S‰Rѕ RЁRIRµS†S–SЏ RЅS–R±RёS‚Rѕ R·RјS–RЅRёR»R°SЃSЏ RgRѕ RЅRµRIRїS–R·RЅR°RIR°RЅRѕSЃS‚S– R»RёS€Rµ RїS–SЃR»SЏ S‚RѕRiRѕ, SЏRye RљR°SЂR» XII R·R°R·RЅR°RI RїRѕSЂR°R·RyeRё RїS–Rg RџRѕR»S‚R°RIRѕSЋ. RћS‚ S– RIRёS…RѕRgRёR»Rѕ, S‰Rѕ S€RIRµRgRё RјR°R»Rё S‰Rµ R№ RgSЏRyeSѓRIR°S‚Rё RџRµS‚SЂSѓ R† R·R° SЂRѕR·RiSЂRѕRј.

RЎS‚RѕRyeRiRѕR»SЊRј RЅR° RїRѕS‡R°S‚RyeSѓ XVIII SЃS‚RѕSЂS–S‡S‡SЏ
RЎS‚RѕRyeRiRѕR»SЊRј RЅR° RїRѕS‡R°S‚RyeSѓ XVIII SЃS‚RѕSЂS–S‡S‡SЏ

R©RѕR± R·SЂRѕR·SѓRјS–S‚Rё, S‡Rё RјR°S” S†SЏ RIRµSЂSЃS–SЏ S…RѕS‡ SЏRyeS–R№SЃSЊ RїS–RgSЃS‚R°RIRё, R°R±Rѕ R¶ R№RgRµS‚SЊSЃSЏ RїSЂRѕ S‡RµSЂRiRѕRISѓ R»RµRiRµRЅRgSѓ, RIR°SЂS‚Rѕ S‚SЂRѕS…Rё RIS–RgSЃS‚SѓRїRёS‚Rё Sѓ RјRёRЅSѓR»Rµ. RЁRIRµS†S–SЏ RyeS–RЅS†SЏ XVII SЃS‚RѕSЂS–S‡S‡SЏ RЅR°SЃRїSЂR°RIRgS– RјR°R»Rѕ RЅR°RiR°RgSѓRIR°R»R° SЃSЊRѕRiRѕRgRЅS–S€RЅSЋ.

R† R±SѓR»R° RјR°R»Rѕ RЅRµ R·SЂR°R·RyeRѕRIRѕSЋ R°R±SЃRѕR»SЋS‚RЅRѕSЋ RјRѕRЅR°SЂS…S–S”SЋ. R’R»R°SЃRЅRµ, SЃR°RјRµ S‚RѕRјSѓ RЅRµSЋ S‚R°Rye R·R°S…RѕRїR»SЋRIR°R»RёSЃSЊ S– R“RѕS‚S„SЂS–Rg R›RµR№R±RЅS–S†, S– RIR¶Rµ R·R°RiR°RgR°RЅRёR№ S†R°SЂ RџRµS‚SЂRѕ (SЏRyeRёR№ S–R· R·R°RIR·SЏS‚S–SЃS‚SЋ SѓS‡RЅSЏ RЅR°SЃRїSЂR°RIRgS– R·R°RїSЂRѕRIR°RgR¶SѓRIR°RI RI SЃRIRѕS—R№ RgRµSЂR¶R°RIS– SЃR°RјRµ "S€RIRµRgSЃSЊRyeS–" RїRѕSЂSЏRgRyeRё – S‚R°Rye, R·RIS–SЃRЅRѕ, SЏRye RIS–RЅ SЂRѕR·SѓRјS–RI S—S… SЃR°Rј – Rћ.Rњ.).

RЈSЃS– SЃRµSЂRµRgRЅSЊRѕRIS–S‡RЅS– RIRѕR»SЊRЅRѕSЃS‚S– S€RIRµRgSЃSЊRyeRѕS— S€R»SЏS…S‚Rё S‚R° RјS–SЃSЊRyeRёS… RiSЂRѕRјR°Rg R±SѓR»Rё RѕSЃS‚R°S‚RѕS‡RЅRѕ SЃRyeR°SЃRѕRIR°RЅS– R·R° RїSЂR°RIR»S–RЅRЅSЏ RљR°SЂR»R° XI, SЏRyeRѕRјSѓ RїSЂRµRgSЃS‚R°RIRЅRёRyeRё SЃS‚R°RЅS–RI S†S–R»RyeRѕRј RgRѕR±SЂRѕRIS–R»SЊRЅRѕ RIS–RgRgR°R»Rё SѓSЃSЋ RїRѕRIRЅRѕS‚Sѓ RIR»R°RgRё – SЏRye R·R° RgRѕR±Rё RIS–R№RЅRё, S‚R°Rye S– RI RјRёSЂRЅRёR№ S‡R°SЃ.

R’ 1680 SЂRѕS†S– SЂRёRyeSЃRgR°Ri – RїR°SЂR»R°RјRµRЅS‚ RЁRIRµS†S–S— – RѕS„S–S†S–R№RЅRѕ RїSЂRѕRiRѕR»RѕSЃRёRI, S‰Rѕ RyeRѕSЂRѕR»SЊ RЅRµ R·RISЏR·R°RЅRёR№ RI SЃRIRѕS—S… RgS–SЏS… R¶RѕRgRЅRёRјRё R·R°RyeRѕRЅR°RјRё S‡Rё SЂS–S€RµRЅRЅSЏRјRё SѓSЂSЏRgSѓ S– SЋSЂRёRgRёS‡RЅRѕ RЅRµ RIS–RgRїRѕRIS–RgR°S” R·R° RЅRёS… RЅS– RїRµSЂRµRg RyeRёRј, RѕRyeSЂS–Rј R“RѕSЃRїRѕRgR° S‚R° RIR»R°SЃRЅRѕRiRѕ SЃSѓRјR»S–RЅRЅSЏ. R—R° SЃRѕR±RѕSЋ RgRµRїSѓS‚R°S‚Rё R·R°R»RёS€RёR»Rё R»RёS€Rµ RїSЂR°RIRѕ RgR°RIR°S‚Rё R·RiRѕRgSѓ RЅR° SЃS‚SЏRiRЅRµRЅRЅSЏ RїRѕRgR°S‚RyeS–RI, R°R»Rµ R»RёS€Rµ S‚RѕRgS–, RyeRѕR»Rё RЅRµRјR°S” RIS–R№RЅRё.

RљR°SЂR» XI
RљR°SЂR» XI

R”Rѕ S‚RѕRiRѕ R¶ SЂRёRyeSЃRgR°Ri SЃRIRѕS—Rј SЂS–S€RµRЅRЅSЏRј RѕSЃRISЏS‚RёRI RїRµSЂRµSЃR»S–RgSѓRIR°RЅRЅSЏ SѓSЂSЏRgRѕRIS†S–RI, S‰Rѕ RЅR°SЃRјS–R»SЋRIR°R»RёSЃSЏ SѓS…RIR°R»SЋRIR°S‚Rё SЂS–S€RµRЅRЅSЏ "R·R° SЃRїRёRЅRѕSЋ RјRѕRЅR°SЂS…R°" (R·SЂSѓS‡RЅRёR№ SЃRїRѕSЃS–R± RїRµSЂRµRyeR»R°SЃS‚Rё RЅR° RIR»R°SЃRЅRёS… RїSЂRёR·RЅR°S‡RµRЅS†S–RI RIS–RgRїRѕRIS–RgR°R»SЊRЅS–SЃS‚SЊ R·R° RЅRµRїRѕRїSѓR»SЏSЂRЅS– SЂS–S€RµRЅRЅSЏ – Rћ.Rњ.).

R’RїR»RёRI RIRёS‰RѕS— R·RЅR°S‚S– R±SѓRI RїS–RgS–SЂRIR°RЅRёR№ S‚R°Rye R·RIR°RЅRѕSЋ SЂRµRgSѓRyeS†S–S”SЋ – S‚RѕR±S‚Rѕ RїRѕRIRµSЂRЅRµRЅRЅSЏRј RyeRѕSЂRѕR»SЋ R·RµRјRµR»SЊ S– RјR°S”S‚RЅRѕSЃS‚RµR№, S‰Rѕ RyeRѕR»RёSЃSЊ R±SѓR»Rё RїRѕRgR°SЂRѕRIR°RЅS– S—R№ R°R±Rѕ RIS–RgRgR°RЅS– RI RyeRѕSЂRёSЃS‚SѓRIR°RЅRЅSЏ R·R° RIS–SЂRЅSѓ SЃR»SѓR¶R±Sѓ.

R—RIS–SЃRЅRѕ, S€R»SЏS…S‚R° R·R±RµSЂRµRiR»R° S‡RёRјR°R»Rѕ RїSЂRёRIR°S‚RЅRёS… RїSЂRёRIS–R»RµS—RI, S‚R° R№ RIRёS‰RёS… SЃR°RЅRѕRIRЅRёRyeS–RI RgRѕR±RёSЂR°R»Rё R»RёS€Rµ R· S—S— R»R°RI, RїSЂRѕS‚Rµ SЏRye S– R±SѓRgSЊ-SЏRyeS– S–RЅS€S– RyeRѕSЂRѕR»S–RISЃSЊRyeS– RїSЂRёR·RЅR°S‡RµRЅS†S– RIRѕRЅRё R·R±RµSЂS–RiR°R»Rё SЃRIRѕSЋ RIR»R°RgSѓ R»RёS€Rµ RgRѕ S‚RѕRiRѕ RјRѕRјRµRЅS‚Sѓ, RgRѕRyeRё S†SЊRѕRiRѕ R±R°R¶R°RI RјRѕRЅR°SЂS….

RќR°RIS–S‚SЊ SѓSЂSЏRg R·R° RљR°SЂR»R° XI R±SѓRI RїRµSЂRµR№RјRµRЅRѕRIR°RЅRёR№ R· RgRµSЂR¶R°RIRЅRѕS— SЂR°RgRё RЅR° RyeRѕSЂRѕR»S–RISЃSЊRyeSѓ SЂR°RgSѓ S– SЃRyeR»R°RgR°RISЃSЏ RЅRµ R· S‡R»RµRЅS–RI SЂR°RgRё, R° R· SЃRµRyeSЂRµS‚R°SЂS–RI S‚R° SѓRїRѕRIRЅRѕRIR°R¶RµRЅRёS… RyeRѕSЂRѕR»SЏ. R¦S–R»RyeRѕRј RїS–RgRїRѕSЂSЏRgRyeRѕRIR°RЅR° RIRѕR»RѕRgR°SЂSЋ R±SѓR»R° RЅR°RIS–S‚SЊ S†RµSЂRyeRIR°.

RџRѕSЃS‚SѓRїR»RёRIS–SЃS‚SЊ S€RIRµRgSЃSЊRyeRёS… SЃS‚R°RЅS–RI RЅRµ RIR°SЂS‚Rѕ RїRѕSЏSЃRЅSЋRIR°S‚Rё RIRёRyeR»SЋS‡RЅRѕ RїS–RgR»R°R±SѓR·RЅRёS†S‚RIRѕRј S—S…RЅS–S… RїSЂRµRgSЃS‚R°RIRЅRёRyeS–RI. RўR°Rye RIS–RgR±SѓRIR°R»RѕSЃSЏ RјR°R№R¶Rµ RI RyeRѕR¶RЅS–R№ RyeSЂR°S—RЅS– S‚RѕRgS–S€RЅSЊRѕS— R„RISЂRѕRїRё.

RўR° R№ RљR°SЂR» XI RI R±S–R»SЊS€RѕSЃS‚S– RIRёRїR°RgRyeS–RI RgS–SЏRI RI S–RЅS‚RµSЂRµSЃR°S… S€R»SЏS…S‚Rё, S‚RѕSЂRiS–RIS†S–RI S‚R° RїSЂRѕRјRёSЃR»RѕRIS†S–RI, SЏRyeS– S‚S–R»SЊRyeRё-RЅRѕ RїRѕS‡R°R»Rё R·SЏRIR»SЏS‚RёSЃSЏ RI RyeSЂR°S—RЅS–. RџRµSЂS€S– S€RIRµRgSЃSЊRyeS– RјR°RЅSѓS„R°RyeS‚SѓSЂRё RIR·R°RiR°R»S– R·SЏRIRёR»RёSЃSЏ R·R° RgRµSЂR¶R°RIRЅRѕSЋ S–RЅS–S†S–R°S‚RёRIRѕSЋ, S– RјRѕRЅR°SЂS… RgR±R°RI RїSЂRѕ S—S…RЅS–R№ SЂRѕR·RIRёS‚RѕRye.

RќR°RїSЂRёRyeS–RЅS†S– XVII SЃS‚RѕSЂS–S‡S‡SЏ SЃR°RјRµ RЁRIRµS†S–SЏ RїRѕSЃS‚R°S‡R°R»R° R·R°R»S–R·Rѕ RgRѕ RђRЅRiR»S–S—, R° RЅRµ RЅR°RIRїR°RyeRё. RЈ 1686 SЂRѕS†S– RyeRѕSЂRѕR»SЊ RЅR°RїRѕR»S–Ri RЅR° R·R°RїSЂRѕRIR°RgR¶RµRЅRЅS– R·R°S…RёSЃRЅRёS… RјRёS‚ – S‰RѕR± R·R°S…RёSЃS‚RёS‚Rё RIS–S‚S‡RёR·RЅSЏRЅSѓ RїSЂRѕRјRёSЃR»RѕRIS–SЃS‚SЊ RIS–Rg S–RЅRѕR·RµRјRЅRѕS— RyeRѕRЅRyeSѓSЂRµRЅS†S–S—.

RљR°SЂR» XII
RљR°SЂR» XII

RЎRёRЅ S– RЅR°SЃS‚SѓRїRЅRёRye RљR°SЂR»R° XI, RљR°SЂR» XII, RїRѕRїSЂRё SЃRIRѕSЋ RјRѕR»RѕRgS–SЃS‚SЊ (RIS–RЅ SЃS‚R°RI RЅR° S‡RѕR»S– RЁRIRµS†S–S— Sѓ 15-SЂS–S‡RЅRѕRјSѓ RIS–S†S– – Rћ.Rњ.), R°R±SЃRѕR»SЋS‚RёR·Rј R»RёS€Rµ R·RјS–S†RЅRёRI. RЎSѓS‡R°SЃRЅRёRyeRё RIRIR°R¶R°R»Rё SЋRЅRѕRiRѕ RIRѕR»RѕRgR°SЂSЏ RЅR°RIS–S‚SЊ R°RIS‚RѕSЂRёS‚R°SЂRЅS–S€RёRј S– SЃRIR°RIS–R»SЊRЅS–S€RёRј R·R° R±R°S‚SЊRyeR°.

Rђ RџS–RIRЅS–S‡RЅR° RIS–R№RЅR°, SЏRyeR° RїRѕS‡R°R»R°SЃSЏ S‡RµSЂRµR· RgRIR° SЂRѕRyeRё RїS–SЃR»SЏ R№RѕRiRѕ RyeRѕSЂRѕRЅR°S†S–S—, S– RI SЏRyeS–R№ RIS–Rg SЃR°RјRѕRiRѕ RїRѕS‡R°S‚RyeSѓ RЁRIRµS†S–S— RgRѕRIRµR»RѕSЃSЏ RIRѕSЋRIR°S‚Rё RѕRgRЅRѕS‡R°SЃRЅRѕ RїSЂRѕS‚Rё R”R°RЅS–S—, RЎR°RyeSЃRѕRЅS–S—, R RµS‡S– RџRѕSЃRїRѕR»RёS‚RѕS— S‚R° R RѕSЃS–S— (RgRѕ SЏRyeRёS… R·RiRѕRgRѕRј RgRѕS”RgRЅSѓRIR°R»RёSЃSЏ S‚Rѕ RџSЂSѓSЃSЃS–SЏ, RgRѕ R“R°RЅRЅRѕRIRµSЂ, S‚Rѕ RђRЅRiR»S–SЏ – Rћ.Rњ.), S‰Rµ R±S–R»SЊS€Rµ RїRѕSЃRёR»RёR»R° S†S– R№RѕRiRѕ RЅR°S…RёR»Rё S‚R° SЃRїSЂRёSЏR»R° R·RѕSЃRµSЂRµRgR¶RµRЅRЅSЋ RIR»R°RgRё RI RјRѕRЅR°SЂS€RёS… SЂSѓRyeR°S….

RњRѕR»RѕRgRёR№ RyeRѕSЂRѕR»SЊ, S‰RѕRїSЂR°RIRgR°, RѕRgSЂR°R·Sѓ R·R°R»RёS€RёRI RЎS‚RѕRyeRiRѕR»SЊRј S– R±S–R»SЊS€Rµ RЅRµ RgRѕ SЃS‚RѕR»RёS†S– RЅRµ RїRѕRIRµSЂS‚R°RISЃSЏ. RђR»Rµ RyeRµSЂSѓRIR°RI RgRµSЂR¶R°RIRѕSЋ S‡RµSЂRµR· SЂR°RgRЅRёRyeS–RI S– RїSЂRёR·RЅR°S‡RµRЅS†S–RI, RЅRµ SЂR°S…SѓSЋS‡RёSЃSЊ S–R· RgRµRїSѓS‚R°S‚R°RјRё SЂRёRyeSЃRgR°RiSѓ S– RїS–RgRgR°RЅRёRјRё R·R°RiR°R»RѕRј – RIS–Rg SЃR»RѕRIR° "R·RѕRISЃS–Rј".

RћR±SЂR°RЅRЅSЏ RЎS‚R°RЅS–SЃR»R°RIR° R›RµS‰RёRЅSЃSЊRyeRѕRiRѕ RїRѕR»SЊSЃSЊRyeRёRј RyeRѕSЂRѕR»RµRј Sѓ 1704 SЂRѕS†S–
RћR±SЂR°RЅRЅSЏ RЎS‚R°RЅS–SЃR»R°RIR° R›RµS‰RёRЅSЃSЊRyeRѕRiRѕ RїRѕR»SЊSЃSЊRyeRёRј RyeRѕSЂRѕR»RµRј Sѓ 1704 SЂRѕS†S–

R†SЂRѕRЅS–SЏ RgRѕR»S– RїRѕR»SЏRiR°R»R° RI S‚RѕRјSѓ, S‰Rѕ R·R° RyeRѕSЂRgRѕRЅRѕRј – Sѓ RџRѕR»SЊS‰S–, R›RёS‚RIS–, RЈRyeSЂR°S—RЅS– – RљR°SЂR» XII RЅR°RјR°RiR°RISЃSЏ RѕRїRµSЂS‚RёSЃSЏ SЃR°RјRµ RЅR° SЃS‚R°RЅRѕRIS– S‚SЂR°RgRёS†S–S— S‚R° RЅR° S‚RёS…, S…S‚Rѕ S—S… RIS‚S–R»SЋRIR°RI – S€R»SЏS…S‚Sѓ, SЃS‚R°SЂS€RёRЅSѓ, RyeRѕR·R°S†S‚RIRѕ.

RўR°Rye, RїRѕR»SЊSЃSЊRyeR° S€R»SЏS…S‚R° R·R° RїS–RgS‚SЂRёRјRyeRё S€RIRµRgSЃSЊRyeRѕRiRѕ RјRѕRЅR°SЂS…R° SЃS‚RIRѕSЂRёR»R° RyeRѕRЅS„RµRgRµSЂR°S†S–SЋ, RїRѕR·R±R°RIRёR»R° RyeRѕSЂRѕR»S–RISЃSЊRyeRѕS— RyeRѕSЂRѕRЅRё RђRIRiSѓSЃS‚R° II RЎRёR»SЊRЅRѕRiRѕ R№ RѕR±SЂR°R»R° RЅR° R№RѕRiRѕ RјS–SЃS†Rµ RЎS‚R°RЅS–SЃR»R°RIR° R›RµS‰RёRЅSЃSЊRyeRѕRiRѕ.

RљRѕR·R°S†SЊRyeR° SЃS‚R°SЂS€RёRЅR° S– SЃS–S‡RѕRIRёRyeRё RI SЃRIRѕS”RјSѓ RїSЂRѕS‚RёSЃS‚RѕSЏRЅRЅS– R· RџRµS‚SЂRѕRј I S‚R°RyeRѕR¶ R°RїRµR»SЋRIR°R»Rё RgRѕ SЃRIRѕS—S… RgR°RIRЅS–S… RїSЂRёRIS–R»RµS—RI, R·R°S…RёS‰R°S‚Rё SЏRyeS– RљR°SЂR» XII R·SЂRµS€S‚RѕSЋ RїRѕRѕR±S–S†SЏRI RЅR°SЃS‚SѓRїRЅRёRyeSѓ R†RIR°RЅR° RњR°R·RµRїRё, RџRёR»RёRїSѓ RћSЂR»RёRyeSѓ, RIR¶Rµ RїS–SЃR»SЏ S—S…RЅSЊRѕS— SЃRїS–R»SЊRЅRѕS— RїRѕSЂR°R·RyeRё.

Rђ RѕSЃSЊ RїSЂRѕ RїSЂR°RIR° S– SЃRIRѕR±RѕRgRё SЃS‚R°RЅS–RI RЅR° SЃRIRѕS—R№ R±R°S‚SЊRyeS–RIS‰RёRЅS– S€RIRµRgSЃSЊRyeRёR№ RyeRѕSЂRѕR»SЊ S– S‡SѓS‚Rё RЅRµ S…RѕS‚S–RI. R† SЂRѕR·RiSЂRѕRј RїS–Rg RџRѕR»S‚R°RIRѕSЋ RЅRµ R»RёS€Rµ RЅRµ R·SЂRѕR±RёRI R№RѕRiRѕ RїRѕSЃS‚SѓRїR»RёRIS–S€RёRј RI S†SЊRѕRјSѓ RїRёS‚R°RЅRЅS–. RќR°RIRїR°RyeRё – RљR°SЂR» XII RїSЂR°RiRЅSѓRI S‰Rµ R±S–R»SЊS€RѕS— RyeRѕRЅS†RµRЅS‚SЂR°S†S–S— RIR»R°RgRё.

RЈRiRѕRgRё S‚R° SѓSЃS‚R°RЅRѕRIRё, SѓRyeR»R°RgRµRЅS– RџRёR»RёRїRѕRј RћSЂR»RёRyeRѕRј (S‚R°Rye R·RIR°RЅR°
RЈRiRѕRgRё S‚R° SѓSЃS‚R°RЅRѕRIRё, SѓRyeR»R°RgRµRЅS– RџRёR»RёRїRѕRј RћSЂR»RёRyeRѕRј (S‚R°Rye R·RIR°RЅR° "RyeRѕRЅSЃS‚RёS‚SѓS†S–SЏ RћSЂR»RёRyeR°")

RЇRyeS‰Rѕ RџRѕR»S‚R°RIR° S– SЃRїSЂR°RIRgS– S‰RѕSЃSЊ R·RјS–RЅRёR»R° Sѓ RЁRIRµS†S–S—, S‚R°Rye S†Rµ RЅR°SЃS‚SЂRѕS— SЃR°RјRёS… SЃS‚R°RЅS–RI. RџSЂRѕ RЅRµRѕR±S…S–RgRЅS–SЃS‚SЊ RѕR±RјRµR¶RµRЅRЅSЏ RyeRѕSЂRѕR»S–RISЃSЊRyeRѕS— SЃRIR°RIRѕR»S– RЅR° RѕRgRЅS–R№ R· RїR°SЂR»R°RјRµRЅS‚SЃSЊRyeRёS… RyeRѕRјS–SЃS–R№ R·R°RiRѕRIRѕSЂRёR»Rё RIR¶Rµ RI 1710 SЂRѕS†S–.

RџS–S‚Rё RЅR° RїRѕSЃS‚SѓRїRyeRё RIRѕR»RѕRgR°SЂSЏ RIRјRѕRIR»SЏRI R№ RyeRµSЂS–RIRЅRёRye SѓSЂSЏRgSѓ RђSЂRIS–Rg R“RѕSЂRЅ. RЎRIRѕRiRѕ S‡R°SЃSѓ SЃR°RјRµ RIS–RЅ, R·R° RgRѕSЂSѓS‡RµRЅRЅSЏRј RљR°SЂR»R° XII, RїRµSЂRµRyeRѕRЅSѓRIR°RI RїRѕR»SЊSЃSЊRyeRёR№ SЃRµR№Rј R·RiR°RgR°S‚Rё S€R»SЏS…RµS‚SЃSЊRyeS– SЃRIRѕR±RѕRgRё S– RѕR±SЂR°S‚Rё RyeRѕSЂRѕR»RµRј R›RµS‰RёRЅSЃSЊRyeRѕRiRѕ. RџSЂRѕS‚Rµ RgR»SЏ S‚RѕRiRѕ, S‰RѕR± R·RјS–RЅRёS‚Rё RgSѓRјRyeSѓ RIR»R°SЃRЅRѕRiRѕ RIRѕR»RѕRgR°SЂSЏ, RЅR°RIS–S‚SЊ RЅRµR°R±SЏRyeRѕRiRѕ RgRёRїR»RѕRјR°S‚RёS‡RЅRѕRiRѕ S…RёSЃS‚Sѓ R“RѕSЂRЅR° RЅRµ RIRёSЃS‚R°S‡RёR»Rѕ.

R’ 1713-1714 SЂRѕRyeR°S… RѕRїRѕR·RёS†S–SЏ R·R°SЏRIRёR»R° RїSЂRѕ SЃRµR±Rµ RIR¶Rµ RIS–RgRyeSЂRёS‚Rѕ, RЅR° R·R°SЃS–RgR°RЅRЅS– SЂRёRyeSЃRgR°RiSѓ. R† SЃRµSЂRµRg RЅRµRIRgRѕRIRѕR»RµRЅRёS… S†SЊRѕRiRѕ SЂR°R·Sѓ R±SѓR»Rё RЅRµ R»RёS€Rµ RїSЂRµRgSЃS‚R°RIRЅRёRyeRё SЃS‚R°SЂRѕS— R·RЅR°S‚S–, SЏRyeS– RїR°RјSЏS‚R°R»Rё RїSЂRѕ S‡R°SЃRё, RyeRѕR»Rё RgRµSЂR¶R°RIRЅR° SЂR°RgR° R·RјSѓS€SѓRIR°R»R° SЂR°S…SѓRIR°S‚RёSЃSЏ S–R· SЃRѕR±RѕSЋ RјRѕRЅR°SЂS…S–RI.

Rђ R№ RЅRѕRIRµ S‡RёRЅRѕRIRЅRёS†S‚RIRѕ, RIRёS…RѕRIR°RЅRµ RљR°SЂR»RѕRј XI. RўR° RЅR°RIS–S‚SЊ RgRµSЏRyeS– RїSЂRёR·RЅR°S‡RµRЅS†S– SЃR°RјRѕRiRѕ RљR°SЂR»R° XII – RIR¶Rµ R·RiR°RgR°RЅRёR№ RЅR°RјRё RђSЂRIS–Rg R“RѕSЂRЅ, R° S‚R°RyeRѕR¶ RЇRyeRѕR± R®R»R»RµRЅR±RѕSЂRi, R¤R°R±S–SЏRЅ R’SЂRµRgRµ, RgRµSЂR¶R°RIRЅS– SЃRµRyeSЂRµS‚R°SЂS– RљR°SЂR» RџS–RїRµSЂ S‚R° RўRѕRјR°SЃ RџRѕR»SѓSЃ.

R¤SЂRѕRЅRgR°, RѕRgRЅR°Rye, R·R°RIRµSЂS€RёR»R°SЃSЏ, R»RµRgSЊ RїRѕS‡R°RIS€RёSЃSЊ. R“RѕSЂRЅ SЃR°Rј RїS–S€RѕRI R· RїRѕSЃR°RgRё. Rђ R·R° RЅRёRј RyeRѕSЂRѕR»SЊ SѓSЃSѓRЅSѓRI RIS–Rg RIR»R°RgRё RISЃS–S… RyeSЂRёS‚RёRyeS–RI R№RѕRiRѕ RїRѕR»S–S‚RёRyeRё, RЅR°RIS–S‚SЊ RїRѕRјS–SЂRyeRѕRIR°RЅRёS…. R† SЏRyeS‰Rѕ RЅRµ R·RЅRёS‰RёRI RѕRїRѕR·RёS†S–SЋ RѕSЃS‚R°S‚RѕS‡RЅRѕ, S‚Rѕ R·RјSѓSЃRёRI S—S— R·R°RјRѕRIRyeRЅSѓS‚Rё.

RЁRѕS‚R±SѓR»R»R°SЂ
RЁRѕS‚R±SѓR»R»R°SЂ

RџRѕRIRµSЂRЅSѓRIS€RёSЃSЊ RgRѕ RЁRIRµS†S–S— R· S‚SѓSЂRµS†SЊRyeRёS… RIRѕR»RѕRgS–RЅSЊ, RgRµ RIS–RЅ RїRµSЂRµR±SѓRIR°RI Sѓ SЃS‚R°RЅS– RЅR°RїS–RIR·R°SЂSѓS‡RЅRёRyeR°, RљR°SЂR» XII RЅRµ R»RёS€Rµ RїSЂRёRIS–R· R· SЃRѕR±RѕSЋ R·RIRёS‡RyeSѓ RgRѕ RyeR°RIRё S– RјSЏSЃRЅRёS… RyeRѕS„S‚Rµ (RIS–RgS‚RѕRgS– S—S… RїS–Rg RЅR°R·RIRѕSЋ S€RѕS‚R±SѓR»R»R°SЂ RIRIR°R¶R°SЋS‚SЊ RЅR°S†S–RѕRЅR°R»SЊRЅRѕSЋ S€RIRµRgSЃSЊRyeRѕSЋ SЃS‚SЂR°RIRѕSЋ – Rћ.Rњ.), R° R№ RїRµSЂRµRyeRѕRЅR°RЅRЅSЏ, S‰Rѕ RgRµSЂR¶R°RIRѕSЋ S‚SЂRµR±R° RyeRµSЂSѓRIR°S‚Rё S‚R°Rye, SЏRye S†Rµ SЂRѕR±R»SЏS‚SЊ RѕSЃRјR°RЅSЃSЊRyeS– SЃSѓR»S‚R°RЅRё.

RќR°RgR°R»S– RIS–RЅ RѕRїRёSЂR°RISЃSЏ RЅR° R»SЋRgRµR№, RIR·R°RiR°R»S– RЅRµ RїRѕRISЏR·R°RЅRёS… R·S– S€RIRµRgSЃSЊRyeRѕSЋ RїRѕR»S–S‚RёS‡RЅRѕSЋ S‚SЂR°RgRёS†S–S”SЋ S– RyeSѓR»SЊS‚SѓSЂRѕSЋ, S‚R°RyeRёS…, SЏRye R“RµRѕSЂRi S„RѕRЅ R“RµSЂS†. R¦RµR№ RѕRgRЅRѕRѕRyeRёR№ RiRѕR»SЊS€S‚RµR№RЅRµS†SЊ RїRѕRgRѕR±R°RISЃSЏ RyeRѕSЂRѕR»SЋ SЃRIRѕS—Rј RЅRµRIRёS‡RµSЂRїRЅRёRј RѕRїS‚RёRјS–R·RјRѕRј, RiRѕS‚RѕRIRЅS–SЃS‚SЋ RIRёRyeRѕRЅR°S‚Rё R±SѓRgSЊ-SЏRyeRёR№ RЅR°RyeR°R· S– S‚R°R»R°RЅS‚RѕRј R·RЅR°S…RѕRgRёS‚Rё RIRёS…S–Rg R· R±SѓRgSЊ-SЏRyeRѕSЋ SЃRёS‚SѓR°S†S–S—.

Rђ R№RѕRiRѕ R°RIR°RЅS‚SЋSЂRёR·Rј – RI S‚RёS… SѓRјRѕRIR°S…, RI SЏRyeRёS… RѕRїRёRЅRёR»R°SЃSЏ RЅR° S‚RѕR№ S‡R°SЃ RЁRIRµS†S–SЏ, - RIRёRgR°RIR°RISЃSЏ RЅRµ RЅRµRgRѕR»S–RyeRѕRј, R° RIR°RiRѕRјRѕSЋ RїRµSЂRµRIR°RiRѕSЋ. RўRѕRјSѓ RљR°SЂR» XII RїRѕSЃS‚R°RIRёRI R“RµSЂS†R° RЅR° S‡RѕR»S– "RgRµRїSѓS‚R°S†S–S— Sѓ SЃRїSЂR°RIR°S… RїRѕSЃS‚R°S‡R°RЅRЅSЏ" S– RЅR°RgR°RI R№RѕRјSѓ RїRѕ SЃSѓS‚S– RЅRµRѕR±RјRµR¶RµRЅS– RїRѕRIRЅRѕRIR°R¶RµRЅRЅSЏ.

R“RµRѕSЂRi S„RѕRЅ R“RµSЂS†. RўRѕRiRѕS‡R°SЃRЅR° RyeR°SЂRёRyeR°S‚SѓSЂR°
R“RµRѕSЂRi S„RѕRЅ R“RµSЂS†. RўRѕRiRѕS‡R°SЃRЅR° RyeR°SЂRёRyeR°S‚SѓSЂR°

R¤R°RIRѕSЂRёS‚ RyeRѕSЂRѕR»SЏ RїRѕS‡R°RI R· S‚RѕRiRѕ, S‰Rѕ RIRёRїSѓSЃS‚RёRI RIS–Rg S–RјRµRЅS– SЃS‚R°RЅS–RI, R±RµR· R¶RѕRgRЅRѕS— S—S…RЅSЊRѕS— R·RiRѕRgRё, RgRµSЂR¶R°RIRЅS– RѕR±R»S–RiR°S†S–S—, RiR°SЂR°RЅS‚S–SЏRјRё SЏRyeRёS… RѕRiRѕR»RѕSЃRёR»Rё RgRµSЂR¶R°RIRЅRµ RјR°R№RЅRѕ. R”RѕSЃRёS‚SЊ S€RIRёRgRyeRѕ S†S– RѕR±R»S–RiR°S†S–S— RїRѕS‡R°R»Rё S…RѕRgRёS‚Rё RЅR° SЂS–RIRЅS– R· RiSЂRѕS€RёRјR°.

RџRѕS‚S–Rј RgRµS„S–S†RёS‚ R±SЋRgR¶RµS‚Sѓ RїRѕS‡R°R»Rё RїRѕRyeSЂRёRIR°S‚Rё, RyeR°SЂR±SѓSЋS‡Rё RgSЂS–R±RЅSѓ RјRѕRЅRµS‚Sѓ R· R·R°RIRёS‰RµRЅRѕSЋ RЅRѕRјS–RЅR°R»SЊRЅRѕSЋ RIR°SЂS‚S–SЃS‚SЋ. RќR°S‚SѓSЂR°R»SЊRЅS– RїRѕRgR°S‚RyeRё R·R°RјS–RЅRёR»Rё RiSЂRѕS€RѕRIRёRјRё RIRёRїR»R°S‚R°RјRё. RњS–SЃS‚R° R·RѕR±RѕRISЏR·R°R»Rё RyeSѓRїSѓRIR°S‚Rё S‚RѕRIR°SЂRё, RїRѕS‚SЂS–R±RЅS– RgRµSЂR¶R°RIRё.

R RµRyeSЂSѓS‚SЃSЊRyeS– RЅR°R±RѕSЂRё RЅR° SЃR»RѕRIR°S… SЃRyeR°SЃSѓRIR°R»Rё, R°R»Rµ S†Rµ RЅRµ R·R°RIR°RgRёR»Rѕ SЂRѕR·RїRѕS‡R°S‚Rё R·R°RiR°R»SЊRЅSѓ RјRѕR±S–R»S–R·R°S†S–SЋ – RgRѕ S‚RѕRiRѕ R¶ R· RїRѕSЏSЃRЅRµRЅRЅSЏRј, S‰Rѕ S‚SЂRµR±R° "R·R°RyeS–RЅS‡RёS‚Rё RIS–R№RЅSѓ, R° RЅRµ RїSЂRѕRgRѕRIR¶SѓRIR°S‚Rё S—S—".

R¤R°RЅS‚R°R·S–SЏ R“RµSЂS†R° S– SЃRїSЂR°RIRgS– R·RgR°RIR°R»R°SЃSЏ RЅRµR·RјS–SЂRЅRѕSЋ, R°R»Rµ RyeSЂR°S—RЅR° R±SѓR»R° R·RЅRµSЃRёR»RµRЅR°, S– RЅRµRIRgRѕRIRѕR»RµRЅRЅSЏ, SЂR°R·RѕRј S–R· RIS‚RѕRјRѕSЋ, S€RIRёRgRyeRѕ R·SЂRѕSЃS‚R°R»Rѕ. R† S…RѕS‡R° "RyeSЂR°R№RЅS–Rј" RI RѕS‡R°S… RїS–RgRgR°RЅRёS…, R·RIS–SЃRЅRѕ, R±SѓRI RiRѕR»SЊS€S‚RµR№RЅRµS†SЊ, SЂRѕR·RgSЂR°S‚SѓRIR°RЅRЅSЏ R·SЂRµS€S‚RѕSЋ RїRѕS‡R°RI RIRёRyeR»RёRyeR°S‚Rё S– SЃR°Rј RyeRѕSЂRѕR»SЊ.



R”Rѕ 1718 SЂRѕRyeSѓ, R·R° SЃRIS–RgS‡RµRЅRЅSЏ SЃSѓS‡R°SЃRЅRёRyeS–RI, "RїSЂR°RiRЅRµRЅRЅSЏ R·RјS–RЅ" SЃS‚R°R»Rѕ R·R°RiR°R»SЊRЅRёRј, S…RѕS‡R° RїSЂRѕ S‡S–S‚RyeRµ SЂRѕR·SѓRјS–RЅRЅSЏ, SЏRyeRёS… SЃR°RјRµ, S‰Rѕ RIR¶Rµ RyeR°R·R°S‚Rё RїSЂRѕ RyeRѕRЅRyeSЂRµS‚RЅRёR№ RїR»R°RЅ RїRµSЂRµS‚RIRѕSЂRµRЅSЊ, S‰Rµ RЅRµ R№S€R»RѕSЃSЏ.

R’S‚S–Rј, RљR°SЂR» XII, R·RgR°RIR°R»RѕSЃSЏ, S†SЊRѕRiRѕ RїSЂRѕSЃS‚Rѕ RЅRµ RїRѕRјS–S‡R°RI. R’ S‚RѕRјSѓ R¶ SЂRѕS†S– RIS–RЅ RIRёSЂSѓS€RёRI RI S‡RµSЂRiRѕRIRёR№ RIS–R№SЃSЊRyeRѕRIRёR№ RїRѕS…S–Rg RgRѕ RќRѕSЂRIRµRiS–S—. RџRѕRїRѕRIR·R»Rё S‡SѓS‚RyeRё, S‰Rѕ RyeRѕSЂRѕR»SЊ RїR»R°RЅSѓS” RїSЂRѕRiRѕR»RѕSЃRёS‚Rё SЃRIRѕS—Rј SЃRїR°RgRyeRѕS”RјS†RµRј RЅRµR±RѕR¶R° – RљR°SЂR»R° R¤SЂS–RgSЂS–S…R°, RiRµSЂS†RѕRiR° R“RѕR»SЊS€S‚RµR№RЅSЃSЊRyeRѕRiRѕ, SЃRїS–RIRIS–S‚S‡RёR·RЅRёRyeR° R“RµSЂS†R°.

R¦Rµ R°R¶ RЅS–SЏRye RЅRµ RIR»R°S€S‚RѕRISѓRIR°R»Rѕ S–RЅS€RѕRiRѕ RїSЂRµS‚RµRЅRgRµRЅS‚R° – R¤SЂS–RgSЂS–S…R°, RїSЂRёRЅS†R° R“RµSЃSЃRµRЅSЃSЊRyeRѕRiRѕ, S‰Rѕ R±SѓRI S‡RѕR»RѕRIS–RyeRѕRј RјRѕR»RѕRgS€RѕS— SЃRµSЃS‚SЂRё RљR°SЂR»R° XII RЈR»SЊSЂS–RyeRё R•R»RµRѕRЅRѕSЂRё. R’S–RЅ, SЃS…RѕR¶Rµ, RIRёSЂS–S€RёRI, S‰Rѕ RIR°SЂS‚Rѕ SЃRyeRѕSЂRёSЃS‚R°S‚RёSЃSЏ RIS–RgSЃSѓS‚RЅS–SЃS‚SЋ R±S–R»SЏ RyeRѕSЂRѕR»SЏ R№RѕRiRѕ S„R°RIRѕSЂRёS‚R°, R·R°R№RЅSЏS‚RѕRiRѕ RI S†RµR№ S‡R°SЃ RїRµSЂRµRјRѕRIRёRЅR°RјRё R· SЂRѕSЃS–SЏRЅR°RјRё.

R§RµSЂRµRї RљR°SЂR»R° XII, SѓS€RyeRѕRgR¶RµRЅRёR№ RyeSѓR»RµSЋ (RїRѕRgR°R»SЊS€S– RgRѕSЃR»S–RgR¶RµRЅRЅSЏ RISЃS‚R°RЅRѕRIRёR»Rё, S‰Rѕ R·R°RјS–SЃS‚SЊ RyeSѓR»S– RIR±RёRIS†SЏ RIRёRyeRѕSЂRёSЃS‚RѕRISѓRIR°RI RIR°R¶RyeRёR№ T‘SѓRgR·RёRye)
R§RµSЂRµRї RљR°SЂR»R° XII, SѓS€RyeRѕRgR¶RµRЅRёR№ RyeSѓR»RµSЋ (RїRѕRgR°R»SЊS€S– RgRѕSЃR»S–RgR¶RµRЅRЅSЏ RISЃS‚R°RЅRѕRIRёR»Rё, S‰Rѕ R·R°RјS–SЃS‚SЊ RyeSѓR»S– RIR±RёRIS†SЏ RIRёRyeRѕSЂRёSЃS‚RѕRISѓRIR°RI RIR°R¶RyeRёR№ T‘SѓRgR·RёRye)

R’RЅRѕS‡S– 30 R»RёSЃS‚RѕRїR°RgR° RљR°SЂR» XII R±SѓRI RIR±RёS‚RёR№. RџS–RgRgR°RЅRёRј RѕRiRѕR»RѕSЃRёR»Rё, S‰Rѕ RI RјRѕRЅR°SЂS…R° RїRѕS†S–R»RёRI RIRѕSЂRѕR¶RёR№ SЃS‚SЂS–R»RµS†SЊ – RI S‚RѕR№ RјRѕRјRµRЅS‚ RyeRѕR»Rё RyeRѕSЂRѕR»SЊ S–RЅSЃRїRµRyeS‚SѓRIR°RI S€RIRµRgSЃSЊRyeS– S‚SЂR°RЅS€RµS—.

RЇRye RјRѕR¶RЅR° R±SѓR»Rѕ R· S‚R°RyeRѕS— RIRµR»RёRyeRѕS— RIS–RgSЃS‚R°RЅS– RIR»SѓS‡RёS‚Rё RI S‚RѕS‡RЅRѕ RI SЃRyeSЂRѕRЅSЋ RIRѕR»RѕRgR°SЂSЏ, S‰Rµ R№ R· S‚R°RyeRѕSЋ SЃRёR»RѕSЋ, S‰RѕR± SЂRѕR·RyeSЂRѕS—S‚Rё R№RѕRјSѓ S‡RµSЂRµRї, R·RIS–SЃRЅRѕ, RЅRµ SѓS‚RѕS‡RЅSЋRIR°R»Rё. RђR»Rµ RїSЂRѕ RISЃSЏRye RIRёRїR°RgRѕRye RѕS„S–S†RµSЂR°Rј SЂRѕR·RgR°R»Rё RIS–R№SЃSЊRyeRѕRISѓ RyeR°SЃSѓ. R† RјR°R№R¶Rµ RѕRgSЂR°R·Sѓ R·R°R°SЂRµS€S‚SѓRIR°R»Rё R“RµSЂS†R°, SЏRyeRёR№ RЅR°RIS–S‚SЊ RЅRµ RISЃS‚RёRi RgRѕS—S…R°S‚Rё RgRѕ RyeRѕSЂRѕR»S–RISЃSЊRyeRѕS— SЃS‚R°RIRyeRё RIS‡R°SЃRЅRѕ.

RЎSѓRg RЅR°Rg RЅRёRј R±SѓRI S€RIRёRgRyeRёRј. RќR° RiRѕR»SЊS€S‚RµR№RЅS†SЏ RїRѕRyeR»R°R»Rё RIS–RgRїRѕRIS–RgR°R»SЊRЅS–SЃS‚SЊ R·R° SѓSЃS– R·R»RѕRIR¶RёRIR°RЅRЅSЏ RѕSЃS‚R°RЅRЅS–S… SЂRѕRyeS–RI RїSЂR°RIR»S–RЅRЅSЏ RљR°SЂR»R° XII. R† R·RiRѕRgRѕRј SЃS‚SЂR°S‚RёR»Rё. RљR°SЂR» R¤SЂS–RgSЂS–S… S‰Rµ SЂR°RЅS–S€Rµ RїRѕRyeRIR°RїRёRISЃSЏ R·R°R»RёS€RёS‚Rё RyeSЂR°S—RЅSѓ.

R”Rѕ RїRµRIRЅRѕRiRѕ S‡R°SЃSѓ RїRѕRgS–S— RЅR°RiR°RgSѓRIR°R»Rё R·RIRёS‡R°R№RЅSѓ RїR°R»R°S†RѕRISѓ S–RЅS‚SЂRёRiSѓ. RџSЂRѕS‚Rµ R·SЂSѓS‡RЅRѕSЋ RЅR°RiRѕRgRѕSЋ R·R°SЏRIRёS‚Rё RїSЂRѕ SЃRµR±Rµ SЃRyeRѕSЂRёSЃS‚R°R»RёSЃSЏ RѕR±SЂR°R¶RµRЅS– RїRѕRyeS–R№RЅRёRј RyeRѕSЂRѕR»RµRј R°SЂRёSЃS‚RѕRyeSЂR°S‚Rё R№ RїRѕSЃR°RgRѕRIS†S–, RЅR°R№SЃRїSЂRёS‚RЅS–S€RёRј R· SЏRyeRёS… R±SѓRI RyeRѕR»RёS€RЅS–R№ RyeRµSЂS–RIRЅRёRye SѓSЂSЏRgSѓ RђSЂRIS–Rg R“RѕSЂRЅ.

R™RѕRiRѕ RIRIR°R¶R°R»Rё RѕRgRЅRёRј R· RIR°S‚R°R¶RyeS–RI "RiRµSЃSЃRµRЅSЃSЊRyeRѕS—" RїR°SЂS‚S–S—, S‚RѕR±S‚Rѕ RїSЂRёS…RёR»SЊRЅRёRyeS–RI R¤SЂS–RgSЂS–S…R° R“RµSЃSЃRµRЅSЃSЊRyeRѕRiRѕ, S‚R° RЅR°SЃRїSЂR°RIRgS– RIS–RЅ RїSЂRѕRIRѕRgRёRI RIR»R°SЃRЅSѓ RїRѕR»S–S‚RёS‡RЅSѓ R»S–RЅS–SЋ.

RЎRїRѕS‡R°S‚RyeSѓ RїRµSЂRµRyeRѕRЅR°RI RїRѕRIRµSЂRЅSѓS‚Rё SѓSЂSЏRgSѓ RЅR°R·RISѓ S– SЃS‚R°S‚SѓSЃ RgRµSЂR¶R°RIRЅRѕS— SЂR°RgRё, SЏRyeSѓ RѕRgSЂR°R·Sѓ R¶ RѕS‡RѕR»RёRI. Rђ RїRѕS‚S–Rј RIRёRIS–RI RЅR° R°RIR°RЅSЃS†RµRЅSѓ SЂRёRyeSЃRgR°Ri, R·RgR°RIR°R»RѕSЃSЏ R± RїRѕR·R±R°RIR»RµRЅRёR№ RљR°SЂR»RѕRј XII R·R°R»RёS€RyeS–RI RїRѕR»S–S‚RёS‡RЅRѕRiRѕ RIRїR»RёRISѓ.

RђSЂRIS–Rg R“RѕSЂRЅ
RђSЂRIS–Rg R“RѕSЂRЅ

R† S‚SѓS‚ R·SЏSЃSѓRIR°R»RѕSЃSЏ, S‰Rѕ RѕR±RјRµR¶SѓRIR°S‚RёSЃSЏ R·R°RјS–RЅRѕSЋ RѕRgRЅRѕRiRѕ RyeRѕSЂRѕR»SЏ RЅR° S–RЅS€RѕRiRѕ SЃS‚R°RЅRё RЅRµ R·R±RёSЂR°SЋS‚SЊSЃSЏ. Rђ R°R±SЃRѕR»SЋS‚RёR·RјRѕRј RЅR°SЃRїSЂR°RIRgS– RЅRµR·R°RgRѕRIRѕR»RµRЅS– RISЃS– – S– SЃRµR»SЏRЅRё, RЅR° RїR»RµS‡S– SЏRyeRёS… R»SЏRiR»Rё RIRёS‚SЂR°S‚Rё RЅR° RIS–R№RЅSѓ, S– RїS–RgRїSЂRёS”RјS†S– S‚R° S‚RѕSЂRiS–RIS†S–, S‰Rѕ S‚S–R»SЊRyeRё R№ RїS–RgSЂR°S…RѕRISѓRIR°R»Rё R·R±RёS‚RyeRё, RIRёRyeR»RёRyeR°RЅS– R·R°RЅRµRїR°RgRѕRј R·RѕRIRЅS–S€RЅSЊRѕS— S‚RѕSЂRiS–RIR»S–, S– S€R»SЏS…S‚R°, SЏRyeR° R±RѕR»S–SЃRЅRѕ RїRµSЂRµR¶RёR»R° SЂRµRgSѓRyeS†S–SЋ S‚R° SѓSЃSѓRЅRµRЅRЅSЏ S—S— RIS–Rg RgRµSЂR¶R°RIRЅRёS… SЃRїSЂR°RI RЅR° RyeRѕSЂRёSЃS‚SЊ RyeRѕSЂRѕR»S–RISЃSЊRyeRёS… RїSЂRёR·RЅR°S‡RµRЅS†S–RI.

RGS–R±R° S‰Rѕ R·S– SЃRјRµSЂS‚SЋ RљR°SЂR»R° XII RЅRµRIRgRѕRIRѕR»RµRЅRЅSЏ RIR¶Rµ RЅRµ S‚SЂRµR±R° R±SѓR»Rѕ S…RѕRIR°S‚Rё S– RIRѕRЅRѕ RIRёS…R»SЋRїRЅSѓR»RѕSЃSЏ RЅR° RїSѓR±R»S–RyeSѓ. R‘R° R±S–R»SЊS€Rµ – RѕSЃRyeS–R»SЊRyeRё RїRѕRјRµSЂR»RёR№ RyeRѕSЂRѕR»SЊ RЅRµ RјR°RI SЃRёRЅS–RI S– RЅRµ R·R°R»RёS€RёRI S‡S–S‚RyeRёS… SЂRѕR·RїRѕSЂSЏRgR¶RµRЅSЊ S‰RѕRgRѕ S‚RѕRiRѕ, S…S‚Rѕ RјR°S” SѓSЃRїR°RgRyeSѓRIR°S‚Rё RїSЂRµSЃS‚RѕR», RIRёSЂS–S€SѓRIR°S‚Rё RїRёS‚R°RЅRЅSЏ RїSЂRѕ RЅR°SЃS‚SѓRїRЅRѕRiRѕ RјRѕRЅR°SЂS…R° RјR°R»Rё SЃR°RјRµ SЃS‚R°RЅRё – S‡RµSЂRµR· SЃRIRѕS—S… RїSЂRµRgSЃS‚R°RIRЅRёRyeS–RI Sѓ SЂRёRyeSЃRgR°R·S–.

RўRѕR¶ RgRµRїSѓS‚R°S‚Rё S‚RµRїRµSЂ SЃR°RјS– RјRѕRiR»Rё RgRёRyeS‚SѓRIR°S‚Rё SѓRјRѕRIRё R±SѓRgSЊ-SЏRyeRѕRјSѓ R· RїSЂRµS‚RµRЅRgRµRЅS‚S–RI.

RћRgRЅS–S”SЋ R· RїRµSЂS€RёS… RЅRµSЃRїRѕRgS–RIR°RЅRѕRye – SЏRyeSѓ RЅR°SЃRїSЂR°RIRgS– RјS–Ri RgRѕR±SЂRµ RїS–RgRiRѕS‚SѓRIR°S‚Rё S‚RѕR№ R¶Rµ R“RѕSЂRЅ – SЃS‚R°R»Rѕ RЅRµR±R°R¶R°RЅRЅSЏ SЃS‚R°RЅS–RI RIS–RgRgR°RIR°S‚Rё RyeRѕSЂRѕRЅSѓ R°RЅS– RiRµSЂS†RѕRiSѓ R“RѕR»SЊS€S‚RµR№RЅSЃSЊRyeRѕRјSѓ, R°RЅS– RїSЂRёRЅS†Sѓ R“RµSЃSЃRµRЅSЃSЊRyeRѕRјSѓ.

RќR°R№RyeSЂR°S‰RёRј RIR°SЂS–R°RЅS‚RѕRј RgR»SЏ SЃRµR±Rµ RIRѕRЅRё RIRёR·RЅR°R»Rё RyeRѕSЂRѕRЅR°S†S–SЋ SЃRµSЃS‚SЂRё RљR°SЂR»R° XII RЈR»SЊSЂS–RyeRё R•R»RµRѕRЅRѕSЂRё. RђR»Rµ R№ RIRѕRЅR° RїRµSЂRµRg S†RёRј RјR°R»R° SѓSЃSѓRЅSѓS‚Rё RIS–Rg RIR»R°RgRё RїSЂRёR·RЅR°S‡RµRЅS†S–RI RѕSЃS‚R°RЅRЅS–S… SЂRѕRyeS–RI RїSЂR°RIR»S–RЅRЅSЏ RїRѕRїRµSЂRµRgRЅRёRyeR° S– RїRѕRiRѕRgRёS‚RёSЃSЏ RїSЂR°RIRёS‚Rё SЂR°R·RѕRј R· RgRµSЂR¶R°RIRЅRѕSЋ SЂR°RgRѕSЋ S– SЂRёRyeSЃRgR°RiRѕRј.

RџSЂRёR№RЅSЏS‚Rё S†S– SѓRјRѕRIRё R“RѕSЂRЅ RїRµSЂRµRyeRѕRЅR°RI RјR°R№R±SѓS‚RЅSЋ RIRѕR»RѕRgR°SЂRyeSѓ RѕSЃRѕR±RёSЃS‚Rѕ. R† R»RёS€Rµ RїS–SЃR»SЏ S—S— R·RiRѕRgRё – Sѓ SЃS–S‡RЅS– 1719 SЂRѕRyeSѓ SЂRёRyeSЃRgR°Ri RѕS„S–S†S–R№RЅRѕ RIRёR·RЅR°RI RЈR»SЊSЂS–RyeSѓ R•R»RµRѕRЅRѕSЂSѓ RyeRѕSЂRѕR»RµRIRѕSЋ. R’ SЃRIRѕSЋ S‡RµSЂRiSѓ RyeRѕSЂRѕR»RµRIR° RѕRiRѕR»RѕSЃRёR»R° RїSЂRѕ RїSЂRёRїRёRЅRµRЅRЅSЏ SЂRµRgSѓRyeS†S–S— S‚R° RЅR°RgR°RЅRЅSЏ SЏRyeRЅR°R№S€RёSЂS€RёS… RїSЂRёRIS–R»RµS—RI S€R»SЏS…S‚S–, R·SЂS–RIRЅSЏRIS€Rё RI RїSЂR°RIR°S… RgSЂS–R±RЅRёS… S€R»SЏS…S‚RёS‡S–RI R· RIRёS‰RѕSЋ R·RЅR°S‚S‚SЋ.

RЈR»SЊSЂRёRyeR° R•R»RµRѕRЅRѕSЂR°
RЈR»SЊSЂRёRyeR° R•R»RµRѕRЅRѕSЂR°

RћR±RјRµR¶RµRЅRЅSЏ R°R±SЃRѕR»SЋS‚RЅRѕS— RIR»R°RgRё RјRѕRЅR°SЂS…R° RЅR° S‚S– S‡R°SЃRё SЃR°RјRѕ RїRѕ SЃRѕR±S– RIR¶Rµ R±SѓR»Rѕ SЃRїSЂR°RIR¶RЅSЊRѕSЋ SЂRµRIRѕR»SЋS†S–S”SЋ. RђR»Rµ S€RIRµRgSЃSЊRyeRёRј SЃS‚R°RЅR°Rј S†SЊRѕRiRѕ R±SѓR»Rѕ R·R°RјR°R»Rѕ. RџS–SЃR»SЏ RїRµRIRЅRёS… RIR°RiR°RЅSЊ SЂRёRyeSЃRgR°Ri RїRµSЂRµR±SЂR°RI RЅR° SЃRµR±Rµ S‰Rµ R№ RїRѕRIRЅRѕRIR°R¶RµRЅRЅSЏ RISЃS‚R°RЅRѕRIRёS‚Rё RЅRѕRIRёR№ SѓSЃS‚SЂS–R№ RgRµSЂR¶R°RIRё.

21 R»SЋS‚RѕRiRѕ 1719 SЂRѕS†S– RgRµRїSѓS‚R°S‚Rё SѓS…RIR°R»RёR»Rё RїS–RgRiRѕS‚RѕRIR»RµRЅSѓ R·R° SѓS‡R°SЃS‚SЋ R“RѕSЂRЅR° "R¤RѕSЂRјSѓ RїSЂR°RIR»S–RЅRЅSЏ" - S„R°RyeS‚RёS‡RЅRѕ RїRµSЂS€Sѓ RЅR° S”RISЂRѕRїRµR№SЃSЊRyeRѕRјSѓ RyeRѕRЅS‚RёRЅRµRЅS‚S– RyeRѕRЅSЃS‚RёS‚SѓS†S–SЋ, SЏRyeR° RIRёR·RЅR°S‡RёR»R° RїRѕRIRЅRѕRIR°R¶RµRЅRЅSЏ RyeRѕSЂRѕR»SЏ, SЂRёRyeSЃRgR°RiR° S‚R° RgRµSЂR¶R°RIRЅRѕS— SЂR°RgRё.

RџRѕRgRµR№RyeSѓRIR°R»Rё, S‰Rѕ S€RIRµRgRё RїSЂRё S†SЊRѕRјSѓ RЅR°RgRёS…R°R»RёSЃSЏ RїSЂRёRyeR»R°RgRѕRј R°RЅRiR»S–R№SЃSЊRyeRѕS— "RЎR»R°RIRЅRѕS— SЂRµRIRѕR»SЋS†S–S—" 1688 SЂRѕRyeSѓ, R°R»Rµ RI S‚RѕRјSѓ R№ SЃRїSЂR°RIR°, S‰Rѕ RIS–RiS–, S‚RѕSЂS– S‚R° RѕR±SЂR°RЅRёR№ RЅRёRјRё RyeRѕSЂRѕR»RµRј R’S–R»SЊRiRµR»SЊRј III RћSЂR°RЅSЃSЊRyeRёR№ RѕR±S–R№S€R»RёSЃSЏ RIR·R°RiR°R»S– R±RµR· RyeRѕRЅSЃS‚RёS‚SѓS†S–S—.

Rђ RѕS‚ S€RIRµRgSЃSЊRyeRёRј RЅRѕSѓ-S…R°Sѓ SЃS‚R°RI SЃR°RјRµ SЋSЂRёRgRёS‡RЅRѕ RѕS„RѕSЂRјR»RµRЅRёR№ SЂRѕR·RїRѕRgS–R» RїRѕRIRЅRѕRIR°R¶RµRЅSЊ – RїSЂRѕRIRµRgRµRЅRёR№ S‰Rµ R·R° RyeS–R»SЊRyeR° RgRµSЃSЏS‚RёSЂS–S‡ RgRѕ RњRѕRЅS‚RµSЃRyeS”.

"R¤RѕSЂRјR° RїSЂR°RIR»S–RЅRЅSЏ" 1719 SЂRѕRyeSѓ

"R¤RѕSЂRјR° RїSЂR°RIR»S–RЅRЅSЏ" RIRёR·RЅR°S‡R°R»R°, S‰Rѕ RyeRѕSЂRѕR»SЊ RЅR°RgR°R»S– RјSѓSЃRёS‚SЊ RyeRµSЂSѓRIR°S‚Rё RgRµSЂR¶R°RIRѕSЋ RIRёRyeR»SЋS‡RЅRѕ R·R° "RїRѕSЂR°RgR°RјRё" RgRµSЂR¶R°RIRЅRѕS— SЂR°RgRё, SЏRyeR° RI SЃRIRѕSЋ S‡RµSЂRiSѓ SЃRyeR»R°RgR°R»R°SЃSЏ R· RїSЂRµRgSЃS‚R°RIRЅRёRyeS–RI, RїSЂRёR·RЅR°S‡RµRЅRёS… SЂRёRyeSЃRgR°RiRѕRј.

RљRѕSЂRѕR»SЊ RЅR° R·R°SЃS–RgR°RЅRЅSЏS… SѓSЂSЏRgSѓ RјR°RI RѕRgSЂR°R·Sѓ RgRIR° RiRѕR»RѕSЃRё S– RI SЂR°R·S– SЂS–RIRЅRѕRiRѕ SЂRѕR·RїRѕRgS–R»Sѓ RiRѕR»RѕSЃS–RI R№RѕRiRѕ SЃR»RѕRIRѕ R±SѓR»Rѕ RIRёSЂS–S€R°R»SЊRЅRёRј. RђR»Rµ RI SЂR°R·S–, SЏRyeS‰Rѕ RїSЂRµRgSЃS‚R°RIRЅRёRyeRё SЃS‚R°RЅS–RI RgS–SЏR»Rё RѕRgRЅRѕSЃS‚R°R№RЅRѕ, RIRѕRЅRё R·R°RIR¶RgRё RјR°R»Rё RїRµSЂRµRIR°RiSѓ RЅR°Rg RјRѕRЅR°SЂS…RѕRј.

R RёRyeSЃRgR°Ri RјR°RI R·R±RёSЂR°S‚RёSЃSЏ SЂR°R· RЅR° S‚SЂRё SЂRѕRyeRё. R™RѕRјSѓ RЅR°R»RµR¶R°R»R° R·R°RyeRѕRЅRѕRgR°RIS‡R° RIR»R°RgR° S– RїSЂR°RIRѕ RIRёR·RЅR°S‡R°S‚Rё SЂRѕR·RјS–SЂRё RїRѕRgR°S‚RyeS–RI.

R®SЂRёRgRёS‡RЅRµ RѕS„RѕSЂRјR»RµRЅRЅSЏ R·RgRѕR±SѓS‚RyeS–RI SЂRµRIRѕR»SЋS†S–S— RIRёSЏRIRёR»RѕSЃSЏ RЅRµ R·R°R№RIRёRј. RЈR»SЊSЂS–RyeR° R•R»RµRѕRЅRѕSЂR° R·R° RIRgR°S‡RµSЋ R±SѓR»R° SЃS…RѕR¶R° RЅR° SЃRIRѕRiRѕ RїRѕRјRµSЂR»RѕRiRѕ R±SЂR°S‚R°. R† RЅRµ SЃS‚R°RIRёR»R°SЃSЏ RgRѕ RѕR±RјRµR¶RµRЅSЊ SЃRIRѕS—S… RїSЂR°RI SЏRye RgRѕ S‡RѕRiRѕSЃSЊ RIRёSЂS–S€RµRЅRѕRiRѕ SЂR°R· S– RЅR°R·R°RIR¶RgRё.



RџRѕRiRѕRgRёRIS€RёSЃSЊ SЃRїRѕS‡R°S‚RyeSѓ R· R“RѕSЂRЅRѕRј, RIRѕRЅR°, RIS‚S–Rј, S– "S„RѕSЂRјSѓ RїSЂR°RIR»S–RЅRЅSЏ" SЃRїSЂRёR№RјR°R»R° SЏRye S‚RёRјS‡R°SЃRѕRISѓ RїRѕSЃS‚SѓRїRyeSѓS‚R° S€SѓRyeR°R»R° SЃRїRѕSЃRѕR±S–RI RїRѕRIRµSЂRЅSѓS‚Rё SЃRѕR±S– RIR»R°RgSѓ. R—SЂRµS€S‚RѕSЋ, S†Rµ RїSЂRёR·RIRµR»Rѕ RgRѕ SЃRIR°SЂRyeRё RyeRѕSЂRѕR»RµRIRё R·S– SЃRIRѕS—Rј SЂR°RgRЅRёRyeRѕRј. RЇRyeRёR№ SЃR°Rј SЃRyeR»R°RI RїRѕRIRЅRѕRIR°R¶RµRЅRЅSЏ RyeRµSЂS–RIRЅRёRyeR° RgRµSЂR¶R°RIRЅRѕS— SЂR°RgRё, R° RїRѕS‚S–Rј R±SѓRI RIR·R°RiR°R»S– RIRёRyeR»SЋS‡RµRЅRёR№ R·S– SЃRyeR»R°RgSѓ SѓSЂSЏRgSѓ RЈR»SЊSЂS–RyeRѕSЋ R•R»RµRѕRЅRѕSЂRѕSЋ.

RџSЂRѕS‚Rµ RyeR°RїS–S‚SѓR»SЏS†S–SЏ R±SѓR»R° RЅRµ Sѓ R·RIRёS‡RyeR°S… R“RѕSЂRЅR°. R† RIS–RЅ RїRѕS‡R°RI RIRёR±SѓRgRѕRISѓRIR°S‚Rё RЅRѕRISѓ S–RЅS‚SЂRёRiSѓ – R·S– R·RIRµRgRµRЅRЅSЏRј RЅR° RїSЂRµSЃS‚RѕR» S‡RѕR»RѕRIS–RyeR° RyeRѕSЂRѕR»RµRIRё, S‚RѕRiRѕ SЃR°RјRѕRiRѕ R¤SЂS–RgSЂS–S…R° R“RµSЃSЃRµRЅSЃSЊRyeRѕRiRѕ, SЏRyeRѕRјSѓ RgRѕRЅRµRgR°RIRЅR° R· R№RѕRiRѕ R¶ RїRѕRgR°S‡S– SЃS‚R°RЅRё RIS–RgRјRѕRIR»SЏR»RёSЃSЏ RIS–RgRgR°RIR°S‚Rё RyeRѕSЂRѕRЅSѓ.

RЇRye RgRёRIRЅRѕ, R°R»Rµ RI S†SЊRѕRјSѓ RїR»R°RЅRё R“RѕSЂRЅR° S†S–R»RyeRѕRј SЃRїS–RIRїR°RgR°R»Rё R· RїSЂR°RiRЅRµRЅRЅSЏRјRё RЈR»SЊSЂS–RyeRё R•R»RµRѕRЅRѕSЂRё – RIRѕRЅR° SЃRїSЂR°RIRgS– RyeRѕS…R°R»R° SЃRIRѕRiRѕ S‡RѕR»RѕRIS–RyeR° S– RIRIR°R¶R°R»R° R№RѕRiRѕ RIRѕR»RѕRgR°SЂRµRј, RyeSЂR°S‰RёRј R·R° SЃRµR±Rµ.

RўRѕR¶ RјRёRЅSѓR»Rѕ R·RѕRISЃS–Rј RЅRµR±R°RiR°S‚Rѕ S‡R°SЃSѓ S– RI 1720 SЂRѕS†S– SЂRёRyeSЃRgR°Ri RїRѕRiRѕRgRёRISЃSЏ RЅR° RyeRѕSЂRѕRЅR°S†S–SЋ R¤SЂS–RgSЂS–S…R° – R·R° SѓRјRѕRIRё RIS–RgRјRѕRIRё RЈR»SЊSЂS–RyeRё R•R»RµRѕRЅRѕSЂRё RIS–Rg SѓSЃS–S… RIR»R°RgRЅRёS… RїRѕRIRЅRѕRIR°R¶RµRЅSЊ (RIRѕRЅR°, RIS‚S–Rј, RgRѕ SЃR°RјRѕS— SЃRјRµSЂS‚S– R·R°R»RёS€R°R»R°SЃSЏ RyeRѕSЂRѕR»RµRIRѕSЋ S– RgSЂSѓR¶RёRЅRѕSЋ R¤SЂS–RgSЂS–S…R° – Rћ.Rњ.). Rђ RЅRѕRIRёR№ RyeRѕSЂRѕR»SЊ RѕRgSЂR°R·Sѓ R¶ RїRѕRIRµSЂRЅSѓRI R“RѕSЂRЅR° RgRѕ RyeRµSЂS–RIRЅRёS†S‚RIR° RgRµSЂR¶R°RIRЅRѕSЋ SЂR°RgRѕSЋ.

R¤SЂS–RgSЂS–S… I
R¤SЂS–RgSЂS–S… I

R—RјS–RЅR° RјRѕRЅR°SЂS…R° RїSЂRё S†SЊRѕRјSѓ RїSЂRёR·RIRµR»R° RgRѕ S‰Rµ R±S–R»SЊS€RѕRiRѕ RѕR±RјRµR¶RµRЅRЅSЏ RyeRѕSЂRѕR»S–RISЃSЊRyeRѕS— RIR»R°RgRё. R¤SЂS–RgSЂS–S…, S‰RѕRїSЂR°RIRgR°, RЅR°RјR°RiR°RISЃSЏ S…RѕS‡R° R± R·R°RyeSЂS–RїRёS‚Rё RїSЂRµSЃS‚RѕR» R·R° RiRµSЃSЃRµRЅSЃSЊRyeRѕSЋ RgRёRЅR°SЃS‚S–S”SЋ, R°R»Rµ SЂRёRyeSЃRgR°Ri RЅR°RIS–S‚SЊ RЅR° S†Rµ RЅRµ RїRѕRiRѕRgRёRISЃSЏ.

RќR°S‚RѕRјS–SЃS‚SЊ RIRѕR»RѕRgR°SЂSЋ RgRѕRIRµR»RѕSЃSЊ RIR·SЏS‚Rё RЅR° SЃRµR±Rµ RIS–RgRїRѕRIS–RgR°R»SЊRЅS–SЃS‚SЊ R·R° RїSЂRёRЅRёR·R»RёRIS– RјRёSЂRЅS– RgRѕRiRѕRIRѕSЂRё R· R‘SЂRёS‚R°RЅS–S”SЋ S– R“R°RЅRЅRѕRIRµSЂRѕRј, RџSЂSѓSЃSЃS–S”SЋ, R”R°RЅS–S”SЋ S‚R° R RѕSЃS–S”SЋ, RyeRѕR¶RЅRёR№ R· SЏRyeRёS… RїRµSЂRµRgR±R°S‡R°RI RIS‚SЂR°S‚Sѓ S‡RµSЂRiRѕRIRёS… R·R°RјRѕSЂSЃSЊRyeRёS… S‚RµSЂRёS‚RѕSЂS–R№ S‚R° RgR°RIRЅS–S… S€RIRµRgSЃSЊRyeRёS… RїSЂRёRIS–R»RµS—RI.

RљRѕR»Rё R¶ RyeRѕSЂRѕR»SЊ RIS–RgRјRѕRIRёRISЃSЏ R№ RIS–Rg S‚SЂR°RgRёS†S–R№RЅRѕS— RgR»SЏ RЎS‚RѕRyeRiRѕR»SЊRјR° RїS–RgS‚SЂRёRјRyeRё R“RѕR»SЊS€S‚RµR№RЅR°, R±R°RiR°S‚Rѕ S…S‚Rѕ R· RїS–RgRgR°RЅRёS… RIR·R°RiR°R»S– R·R°RїS–RgRѕR·SЂRёRI, S‰Rѕ R·SЂRѕR±RёRI RIS–RЅ S†Rµ RЅRµ R·R°SЂR°RgRё RїSЂRёRјRёSЂRµRЅRЅSЏ R· R”R°RЅS–S”SЋ, R° S‰RѕR± RїRѕRјSЃS‚RёS‚RёSЃSЏ RyeRѕRЅRyeSѓSЂRµRЅS‚Sѓ – RљR°SЂR»Sѓ R¤SЂS–RgSЂS–S…Sѓ, SЏRyeRёR№ S‚R°Rye S– RЅRµ RѕR±R»RёS€RёRI RїSЂRµS‚RµRЅR·S–R№ RЅR° S€RIRµRgSЃSЊRyeRёR№ RїSЂRµSЃS‚RѕR».

RЇRye RЅR°SЃR»S–RgRѕRye, RI SЂRёRyeSЃRgR°R·S–, SЃRyeR»RёRyeR°RЅRѕRјSѓ RI 1723 SЂRѕS†S–, R·SЏRIRёR»R°SЃSЏ RѕRїRѕR·RёS†S–R№RЅR°, "RiRѕR»SЊS€S‚RµR№RЅSЃSЊRyeR°" RїR°SЂS‚S–SЏ. RџSЂR°RiRЅSѓS‡Rё RїRѕSЃR»R°R±RёS‚Rё SЃSѓRїSЂRѕS‚RёRIRЅRёRyeS–RI - "RiRµSЃSЃRµRЅS†S–RI", "RiRѕR»SЊS€S‚RµR№RЅS†S–" RgRѕRјRѕRiR»RёSЃSЏ RЅR°SЃS‚SѓRїRЅRёS…, RЅRµ RјRµRЅS€ SЂRµRIRѕR»SЋS†S–R№RЅRёS… RyeSЂRѕRyeS–RI. RGRѕS‡R° S„RѕSЂRјR°R»SЊRЅRѕ RgS–SЏR»Rё RїS–Rg S†S–R»RyeRѕRј RyeRѕRЅSЃRµSЂRIR°S‚RёRIRЅRёRјRё RiR°SЃR»R°RјRё.



R—R° S—S…RЅSЊRѕSЋ S–RЅS–S†S–R°S‚RёRIRѕSЋ SЂRёRyeSЃRgR°Ri RѕR±RјRµR¶RёRI RIR»R°RgSѓ RЅRµ R»RёS€Rµ RyeRѕSЂRѕR»SЏ, R° R№ RgRµSЂR¶R°RIRЅRѕS— SЂR°RgRё. R† R·R°RїSЂRѕRIR°RgRёRI RїR°SЂR»R°RјRµRЅS‚SЃSЊRyeRёR№ RyeRѕRЅS‚SЂRѕR»SЊ RЅR°Rg SѓSЂSЏRgRѕRј. RўRµRїRµSЂ SЃR°RјRµ RgRµRїSѓS‚R°S‚Rё RIRёR·RЅR°S‡R°R»Rё R№RѕRiRѕ SЃRyeR»R°Rg S‚R° RЅR°RїSЂSЏRј SѓSЂSЏRgRѕRIRѕS— RїRѕR»S–S‚RёRyeRё. Rђ SЏRyeS‰Rѕ RїRѕSЃR°RgRѕRIS†S– RgS–SЏR»Rё RISЃSѓRїRµSЂRµS‡ RIRyeR°R·S–RIRyeR°Rј SЂRёRyeSЃRgR°RiSѓ – S—S… RЅRµ R»RёS€Rµ RјRѕRiR»Rё SѓSЃSѓRЅSѓS‚Rё R· RїRѕSЃR°RgRё, R° R№ RїSЂRёS‚SЏRiRЅSѓS‚Rё RgRѕ RIS–RgRїRѕRIS–RgR°R»SЊRЅRѕSЃS‚S–.

R©RѕR± R·RјS–S†RЅRёS‚Rё SЃRIRѕS— RїRѕR·RёS†S–S—, SЃR°RјRµ "RiRѕR»SЊS€S‚RµR№RЅS†S–" R·R°RgRѕRIRѕR»SЊRЅRёR»Rё RiRѕR»RѕRIRЅS– RIRёRјRѕRiRё SЃS‚R°RЅS–RI. R”SЂS–R±RЅSѓ S€R»SЏS…S‚Sѓ RѕSЃS‚R°S‚RѕS‡RЅRѕ R·SЂS–RIRЅSЏR»Rё Sѓ RїSЂR°RIR°S… R· RIRёS‰RѕSЋ R·RЅR°S‚S‚SЋ. RџSЂRё S†SЊRѕRјSѓ RIRёS‰S– SѓSЂSЏRgRѕRIS– RїRѕSЃR°RgRё RјRѕRiR»Rё RѕR±S–R№RјR°S‚Rё R»RёS€Rµ S€R»SЏS…S‚RёS‡S–.

RЎRISЏS‰RµRЅRёRyeRё S‚R° RјS–S‰R°RЅRё RIS–RgSЃS‚RѕSЏR»Rё SЃRIRѕS” RїSЂR°RIRѕ RIRѕR»RѕRgS–S‚Rё R·RµRјR»SЏRјRё, S‰Rѕ SЂR°RЅS–S€Rµ RЅR°R»RµR¶R°R»Rё S€R»SЏS…S‚S–. RЎRµR»SЏRЅRё RѕS‚SЂRёRјR°R»Rё RјRѕR¶R»RёRIS–SЃS‚SЊ RїRµSЂRµS‚RIRѕSЂSЋRIR°S‚Rё RgS–R»SЏRЅRyeRё RgRµSЂR¶R°RIRЅRѕS— R·RµRјR»S– RЅR° SЃRIRѕSЋ RїRѕRIRЅSѓ RIR»R°SЃRЅS–SЃS‚SЊ – S– R·R° RyeS–R»SЊRyeR° RgRµSЃSЏS‚RёR»S–S‚SЊ SЃR°RјRµ RI S—S…RЅS–S… SЂSѓRyeR°S… RѕRїRёRЅRёR»R°SЃSЏ R±S–R»SЊS€S–SЃS‚SЊ R·RµRјRµR»SЊ Sѓ RЁRIRµS†S–S—.

R”RµSЂR¶R°RIR° RIR·SЏR»R° RїS–Rg SЃRIS–R№ R·R°S…RёSЃS‚ S‚RѕSЂRiS–RIR»SЋ S‚R° RїS–RgRїSЂRёS”RјRЅRёS†S‚RIRѕ. RќR°R№SЂS–S€SѓS‡S–S€RёRј RyeSЂRѕRyeRѕRј RI S†SЊRѕRјSѓ RЅR°RїSЂSЏRјRyeSѓ SЃS‚R°R»Rѕ SѓS…RIR°R»RµRЅRЅSЏ RI 1724 SЂRѕS†S– S‚R°Rye R·RIR°RЅRѕRiRѕ RџSЂRѕRgSѓRyeS‚-RїR»R°RyeR°S‚Sѓ, SЏRyeRёR№ RїRµSЂRµRgR±R°S‡R°RI, S‰Rѕ S–RЅRѕR·RµRјRЅS– SЃSѓRgRЅR° RјRѕRiR»Rё RїSЂRёRIRѕR·RёS‚Rё RgRѕ RЁRIRµS†S–S— R»RёS€Rµ S‚RѕRIR°SЂRё S–R· SЃRIRѕS”S— RyeSЂR°S—RЅRё, RISЃS– S–RЅS€S– RїRµSЂRµRIRµR·RµRЅRЅSЏ RјR°R»Rё R·RgS–R№SЃRЅSЋRIR°S‚RёSЃSЏ RIRёRyeR»SЋS‡RЅRѕ S€RIRµRgSЃSЊRyeRёRјRё RyeRѕSЂR°R±R»SЏRјRё.

RЁRIRµRgSЃSЊRyeRёR№ RїRѕSЂS‚
RЁRIRµRgSЃSЊRyeRёR№ RїRѕSЂS‚

RЈS…RIR°R»RµRЅRёR№ R·R° R·SЂR°R·RyeRѕRј R°RЅRiR»S–R№SЃSЊRyeRѕRiRѕ RќR°RIS–RiR°S†S–R№RЅRѕRiRѕ R°RyeS‚Sѓ, S†RµR№ R·R°RyeRѕRЅ RјS–Ri, S‰RѕRїSЂR°RIRgR°, RЅRµ S‚R°Rye R·R°S…RёSЃS‚RёS‚Rё RIS–S‚S‡RёR·RЅSЏRЅSѓ RїSЂRѕRјRёSЃR»RѕRIS–SЃS‚SЊ, SЏRye RїRѕSЃRIR°SЂRёS‚Rё RЎS‚RѕRyeRiRѕR»SЊRј S–R· R№RѕRiRѕ RiRѕR»RѕRIRЅRёRј S‚RѕSЂRiS–RIRµR»SЊRЅRёRј RїR°SЂS‚RЅRµSЂRѕRј, R‘SЂRёS‚R°RЅS–S”SЋ. R”Rѕ S‚RѕRiRѕ R¶ RI S‚RѕR№ SЃR°RјRёR№ RјRѕRјRµRЅS‚, RyeRѕR»Rё R“RѕSЂRЅ RЅR°RјR°RiR°RISЃSЏ SЃS‚RIRѕSЂRёS‚Rё R· RЅRµSЋ SЃRѕSЋR·.

RљRµSЂS–RIRЅRёRyeSѓ SѓSЂSЏRgSѓ RgRѕRIRµR»RѕSЃSЏ RIRёRyeRѕSЂRёSЃS‚R°S‚Rё SѓSЃSЋ SЃRIRѕSЋ RgRёRїR»RѕRјR°S‚RёS‡RЅSѓ SЃRїSЂRёS‚RЅS–SЃS‚SЊ RgR»SЏ S‚RѕRiRѕ, S‰RѕR± RI R›RѕRЅRgRѕRЅS– RїSЂRѕRyeRѕRIS‚RЅSѓR»Rё S†RµR№ RIRёRїR°Rg RЅR° SЃRIRѕSЋ R°RgSЂRµSЃSѓ – R·SЂRµS€S‚RѕSЋ, R°RЅRiR»S–R№S†SЏRј RI S‚RѕR№ S‡R°SЃ R±SѓR»Rѕ RgSѓR¶Rµ RїRѕS‚SЂS–R±RЅRµ S€RIRµRgSЃSЊRyeRµ R·R°R»S–R·Rѕ S– RIRѕRЅRё R·SЂRѕR±RёR»Rё RIRёRiR»SЏRg, S‰Rѕ RїSЂRёR№RЅSЏR»Rё RїRѕSЏSЃRЅRµRЅRЅSЏ.

R’R·R°RiR°R»S–, R·RgR°S”S‚SЊSЃSЏ RgRёRIRѕRј, S‰Rѕ RIRµSЃSЊ S†RµR№ S‡R°SЃ, RїRѕRїSЂRё RISЃS– R·R°S…RѕRgRё "RiRѕR»SЊS€S‚RµR№RЅS†S–RI" R“RѕSЂRЅ R·R°R»RёS€R°RISЃSЏ RїSЂRё RIR»R°RgS–. RџSЂRѕS‚Rµ RIS–RЅ RЅRµ RїSЂRѕSЃS‚Rѕ RIS‚SЂRёRјR°RISЃSЏ Sѓ RyeSЂS–SЃR»S–, R° R№ RїRµSЂRµR№S€RѕRI R·RiRѕRgRѕRј Sѓ RЅR°SЃS‚SѓRї. RџRѕSЃR»R°R±RёRIS€Rё RѕRїRѕRЅRµRЅS‚S–RI RI SЂRёRyeSЃRgR°R·S– S– RIRёS‡RёSЃS‚RёRIS€Rё SѓSЃS–S… S—S…RЅS–S… RїSЂRёS…RёR»SЊRЅRёRyeS–RI R· SѓSЂSЏRgSѓ.

R—R° RyeS–R»SЊRyeR° SЂRѕRyeS–RI "RiRѕR»SЊS€S‚RµR№RЅSЃSЊRyeR°" RїR°SЂS‚S–SЏ R±SѓR»R° RїRѕRIRЅS–SЃS‚SЋ SЂRѕR·RiSЂRѕRјR»RµRЅR°. RђR»Rµ R±S–R»SЊS€S–SЃS‚SЊ SЂS–S€RµRЅSЊ, SѓS…RIR°R»RµRЅRёS… R·R° S—S— S–RЅS–S†S–R°S‚RёRIRѕSЋ, R·R°R»RёS€RёR»RёSЃSЏ RI SЃRёR»S–.

R’ RgRµS‡RѕRјSѓ R“RѕSЂRЅ RЅR°RIS–S‚SЊ RїSЂRѕRgRѕRIR¶RёRI R»S–RЅS–SЋ, R·R°RїRѕS‡R°S‚RyeRѕRIR°RЅSѓ RѕRїRѕRЅRµRЅS‚R°RјRё – RI 1731 SЂRѕS†S–, SЃRyeR°R¶S–RјRѕ, R±SѓR»R° R·R°SЃRЅRѕRIR°RЅR° S€RIRµRgSЃSЊRyeR° RћSЃS‚-R†RЅRgSЃSЊRyeR° RyeRѕRјRїR°RЅS–SЏ, R° RI 1734 – SѓS…RIR°R»RµRЅRёR№ RћSЂSЃR»R°Ri, S‚RѕR±S‚Rѕ R¦RёRIS–R»SЊRЅRёR№ RyeRѕRgRµRyeSЃ (R·R° SЃS–RјRgRµSЃSЏS‚ SЂRѕRyeS–RI RgRѕ RЅR°RїRѕR»RµRѕRЅS–RISЃSЊRyeRѕRiRѕ, RЅR°RiR°RgR°S”RјRѕ – Rћ.Rњ.).

RџSЂRёRIS–R»RµR№, RЅR°RgR°RЅRёR№ S€RIRµRgSЃSЊRyeS–R№ RћSЃS‚-R†RЅRgSЃSЊRyeS–R№ RyeRѕRјRїR°RЅS–S—
RџSЂRёRIS–R»RµR№, RЅR°RgR°RЅRёR№ S€RIRµRgSЃSЊRyeS–R№ RћSЃS‚-R†RЅRgSЃSЊRyeS–R№ RyeRѕRјRїR°RЅS–S—

RўR° RiRѕR»RѕRIRЅRµ – R·R±RµSЂS–RiSЃSЏ RyeRѕRјRїSЂRѕRјS–SЃ RјS–R¶ SЃS‚R°RЅR°RјRё, S‰Rѕ SЃS‚R°RI RѕSЃRЅRѕRIRѕSЋ RїRѕR»S–S‚RёS‡RЅRѕS— SЃRёSЃS‚RµRјRё RЁRIRµS†S–S— RЅR° RgRµSЃSЏS‚RёSЂS–S‡S‡SЏ. R’R»R°SЃRЅRµ S†S– SЂRµRIRѕR»SЋS†S–R№RЅS– RgRµSЃSЏS‚RёSЂS–S‡S‡SЏ S– SѓRIS–R№S€R»Rё RgRѕ S–SЃS‚RѕSЂS–S— RїS–Rg RЅR°R·RIRѕSЋ "RgRѕR±Rё SЃRIRѕR±RѕRgRё" - SЃS‚R°RIS€Rё SѓRЅS–RyeR°R»SЊRЅRёRј RµRyeSЃRїRµSЂRёRјRµRЅS‚RѕRј RїR°SЂR»R°RјRµRЅS‚SЃSЊRyeRѕRiRѕ RїSЂR°RIR»S–RЅRЅSЏ RI RјR°R№R¶Rµ S†S–R»RyeRѕRј R°R±SЃRѕR»SЋS‚RёSЃS‚SЃSЊRyeS–R№ RyeRѕRЅS‚RёRЅRµRЅS‚R°R»SЊRЅS–R№ R„RISЂRѕRїS–.

R¦RёRIS–R»SЊRЅRёR№ RyeRѕRgRµRyeSЃ 1734 SЂRѕRyeSѓ
R¦RёRIS–R»SЊRЅRёR№ RyeRѕRgRµRyeSЃ 1734 SЂRѕRyeSѓ

R”R»SЏ RјRµS€RyeR°RЅS†S–RI SЃSѓSЃS–RgRЅS–S… RyeSЂR°S—RЅ RѕR±RјRµR¶RµRЅRЅSЏ RIR»R°RgRё RyeRѕSЂRѕR»SЏ S‚RѕRgS– RgRѕSЂS–RIRЅSЋRIR°R»Rѕ RїRѕSЃR»R°R±R»RµRЅRЅSЋ RgRµSЂR¶R°RIRё. RњRѕR¶R»RёRIRѕ S‚RѕRјSѓ "S€RIRµRgSЃSЊRyeRёR№ RµRyeSЃRїRµSЂRёRјRµRЅS‚" RIRѕRЅRё SЃRїSЂRёR№RјR°R»Rё R·S– SЃRyeRµRїSЃRёSЃRѕRј (S‚S–, R·RIRёS‡R°R№RЅRѕ, S…S‚Rѕ RїSЂRѕ RЅSЊRѕRiRѕ R·RЅR°RI – Rћ.Rњ.). RЁRIRµS†S–SЏ RI S†RµR№ S‡R°SЃ S– SЃRїSЂR°RIRgS– R±SѓR»R° RїRѕSЃR»R°R±R»RµRЅR°.

RџSЂRѕS‚Rµ SЂRµRIRѕR»SЋS†S–SЏ R±SѓR»R° S€RIRёRgS€Rµ RЅR°SЃR»S–RgRyeRѕRј, R°RЅS–R¶ RїSЂRёS‡RёRЅRѕSЋ S‚R°RyeRѕS— SЃR»R°R±RyeRѕSЃS‚S–. R“RѕR»RѕRIRЅRѕSЋ R¶ S—S— RїSЂRёS‡RёRЅRѕSЋ R±SѓR»R° RїRѕSЂR°R·RyeR° RI RџS–RIRЅS–S‡RЅS–R№ RIS–R№RЅS–, SЏRyeRѕS— RЁRIRµS†S–SЏ R·R°R·RЅR°R»R° SЏRyeSЂR°R· R·R° RgRѕR±Rё R°R±SЃRѕR»SЋS‚RёR·RјSѓ. R“RѕSЂRЅ S‚R° S–RЅS€S– RIR°S‚R°R¶RyeRё RїR°SЂR»R°RјRµRЅS‚Sѓ R»RёS€Rµ RЅR°RјR°RiR°R»RёSЃSЏ RїRѕRgRѕR»R°S‚Rё RЅR°SЃR»S–RgRyeRё S†S–S”S— RїRѕSЂR°R·RyeRё S‚R° R·R°RјRёSЂRёS‚RёSЃSЏ R· SЃSѓSЃS–RgR°RјRё. R† R·R° S†Rµ S—S…, RgRѕ SЂRµS‡S–, RїRѕSЃS‚S–R№RЅRѕ RyeSЂRёS‚RёRyeSѓRIR°R»Rё RѕRїRѕRЅRµRЅS‚Rё RISЃRµSЂRµRgRёRЅS– SЃR°RјRѕS— RЁRIRµS†S–S—.

R—SЂRµS€S‚RѕSЋ, S–R· R·R°R»RёS€RyeS–RI "RiRѕR»SЊS€S‚RµR№RЅSЃSЊRyeRѕS—" RїR°SЂS‚S–S— S‚R° RgRµSЏRyeRёS… RЅRѕRIRёS… RiSЂSѓRї RIRёRЅRёRyeR»R° RЅRѕRIR° RѕRїRѕR·RёS†S–R№RЅR° SЃRёR»R°, S‡Rё RЅRµ RЅR°R№RiRѕR»RѕRIRЅS–S€RѕSЋ RIRёRјRѕRiRѕSЋ SЏRyeRѕS— R±SѓRI SЂRµRIR°RЅS€ R·R° RїRѕSЂR°R·RyeSѓ S– RIS–RgRЅRѕRIR»RµRЅRЅSЏ S–RјRїRµSЂSЃSЊRyeRѕS— RIRµR»RёS‡S– RЁRIRµS†S–S—.

RџRѕR»S–S‚RёRyeSѓ R“RѕSЂRЅR° RIRѕRЅR° RIRIR°R¶R°R»Rё RЅR°RgS‚Rѕ RјRёSЂRѕR»SЋR±RЅRѕSЋ, S‚RѕRјSѓ RЅR°R·RёRIR°R»R° R№RѕRiRѕ RїSЂRёS…RёR»SЊRЅRёRyeS–RI "RЅS–S‡RЅRёRјRё RyeRѕRIRїR°RyeR°RјRё". RЎRµR±Rµ R¶ RѕRїRѕR·RёS†S–RѕRЅRµSЂRё RiRѕSЂRgRѕ RЅR°R·RёRIR°R»Rё "RїR°SЂS‚S–S”SЋ RyeR°RїRµR»SЋS…S–RI", RiRѕR»RѕRIRЅRёS… SѓR±RѕSЂS–RI "SЃRїSЂR°RIR¶RЅS–S… S€R»SЏS…S‚RёS‡S–RI", RiRѕS‚RѕRIRёS… R±RёS‚RёSЃSЏ R·R° R±R°S‚SЊRyeS–RIS‰RёRЅSѓ R·R° R±SѓRgSЊ-SЏRyeRёS… RѕR±SЃS‚R°RIRёRЅ.

R›S–RgRµSЂRѕRј RЅRѕRIRѕS— SЃRёR»Rё SЃS‚R°RI RѕRgRёRЅ R· RyeRѕR»RёS€RЅS–S… RIR°S‚R°R¶RyeS–RI "RiRѕR»SЊS€S‚RµR№RЅS†S–RI" RљR°SЂR» R®R»R»RµRЅR±RѕSЂRi, SЏRyeRёR№ R·R° S‡R°SЃS–RI RљR°SЂR»R° XII R±SѓRI RїRѕSЃR»RѕRј Sѓ R›RѕRЅRgRѕRЅS–.

R—R°RiRѕSЃS‚SЂRµRЅRЅSЏ RїRѕR»S–S‚RёS‡RЅRѕS— R±RѕSЂRѕS‚SЊR±Rё, RgRѕ SЂRµS‡S–, SЃRїSЂRёSЏR»Rѕ SЂRѕR·RIRёS‚RyeSѓ RI RЁRIRµS†S–S— RїSѓR±R»S–S†RёSЃS‚RёRyeRё S‚R° R¶SѓSЂRЅR°R»S–SЃS‚RёRyeRё. R’ 1730 RI RyeSЂR°S—RЅS– R·SЏRIRёRISЃSЏ RїRµSЂS€RёR№ S‡R°SЃRѕRїRёSЃ, RїRѕRgS–R±RЅRёR№ RgRѕ R°RЅRiR»S–R№SЃSЊRyeRёS…, - "RЁRIRµRgSЃSЊRyeRёR№ RђSЂRiSѓSЃ", RћR»R°S„R° R”R°R»S–RЅR°.

RљR°SЂR» R®R»R»RµRЅR±RѕSЂRi
RљR°SЂR» R®R»R»RµRЅR±RѕSЂRi

RџRѕS‡RёRЅR°SЋS‡Rё R· 1734 SЂRѕRyeSѓ "RyeR°RїRµR»SЋS…Rё" R·RgRѕR±SѓRIR°R»Rё RѕRgRЅSѓ RїRѕR·RёS†S–SЋ RI SЂRёRyeSЃRgR°R·S– R·R° S–RЅS€RѕSЋ. R—SЂRѕSЃS‚R°RЅRЅSЋ S—S…RЅSЊRѕS— RїRѕRїSѓR»SЏSЂRЅRѕSЃS‚S– SЃRїSЂRёSЏR»R° RЅRµ R»RёS€Rµ SЂRµRIR°RЅS€RёSЃS‚SЃSЊRyeR° SЂRёS‚RѕSЂRёRyeR°, R° R№ RIRёRјRѕRiRё RїRѕSЃR»S–RgRѕRIRЅS–S€Rµ R·R°S…RёS‰R°S‚Rё S–RЅS‚RµSЂRµSЃRё S€RIRµRgSЃSЊRyeRѕS— RїSЂRѕRјRёSЃR»RѕRIRѕSЃS‚S– S– S‚RѕSЂRiS–RIR»S–. R¦Rµ RЅRµ RјRѕRiR»Rѕ RЅRµ S‚S–S€RёS‚Rё RјS–SЃS‚SЏRЅ S– RїS–RgRїSЂRёS”RјS†S–RI R·R°RiR°R»RѕRј.

RџS–SЃR»SЏ RѕS‚SЂRёRјR°RЅRЅSЏ R±S–R»SЊS€RѕSЃS‚S– RI SЃRµRyeSЂRµS‚RЅRѕRјSѓ RyeRѕRјS–S‚RµS‚S– RѕRїRѕRЅRµRЅS‚Rё R“RѕSЂRЅR° RїRѕS‡R°R»Rё RїRµSЂRµRјRѕRIRёRЅRё R· RїRѕSЃR»RѕRј R¤SЂR°RЅS†S–S— S– RјR°R№R¶Rµ RѕRgSЂR°R·Sѓ RѕS‚SЂRёRјR°R»Rё RIS–Rg RЅSЊRѕRiRѕ "SЃSѓR±SЃRёRgS–S—" RЅR° RIRїSЂRѕRIR°RgR¶RµRЅRЅSЏ S–RgRµS— SЃRѕSЋR·Sѓ S–R· R’RµSЂSЃR°R»RµRј.

R¦Rµ RgRѕR·RIRѕR»RёR»Rѕ "S„SЂR°RЅRyeRѕS„S–R»R°Rј" Sѓ 1738 SЂRѕS†S– RgRѕRјRѕRiS‚RёSЃSЏ RIS–RgSЃS‚R°RIRyeRё R“RѕSЂRЅR°, RЅR° S†RµR№ SЂR°R· RѕSЃS‚R°S‚RѕS‡RЅRѕS—, S‚R° SЂRѕR·SЃR»S–RgSѓRIR°RЅRЅSЏ RgS–SЏR»SЊRЅRѕSЃS‚S– R№RѕRiRѕ RyeR°R±S–RЅRµS‚Sѓ. RќRѕRIRёR№ SѓSЂSЏRg RѕS‡RѕR»RёRI R®R»R»RµRЅR±RѕSЂRi, S– RIR»R°RgR° RѕSЃS‚R°S‚RѕS‡RЅRѕ RїRµSЂRµR№S€R»R° RgRѕ SЂSѓRye"RyeR°RїRµR»SЋS…S–RI".

RЎR»S–Rg R·R°R·RЅR°S‡RёS‚Rё, S‰Rѕ SЃRIRѕS— RѕR±S–S†SЏRЅRyeRё – S– RIRёR±RѕSЂS†SЏRј, S– SЃRїRѕRЅSЃRѕSЂR°Rј – RIRѕRЅRё RїRѕS‡R°R»Rё RIS‚S–R»SЋRIR°S‚Rё RI R¶RёS‚S‚SЏ R· SѓSЃS–S”SЋ RјRѕR¶R»RёRIRѕSЋ RЅR° S‚RѕR№ S‡R°SЃ SЃSѓRјR»S–RЅRЅS–SЃS‚SЋ. R—R°RѕS…RѕS‡SѓRIR°R»Rё R·R°SЃRЅSѓRIR°RЅRЅSЏ S– SЂRѕR·RIRёS‚RѕRye RјR°RЅSѓS„R°RyeS‚SѓSЂ. RќR°RgR°RIR°R»Rё RїS–RgRїSЂRёS”RјS†SЏRј RgRµSЂR¶R°RIRЅS– RїRѕR·RёRyeRё S– SЃRїR»R°S‡SѓRIR°R»Rё S—Rј RѕSЃRѕR±R»RёRIS– RїSЂRµRјS–S— R·R° RµRyeSЃRїRѕSЂS‚ S‚RѕRIR°SЂS–RI.

R¤SЂR°RЅS†S–SЏ RїRµSЂRµS‚RIRѕSЂRёR»R°SЃSЏ RЅR° RiRѕR»RѕRIRЅRѕRiRѕ SЃRѕSЋR·RЅRёRyeR° RЁRIRµS†S–S—. R RѕR·RїRѕS‡R°R»R°SЃSЏ RїS–RgRiRѕS‚RѕRIRyeR° RgRѕ RIS–R№RЅRё R· R RѕSЃS–S”SЋ R·R°SЂR°RgRё RIS–RgRIRѕSЋRIR°RЅRЅSЏ R·RµRјRµR»SЊ, RIS‚SЂR°S‡RµRЅRёS… RїS–SЃR»SЏ RџS–RIRЅS–S‡RЅRѕS— RIS–R№RЅRё.

RўSѓSЂRµ R‘RµR»SЊRyeRµ, RѕRgRёRЅ R· RIR°S‚R°R¶RyeS–RI
RўSѓSЂRµ R‘RµR»SЊRyeRµ, RѕRgRёRЅ R· RIR°S‚R°R¶RyeS–RI "RyeRѕRIRїR°RyeS–RI". R’ RјRѕR»RѕRgRѕSЃS‚S– R±SѓRI RїRѕSЂR°RЅRµRЅRёR№ RїS–Rg RџRѕR»S‚R°RIRѕSЋ

RђR»Rµ RїSЂRё S†SЊRѕRјSѓ S– RјRѕRIRё RЅRµ R±SѓR»Rѕ RїSЂRѕ RIS–RgRјRѕRISѓ RIS–Rg RїR°SЂR»R°RјRµRЅS‚SЃSЊRyeRѕRiRѕ RїSЂR°RIR»S–RЅRЅSЏ S‡Rё S…RѕS‡R° R± S‡R°SЃS‚RyeRѕRIRѕRiRѕ RїRѕRIRµSЂRЅRµRЅRЅSЏ RIR»R°RgRё RyeRѕSЂRѕR»SЋ. RџRѕRїSЂRё RїSѓR±R»S–S‡RЅRµ R·R°S…RѕRїR»RµRЅRЅSЏ R·RIRёS‚SЏRiR°RјRё RљR°SЂR»R° XII, S‡RёRЅRЅR° R·R° R“RѕSЂRЅR° RїRѕR»S–S‚RёS‡RЅR° SЃRёSЃS‚RµRјR° "RyeR°RїRµR»SЋS…S–RI" S†S–R»RyeRѕRј RIR»R°S€S‚RѕRISѓRIR°R»R°.

R† R·SЂRµS€S‚RѕSЋ, SЃR°RјRµ RIRѕRЅR° RISЂSЏS‚SѓRIR°R»R° S—S… RїS–Rg S‡R°SЃ RyeSЂRёR·Rё, RIRёRyeR»RёRyeR°RЅRѕS— RїRѕSЂR°R·RyeRѕSЋ Sѓ RЅRѕRIS–R№ RIS–R№RЅS– R· R RѕSЃS–S”SЋ, RgRѕ SЏRyeRѕS— RЁRIRµS†S–SЏ S‚R°Rye S– RЅRµ RїS–RgRiRѕS‚SѓRIR°R»R°SЃSЏ SЏRye SЃR»S–Rg.

R’ RїSЂRѕRIS–RЅS†S–S— R”R°R»R°SЂRЅR° RI S†RµR№ S‡R°SЃ SЃRїR°R»R°S…RЅSѓR»Rѕ SЃRїSЂR°RIR¶RЅS” RїRѕRISЃS‚R°RЅRЅSЏ SЃRµR»SЏRЅ, SЂRѕR±S–S‚RЅRёRyeS–RI S– SЃRѕR»RgR°S‚S–RI, SЏRyeS– RIRёRјR°RiR°R»Rё RїRѕRyeR°SЂR°RЅRЅSЏ RgRµRїSѓS‚R°S‚S–RI S‚R° RiRµRЅRµSЂR°R»S–RI, RIS–RgRїRѕRIS–RgR°R»SЊRЅRёS… R·R° RїRѕSЂR°R·RyeRё, RIS–RgRЅRѕRIR»RµRЅRЅSЏ SЃRёR»SЊRЅRѕS— RyeRѕSЂRѕR»S–RISЃSЊRyeRѕS— RIR»R°RgRё S‚R° RѕRiRѕR»RѕS€RµRЅRЅSЏ SЃRїR°RgRyeRѕS”RјS†RµRј R±RµR·RgS–S‚RЅRѕRiRѕ R¤SЂS–RgSЂS–S…R° I RgR°RЅSЃSЊRyeRѕRiRѕ RїSЂRёRЅS†R°.

RљRѕSЂRѕR»SЊ RїS–RgS–RiSЂR°RI RїRѕRISЃS‚R°RЅS†SЏRј S– RЅR°RIS–S‚SЊ RgRѕR·RIRѕR»RёRI S—Rј RѕS‚R°R±RѕSЂRёS‚RёSЃSЏ RїSЂRѕSЃS‚Rѕ Sѓ RЎS‚RѕRyeRiRѕR»SЊRјS–. RђR»Rµ RїR°SЂR»R°RјRµRЅS‚SЃSЊRyeS– RIR°S‚R°R¶RyeRё RIRёSЏRIRёR»RёSЃSЏ SЃRїSЂRёS‚RЅS–S€RёRјRё. RџRѕRISЃS‚R°RЅRЅSЏ R±SѓR»Rѕ RїSЂRёRgSѓS€RµRЅRµ. RЎRїR°RgRyeRѕS”RјS†RµRј RїSЂRµSЃS‚RѕR»Sѓ RїS–Rg S‚RёSЃRyeRѕRј R RѕSЃS–S— R·RјSѓSЃRёR»Rё R·SЂRµS€S‚RѕSЋ RIRёR·RЅR°S‚Rё RђRgRѕR»SЊS„R° R¤SЂS–RgSЂS–S…R° R· RgRёRЅR°SЃS‚S–S— RiRѕR»SЊS€S‚RµR№RЅSЃSЊRyeRёS… RiRµSЂS†RѕRiS–RI.

RЇRyeS‰Rѕ
RЇRyeS‰Rѕ "RyeRѕRIRїR°RyeRё" RјR°R»Rё RїSЂSЏRјS– SЃS‚RѕSЃSѓRЅRyeRё R· R¤SЂS–RgSЂS–S…RѕRј I, S‚Rѕ "RyeR°RїRµR»SЋS…Rё" S‡R°SЃS‚Rѕ RgS–SЏR»Rё S‡RµSЂRµR· RyeRѕS…R°RЅRyeSѓ RyeRѕSЂRѕR»SЏ, RGRµRgRIS–RiSѓ RўR°SѓR±Rµ. RќR° S†S–R№ RyeR°SЂS‚RёRЅS– RIRѕRЅR° R·RѕR±SЂR°R¶RµRЅR° RI RѕR±SЂR°R· R±RѕRiRёRЅS– R”S–R°RЅRё

R—R° SЂRѕSЃS–R№SЃSЊRyeRѕS— R¶ RїS–RgS‚SЂRёRјRyeRё RїRѕR·RёS†S–S— Sѓ RIR»R°RgS– RїRѕS‡R°R»Rё RIS–RgRIRѕR№RѕRISѓRIR°S‚Rё "RyeRѕRIRїR°RyeRё". "RљR°RїRµR»SЋS…S–RI" S†Rµ, R·RIS–SЃRЅRѕ, R°R¶ RЅS–SЏRye RЅRµ RIR»R°S€S‚RѕRISѓRIR°R»Rѕ. R‡S…RЅS–R№ RЅRѕRIRёR№ RIR°S‚R°R¶RѕRye RљR°SЂR» R“SѓSЃS‚R°RI RўRµSЃSЃS–RЅ RЅR°RїRѕR»RµRiR»RёRIRѕ S€SѓRyeR°RI S– R·SЂRµS€S‚RѕSЋ R·RЅR°R№S€RѕRI SЃRїS–R»SЊRЅSѓ RјRѕRISѓ R· RђRgRѕR»SЊS„RѕRј R¤SЂS–RgSЂS–S…RѕRј.

R©Rѕ RIS–RЅ RїSЂRё S†SЊRѕRјSѓ RѕR±S–S†SЏRI RїSЂRёRЅS†Sѓ – S‚R°Rye S– R·R°R»RёS€RёR»RѕSЃSЏ S‚R°S”RјRЅRёS†RµSЋ, R°R»Rµ RјR°R±SѓS‚SЊ S‡RёRјR°R»Rѕ. RќR° SЃRµSЃS–S— SЂRёRyeSЃRgR°RiSѓ, SЃRyeR»RёRyeR°RЅS–R№ Sѓ 1746 SЂRѕS†S– "RyeR°RїRµR»SЋS…Rё" R·RIRёRЅSѓRIR°S‚RёR»Rё RѕRїRѕRЅRµRЅS‚S–RI Sѓ RgRµSЂR¶R°RIRЅS–R№ R·SЂR°RgS– RЅR° RyeRѕSЂRёSЃS‚SЊ R RѕSЃS–S—.

R RѕR·SЃR»S–RgSѓRIR°R»Rё R·RIRёRЅSѓRIR°S‡RµRЅRЅSЏ S–R· RgRµRјRѕRЅSЃS‚SЂR°S‚RёRIRЅRѕSЋ R¶RѕSЂSЃS‚RѕRyeS–SЃS‚SЋ. R—RIRёRЅSѓRIR°S‡RµRЅRёS… RgRѕRїRёS‚SѓRIR°R»Rё, RIRёRyeRѕSЂRёSЃS‚RѕRISѓSЋS‡Rё S‚RѕSЂS‚SѓSЂRё. RњRµS‚Sѓ RЅRµ RїSЂRёS…RѕRISѓRIR°R»Rё – RI "RyeRѕRIRїR°RyeS–RI" RЅRµ RјR°R»Rѕ R№ RIRёRЅRёRyeR°S‚Rё RgSѓRјRyeRё, S‰RѕR± RїRѕRIRµSЂRЅSѓS‚RёSЃSЏ RgRѕ RIR»R°RgRё. RџR°S‚SЂS–RѕS‚RёS‡RЅR° RїSѓR±R»S–RyeR° RgS–S— SѓSЂSЏRgSѓ RiR°SЂSЏS‡Rµ RїS–RgS‚SЂRёRјR°R»R°.

RљR°SЂR» R“SѓSЃS‚R°RI RўRµSЃSЃS–RЅ
RљR°SЂR» R“SѓSЃS‚R°RI RўRµSЃSЃS–RЅ

R©RѕRїSЂR°RIRgR°, SЃRїRѕRgS–RIR°RЅRЅSЏ RђRgRѕR»SЊS„R° R¤SЂS–RgSЂS–S…R° RїRѕRIRµSЂRЅSѓS‚Rё R·R° RgRѕRїRѕRјRѕRiRѕSЋ "RЅRѕRIRёS… RgSЂSѓR·S–RI" RyeRѕR»RёSЃSЊ RIS‚SЂR°S‡RµRЅS– RyeRѕSЂRѕR»S–RISЃSЊRyeS– RїRѕRIRЅRѕRIR°R¶RµRЅRЅSЏ RЅRµ RIRёRїSЂR°RIRgR°R»RёSЃSЊ. R¦Rµ RIS–RЅ R·SЂRѕR·SѓRјS–RI RѕRgSЂR°R·Sѓ RїS–SЃR»SЏ SЃRIRѕRiRѕ SЃS…RѕRgR¶RµRЅRЅSЏ RЅR° RїSЂRµSЃS‚RѕR» Sѓ 1751 SЂRѕS†S–.

RџS–SЃR»SЏ RyeS–R»SЊRyeRѕS… SЂRѕRyeS–RI RјR°SЂRЅRёS… RЅR°RiR°RgSѓRIR°RЅSЊ RўRµSЃSЃS–RЅSѓ RїSЂRѕ RЅRµRѕR±S…S–RgRЅS–SЃS‚SЊ RIS–RgRgSЏS‡RёS‚Rё RIRѕR»RѕRgR°SЂSЋ R·R° RјRёRЅSѓR»Sѓ RїS–RgS‚SЂRёRјRyeSѓ, RїSЂRёS…RёR»SЊRЅRёRyeRё RyeRѕSЂRѕR»SЏ RЅR°RIS–S‚SЊ R·SЂRѕR±RёR»Rё RIS–RgS‡R°R№RgSѓS€RЅSѓ SЃRїSЂRѕR±Sѓ RIR»R°S€S‚SѓRIR°S‚Rё RgRµSЂR¶R°RIRЅRёR№ RїRµSЂRµRIRѕSЂRѕS‚. RђR»Rµ R·RјRѕRIRЅRёRyeRё R±SѓR»Rё RIRёRyeSЂRёS‚S– S‰Rµ RgRѕ RїRѕS‡R°S‚RyeSѓ R±SѓRgSЊ-SЏRyeRёS… R°RyeS‚RёRIRЅRёS… RgS–R№.

RђRgRѕR»SЊS„ R¤SЂS–RgSЂS–S…
RђRgRѕR»SЊS„ R¤SЂS–RgSЂS–S…

R¦Rµ R±SѓR»R° RyeSѓR»SЊRјS–RЅR°S†S–SЏ RїSЂRёRЅRёR¶RµRЅRЅSЏ RyeRѕSЂRѕR»S–RISЃSЊRyeRѕS— RIR»R°RgRё. RџS–SЃR»SЏ R·R°RyeRѕR»RѕS‚Sѓ RїRѕRIRЅRѕRIR°R¶RµRЅRЅSЏ RјRѕRЅR°SЂS…R° R±SѓR»Rё SЃRyeRѕSЂRѕS‡RµRЅS– RgRѕ SЃSѓS‚Rѕ RЅRѕRјS–RЅR°R»SЊRЅRёS…. R’S–RЅ RISЃRµ S‰Rµ RјS–Ri R·R°RїRµSЂRµS‡SѓRIR°S‚Rё RїSЂRѕS‚Rё SѓSЂSЏRgRѕRIRёS… SЂS–S€RµRЅSЊ, R°R»Rµ S‚RµRїRµSЂ RЅRµ RјR°RI RїSЂR°RIR° RЅRµ R»RёS€Rµ R·R°R±RѕSЂRѕRЅRёS‚Rё S—Rј RISЃS‚SѓRїRёS‚Rё RI R·R°RyeRѕRЅRЅSѓ SЃRёR»Sѓ, R° R№ RЅR°RIS–S‚SЊ RIS–RgRјRѕRIRёS‚RёSЃSЏ S—S… RїS–RgRїRёSЃR°S‚Rё.

R›RёS€Rµ RѕRgRЅRѕRiRѕ SЂR°R·Sѓ RђRgRѕR»SЊS„ R¤SЂS–RgSЂS–S… RЅR°RIR°R¶RёRISЃSЏ R·R°SЏRIRёS‚Rё, S‰Rѕ RЅRµ SЃS‚R°RIRёS‚RёRјRµ SЃRIS–R№ RїS–RgRїRёSЃ, R°R»Rµ S‚RѕRgS– RgRµSЂR¶R°RIRЅR° SЂR°RgR° SЃR°RјR° R·R°RIS–R·SѓRIR°R»R° RgRѕRyeSѓRјRµRЅS‚ RyeRѕSЂRѕR»S–RISЃSЊRyeRѕSЋ RїRµS‡R°S‚RyeRѕSЋ R· S„R°RyeSЃRёRјS–R»Rµ RјRѕRЅR°SЂS€RѕRiRѕ RїS–RgRїRёSЃSѓ.

RџRѕRIRЅRѕRIR°R¶RµRЅRЅSЏ SЂRёRyeSЃRgR°RiSѓ RЅR°S‚RѕRјS–SЃS‚SЊ R±SѓR»Rё RјR°R№R¶Rµ RЅRµRѕR±RјRµR¶RµRЅS–. R’S–RЅ SЃR°RјRѕSЃS‚S–R№RЅRѕ SѓS…RIR°R»SЋRIR°RI R·R°RyeRѕRЅRё, RIRёR·RЅR°S‡R°RI SЂRѕR·RјS–SЂ RјRёS‚ S‚R° RїRѕRgR°S‚RyeS–RI, RїSЂRёR·RЅR°S‡R°RI SЃSѓRgRgS–RI S– RЅR°RIS–S‚SЊ RIS‚SЂSѓS‡R°RISЃSЏ RI SЃSѓRgRѕS‡RёRЅSЃS‚RIRѕ.

R”RµRїSѓS‚R°S‚Rё SЂRµS‚RµR»SЊRЅRѕ SЃS‚RµR¶RёR»Rё R·R° RyeRѕR¶RЅRёRј RyeSЂRѕRyeRѕRј SѓSЂSЏRgSѓ, RјR°R»Rё RїSЂR°RIRѕ RїRµSЂRµRiR»SЏRgR°S‚Rё RїSЂRѕS‚RѕRyeRѕR»Rё R№RѕRiRѕ R·R°SЃS–RgR°RЅSЊ S– RI SЂR°R·S–, SЏRyeS‰Rѕ R±R°S‡RёR»Rё R±SѓRgSЊ-SЏRyeRµ RIS–RgS…RёR»RµRЅRЅSЏ RIS–Rg S–RЅSЃS‚SЂSѓRyeS†S–R№ SЂRёRyeSЃRgR°RiSѓ, RјRѕRiR»Rё RїSЂRёS‚SЏRiRЅSѓS‚Rё SѓSЂSЏRgRѕRIS†S–RI RgRѕ RIS–RgRїRѕRIS–RgR°R»SЊRЅRѕSЃS‚S– R·R° SѓR·SѓSЂRїR°S†S–SЋ RIR»R°RgRё S‡Rё RЅR°RIS–S‚SЊ RgRµSЂR¶R°RIRЅSѓ R·SЂR°RgSѓ.

R‘SѓRgSЊ-SЏRyeR° RyeSЂRёS‚RёRyeR° RЅR° R°RgSЂRµSЃSѓ RїR°SЂR»R°RјRµRЅS‚Sѓ RIS–RgRyeRёRgR°R»R°SЃSЏ R·R° RїSЂRёRЅS†RёRїRѕRј "S–RgRµSЏ, S‰Rѕ SЃS‚R°RЅRё RјRѕR¶SѓS‚SЊ RїRѕRјRёR»SЏS‚RёSЃSЏ, SЃSѓRїRµSЂRµS‡RёS‚SЊ RѕSЃRЅRѕRIRЅRѕRјSѓ R·R°RyeRѕRЅSѓ RgRµSЂR¶R°RIRё".

RљRѕSЂRѕR»S–RISЃSЊRyeRёR№ RїR°R»R°S† Sѓ RЎS‚RѕRyeRiRѕR»SЊRјS–, R±SѓRgS–RIRЅRёS†S‚RIRѕ SЏRyeRѕRiRѕ R±SѓR»Rѕ R·R°RIRµSЂS€RµRЅRѕ RI 50-S– SЂRѕRyeRё XVIII SЃS‚.
RљRѕSЂRѕR»S–RISЃSЊRyeRёR№ RїR°R»R°S† Sѓ RЎS‚RѕRyeRiRѕR»SЊRјS–, R±SѓRgS–RIRЅRёS†S‚RIRѕ SЏRyeRѕRiRѕ R±SѓR»Rѕ R·R°RIRµSЂS€RµRЅRѕ RI 50-S– SЂRѕRyeRё XVIII SЃS‚.

RЎRёSЃS‚RµRјR° R·RgR°RIR°R»R°SЃSЏ RЅRµRїRѕS…RёS‚RЅRѕSЋ S– "RyeR°RїRµR»SЋS…Rё" RїRѕS‡SѓRIR°R»Rё SЃRµR±Rµ RgSѓR¶Rµ RIRїRµRIRЅRµRЅRѕ. RўRµSЃSЃS–RЅ RїRѕRIRѕRgRёRI SЃRµR±Rµ SЏRye SЃRїSЂR°RIR¶RЅS–R№ "RiRѕSЃRїRѕRgR°SЂ RgRµSЂR¶R°RIRё", R·R±RёSЂR°RI RyeRѕR»RµRyeS†S–S— S‚RIRѕSЂS–RI RјRёSЃS‚RµS†S‚RIR°, RїR°S‚SЂRѕRЅSѓRIR°RI RЅR°SѓRyeRё S– R»S–S‚RµSЂR°S‚SѓSЂSѓ, S‚R° R№ SЃR°Rј RїRёSЃR°RI Sѓ RIR»R°SЃRЅRµ R·R°RgRѕRIRѕR»RµRЅRЅSЏ.

RћS‚ S‚S–R»SЊRyeRё RїRѕR»S–S‚RёRyeR° R№RѕRiRѕ SѓSЂSЏRgSѓ RIRёSЏRIRёR»R°SЃSЏ RЅRµ S‚R°RyeRѕSЋ RµS„RµRyeS‚RёRIRЅRѕSЋ SЏRye R№RѕRiRѕ RѕSЃRѕR±RёSЃS‚RёR№ S‚R°R»R°RЅS‚ RїRѕR»S–S‚RёS‡RЅRѕRiRѕ S–RЅS‚SЂRёRiR°RЅR°.

RЇRyeS‰Rѕ RI RїRµSЂS€S– SЂRѕRyeRё RїR°SЂR»R°RјRµRЅS‚SЃSЊRyeRѕRiRѕ RїSЂR°RIR»S–RЅRЅSЏ, R·R°RIRgSЏRyeRё SЃRїSЂR°RIRgS– SЂRµRIRѕR»SЋS†S–R№RЅRёS… R·R°S…RѕRgR°Rј SѓSЂSЏRgSѓ R“RѕSЂRЅR°, R±SѓR»Rё SЃS‚RIRѕSЂRµRЅS– SѓRјRѕRIRё RgR»SЏ RIS–RgRЅRѕSЃRЅRѕ RIS–R»SЊRЅRѕRiRѕ SЂRѕR·RIRёS‚RyeSѓ S€RIRµRgSЃSЊRyeRѕRiRѕ SЃS–R»SЊSЃSЊRyeRѕRiRѕ RiRѕSЃRїRѕRgR°SЂSЃS‚RIR°, RїSЂRѕRјRёSЃR»RѕRIRѕSЃS‚S– S– S‚RѕSЂRiS–RIR»S–, S‚Rѕ S‚RµRїRµSЂ SЃRёSЃS‚RµRјR° RјRµSЂRyeR°RЅS‚RёR»S–R·RјSѓ, RїSЂRёS…RёR»SЊRЅRёS†RµSЋ SЏRyeRѕS— R±SѓR»Rё "RyeR°RїRµR»SЋS…Rё", S€RIRёRgS€Rµ RѕR±RјRµR¶SѓRIR°R»R° RµRyeRѕRЅRѕRјS–S‡RЅS– RјRѕR¶R»RёRIRѕSЃS‚S– RyeSЂR°S—RЅRё.

RњS–SЃS‚ RI RќRѕSЂR±SЂSѓ
RњS–SЃS‚ RI RќRѕSЂR±SЂSѓ

RћSЃS‚R°RЅRЅS–RјRё RyeRѕSЂRёSЃRЅRёRјRё RЅRѕRIR°S†S–SЏRјRё RI SЃS–R»SЊSЃSЊRyeRѕRјSѓ RiRѕSЃRїRѕRgR°SЂSЃS‚RIS– R±SѓR»Rё RїRѕS€RёSЂRµRЅRЅSЏ RyeR°SЂS‚RѕRїR»S– S– R·R°RiR°R»SЊRЅRµ SЂRѕR·RјRµR¶SѓRIR°RЅRЅSЏ R·RµRјRµR»SЊ, SЏRyeRµ RgRѕR·RIRѕR»RёR»Rѕ SЃRµR»SЏRЅR°Rј RїRµSЂRµS‚RIRѕSЂRёS‚Rё RѕRyeSЂRµRјS– RyeR»R°RїS‚RёRyeRё R·RµRјRµR»SЊ, RIS–RgRgR°R»RµRЅS– RѕRgRёRЅ RIS–Rg RѕRgRЅRѕRiRѕ, RЅR° S”RgRёRЅS– RgS–R»SЏRЅRyeRё.

R©Rѕ R¶ RgRѕ RїSЂRѕRјRёSЃR»RѕRIRѕSЃS‚S–, S‚Rѕ RgRѕSЃRёS‚SЊ S€RIRёRgRyeRѕ SЃS‚R°R»Rѕ R·SЂRѕR·SѓRјS–R»Rѕ – RїS–RgS‚SЂRёRјRyeR° "RIS–S‚S‡RёR·RЅSЏRЅRѕRiRѕ RIRёSЂRѕR±RЅRёRyeR°" R±SѓR»R° S€S‚SѓS‡RЅRѕSЋ, R° RgRѕRїRѕRјRѕRiSѓ RIS–Rg RgRµSЂR¶R°RIRё RѕS‚SЂRёRјSѓRIR°R»Rё RЅR° RЅR°R№RµS„RµRyeS‚RёRIRЅS–S€S–, R° RЅR°R№R±R»RёR¶S‡S– RgRѕ RIR»R°RgRё RїS–RgRїSЂRёS”RјS†S–. RЇRye RЅR°SЃR»S–RgRѕRye RIRёSЂRѕR±R»RµRЅS– S‚RѕRIR°SЂRё S‡R°SЃS‚Rѕ R±SѓR»Rё RЅRµSЏRyeS–SЃRЅRёRјRё S– RїSЂRё S†SЊRѕRјSѓ RgRѕSЂRѕRiRёRјRё.

RќRµSЃS‚SЂRёRјRЅRёR№ RgSЂSѓRye RїR°RїRµSЂRѕRIRёS… RiSЂRѕS€RµR№ RgR»SЏ RїRѕRyeSЂRёS‚S‚SЏ RgRµSЂR¶R°RIRЅRёS… RIRёS‚SЂR°S‚ R·R°RIRµSЂS€RёRISЃSЏ R·R»RµS‚RѕRј S–RЅS„R»SЏS†S–S— S– R·R°RiR°R»SЊRЅRёRј SЂRѕR·R»R°RgRѕRј RiSЂRѕS€RѕRIRѕRiRѕ RѕR±S–RiSѓ. R’S–RgSЃSѓS‚RЅS–SЃS‚SЊ SЂRµR°R»SЊRЅRёS… SѓSЃRїS–S…S–RI S‡R°SЃS‚Rѕ-RiSѓSЃS‚Rѕ R·R°RјS–RЅSЋRIR°R»R°SЃSЏ R±R°RЅR°R»SЊRЅRѕS— RїSЂRѕRїR°RiR°RЅRgRѕSЋ.

R’SЃRµ S†Rµ RIRёRyeR»RёRyeR°R»Rѕ S‰RѕSЂR°R·Sѓ R±S–R»SЊS€Rµ RЅRµRIRgRѕRIRѕR»RµRЅRЅSЏ – SЏRye S€RёSЂRѕRyeRёS… RјR°SЃ, S‚R°Rye S– RїS–RgRїSЂRёS”RјS†S–RI, RЅR°SЃR°RјRїRµSЂRµRg RgSЂS–R±RЅRёS… S– SЃRµSЂRµRgRЅS–S…, SЏRyeS– RЅRµ RјR°R»Rё S€R°RЅSЃS–RI RїRѕS‚SЂR°RїRёS‚Rё RgRѕ RyeRѕR»R° "RѕR±SЂR°RЅRёS… RIR»R°RgRѕSЋ".

RЎRIRѕS”SЂS–RgRЅRёRј RјR°RЅS–S„RµSЃS‚RѕRј S—S…RЅS–S… RїRѕRiR»SЏRgS–RI SЃS‚R°RI RїR°RјS„R»RµS‚ RђRЅRgRµSЂSЃR° RGS–RgRµRЅS–SѓSЃR° "RќR°S†S–RѕRЅR°R»SЊRЅRёR№ RgRѕS…S–Rg", R±R°RiR°S‚Rѕ RїRѕR·RёS†S–R№ RI SЏRyeRѕRјSѓ RїRµSЂRµRiSѓRyeSѓRIR°R»RёSЃSЏ R· S–RgRµSЏRјRё, RїS–R·RЅS–S€Rµ RIRёSЃR»RѕRIR»RµRЅRёRјRё S€RѕS‚R»R°RЅRgS†RµRј RђRgR°RјRѕRј RЎRјS–S‚RѕRј.



RЁRёSЂRѕRyeS– RIRµSЂSЃS‚RIRё S‡RёRЅRѕRIRЅRёS†S‚RIR° RѕR±SѓSЂSЋRIR°R»RёSЃSЏ RїSЂRёRIS–R»RµR№RѕRIR°RЅRёRј SЃS‚R°RЅRѕRIRёS‰RµRј RgRµSЂR¶R°RIRЅRёS… RїSЂRёR·RЅR°S‡RµRЅS†S–RI R· RyeRѕR»R° S€R»SЏS…S‚Rё. RўR°Rye RїRѕSЃS‚SѓRїRѕRIRѕ RїRѕS‡R°R»Rё RIRёRјR°R»SЊRѕRISѓRIR°S‚RёSЃSЏ RyeRѕRЅS‚SѓSЂRё RЅRѕRIS–S‚RЅSЊRѕS— RѕRїRѕR·RёS†S–S— RgRѕ RIR»R°RgRё "RyeR°RїRµR»SЋS…S–RI". R’RѕRЅR° RѕS‚SЂRёRјR°R»R° RЅR°R·RISѓ "RЅRѕRIRёS…" R°R±Rѕ R¶ "RјRѕR»RѕRgRёS… RyeRѕRIRїR°RyeS–RI".

R† RЅR°RIS–S‚SЊ RЅR°RјR°RiR°R»R°SЃSЏ RїRµSЂRµRѕSЃRјRёSЃR»RёS‚Rё RgR°RIRЅS” RїSЂS–R·RIRёSЃSЊRyeRѕ – R·RiR°RgSѓRIR°R»Rё, RЅR°RїSЂRёRyeR»R°Rg, S‰Rѕ RI RgR°RIRЅRёRЅSѓ RyeRѕRIRїR°RyeRё RЅRѕSЃRёR»Rё R·RIS–R»SЊRЅRµRЅS– SЂR°R±Rё S– S‚RѕRјSѓ S—S… RјRѕR¶RЅR° RIRIR°R¶R°S‚Rё SЃRёRјRIRѕR»R°RјRё SЃRIRѕR±RѕRgRё (S„SЂR°RЅS†SѓR·SЊRyeS– SЂRµRIRѕR»SЋS†S–RѕRЅRµSЂRё RїSЂRѕ S„SЂS–RiS–R№SЃSЊRyeS– RyeRѕRIRїR°RyeRё S‚RµR¶ R·RiR°RgR°SЋS‚SЊ, R°R»Rµ RїS–R·RЅS–S€Rµ – Rћ.Rњ.).

RџRµRIRЅS– RЅR°RgS–S— RЅR° "RЅRѕRIRёS… RyeRѕRIRїR°RyeS–RI" RїRѕRyeR»R°RgR°R»Rѕ R№ RyeRѕSЂRѕR»S–RISЃSЊRyeRµ RѕS‚RѕS‡RµRЅRЅSЏ, SЏRyeRµ SЃRїRѕRgS–RIR°R»RѕSЃSЏ R· S—S…RЅSЊRѕSЋ RgRѕRїRѕRјRѕRiRѕSЋ RїRѕRјSЃS‚RёS‚RёSЃSЏ "RyeR°RїRµR»SЋS…R°Rј".

R’S–RgRЅRѕRIR»RµRЅRЅSЏ RiRѕSЃS‚SЂRѕS— RїRѕR»S–S‚RёS‡RЅRѕS— R±RѕSЂRѕS‚SЊR±Rё, R·RЅRѕRISѓ R¶ S‚R°RyeRё, SЃRїSЂRёSЏR»Rѕ SЂRѕR·S€RёSЂRµRЅRЅSЋ RјRµR¶ SЃRIRѕR±RѕRgRё SЃR»RѕRIR°. R’ 1765 SЂRѕS†S– RїRѕSЂSѓS‡ S–R· RgSЂSѓRyeRѕRIR°RЅRёRјRё R°RiS–S‚R°S†S–R№RЅRёRјRё R»RёSЃS‚RyeR°RјRё, RїRѕS€RёSЂSЋRIR°RЅRёRјRё RIR»R°RgRѕSЋ, R·SЏRIRёR»RёSЃSЏ S‚R°RyeS– R¶ R»RёSЃS‚RyeRё RѕRїRѕR·RёS†S–R№RЅRѕRiRѕ SЃRїSЂSЏRјSѓRIR°RЅRЅSЏ.

Rђ 2 RiSЂSѓRgRЅSЏ RЅR°SЃS‚SѓRїRЅRѕRiRѕ SЂRѕRyeSѓ, R·R° S–RЅS–S†S–R°S‚RёRIRѕSЋ S‚RѕRiRѕ R¶ RGS–RgRµRЅS–SѓSЃR°, RgRµRїSѓS‚R°S‚Rё SѓS…RIR°R»RёR»Rё RїRµSЂS€RёR№ RI SЃRIS–S‚S– RђRyeS‚ RїSЂRѕ SЃRIRѕR±RѕRgSѓ RgSЂSѓRyeSѓ, R·R°RIRgSЏRyeRё SЏRyeRѕRјSѓ RЁRIRµS†S–SЏ S– SЃSЊRѕRiRѕRgRЅS– R·R°R»RёS€R°S”S‚SЊSЃSЏ RѕRgRЅS–S”SЋ R· RЅR°R№RIS–R»SЊRЅS–S€RёS… RgR»SЏ RїSЂRµSЃRё RyeSЂR°S—RЅ SЃRIS–S‚Sѓ.

RђRyeS‚ RїSЂRѕ SЃRIRѕR±RѕRgSѓ RgSЂSѓRyeSѓ 1766 SЂRѕRyeSѓ
RђRyeS‚ RїSЂRѕ SЃRIRѕR±RѕRgSѓ RgSЂSѓRyeSѓ 1766 SЂRѕRyeSѓ

R’ SЂRёRyeSЃRgR°R·S–, RѕR±SЂR°RЅRѕRјSѓ RI 1765 SЂRѕS†S– "RyeR°RїRµR»SЋS…Rё" RIR¶Rµ RЅRµ RјR°R»Rё R±S–R»SЊS€RѕSЃS‚S–. R† "RЅRѕRIS– RyeRѕRIRїR°RyeRё" RѕRgSЂR°R·Sѓ R¶ SЃRyeRѕSЂRёSЃS‚R°R»RёSЃSЏ S†RёRј, S‰RѕR± RїRѕRјSЃS‚RёS‚RёSЃSЏ S—Rј R·R° R·RЅSѓS‰R°RЅRЅSЏ RЅR°Rg RїRѕRїRµSЂRµRgRЅRёRyeR°RјRё. RўR°Rye SЃR°RјRѕ, SЏRye RI 1746 SЂRѕS†S– "RyeR°RїRµR»SЋS…S–RI" R·RIRёRЅSѓRIR°S‚RёR»Rё Sѓ RgRµSЂR¶R°RIRЅS–R№ R·SЂR°RgS– (RЅR° S†RµR№ SЂR°R· RЅR° RyeRѕSЂRёSЃS‚SЊ R¤SЂR°RЅS†S–S— – Rћ.Rњ.), RgRѕRїRёS‚SѓRIR°R»Rё S– RyeR°S‚SѓRIR°R»Rё.

R•RyeRѕRЅRѕRјS–S‡RЅR° RїRѕR»S–S‚RёRyeR° SѓSЂSЏRgSѓ "RЅRѕRIRёS… RyeRѕRIRїR°RyeS–RI" R±SѓR»R° SЃRїSЂSЏRјRѕRIR°RЅR° RЅR° RѕR·RgRѕSЂRѕRIR»RµRЅRЅSЏ S„S–RЅR°RЅSЃS–RI, RїSЂRёRїRёRЅRµRЅRЅSЏ RyeRѕSЂSѓRїS†S–S— S– R·R°RѕS…RѕS‡RµRЅRЅSЏ SЂRѕR·RIRёS‚RyeSѓ RµRyeRѕRЅRѕRјS–RyeRё R±RµR· RЅR°RgRјS–SЂRЅRёS… RgRµSЂR¶R°RIRЅRёS… RgRѕS‚R°S†S–R№.

RђR»Rµ RyeRѕSЂRѕR»SЊ, SЏRyeS‰Rѕ RIS–RЅ S‰Rµ SЃRїRѕRgS–RIR°RISЃSЏ RЅR° RїRѕRIRµSЂRЅRµRЅRЅSЏ RїRѕRIRЅRѕRIR°R¶RµRЅSЊ, R·RЅRѕRISѓ RIRїS–R№RјR°RI RѕR±R»RёR·RЅSЏ – "RЅRѕRIRёS… RyeRѕRIRїR°RyeS–RI" RїR°SЂR»R°RјRµRЅS‚SЃSЊRyeR° SЃRёSЃS‚RµRјR° RIR»R°S€S‚RѕRISѓRIR°R»R° RЅRµ RјRµRЅS€Rµ, R°RЅS–R¶ RїRѕRїRµSЂRµRgRЅRёRyeS–RI.

R—SЂRµS€S‚RѕSЋ, RI 1768 SЂRѕS†S– RyeRѕSЂRѕR»SЊ RїSЂRѕSЃS‚Rѕ R·R°RyeSЂRёRI R·R°SЃS–RgR°RЅRЅSЏ SЂRёRyeSЃRgR°RiSѓ. R† RїRѕRIRµSЂRЅSѓRI "RyeR°RїRµR»SЋS…S–RI" RgRѕ RIR»R°RgRё RI RѕR±S…S–Rg RїR°SЂR»R°RјRµRЅS‚Sѓ.



RўS– RїRѕRiRѕRgRёR»RёSЃSЏ RЅR° R·R°RiR°R»RѕRј RїSЂRѕS‚RёR·R°RyeRѕRЅRЅSѓ RyeRѕRјR±S–RЅR°S†S–SЋ, S– S‚RёRј SЃR°RјRёRј RїSЂRёRїSѓSЃS‚RёR»RёSЃSЏ S„R°S‚R°R»SЊRЅRѕS— RїRѕRјRёR»RyeRё. RђRgR¶Rµ S„R°RyeS‚RёS‡RЅRѕ RїRѕRIRµSЂRЅSѓR»Rё RI SЂSѓRyeRё RyeRѕSЂRѕR»S–RISЃSЊRyeRѕS— RIR»R°RgRё R·R±SЂRѕSЋ, SЏRyeRѕS— RIRѕRЅR° R±SѓR»R° RїRѕR·R±R°RIR»RµRЅR° R· 1719 SЂRѕRyeSѓ. R† RїSЂRё S†SЊRѕRјSѓ RЅRµ RѕS‚SЂRёRјR°R»Rё RЅS–S‡RѕRiRѕ RIR·R°RјS–RЅ.

RќR° RЅR°SЃS‚SѓRїRЅRёS… RIRёR±RѕSЂR°S… RgRѕ SЂRёRyeSЃRgR°RiSѓ, S‰Rѕ RIS–RgR±SѓR»RёSЃSЏ RI 1771 SЂRѕS†S–, "RyeR°RїRµR»SЋS…Rё" R±SѓR»Rё SЂRѕR·RiSЂRѕRјR»RµRЅS– RїSЂRѕSЃS‚Rѕ RIS‰RµRЅS‚. RћRїRѕRЅRµRЅS‚Rё R·RIRёRЅSѓRIR°S‡SѓRIR°R»Rё S—S… RЅRµ R»RёS€Rµ RI R·SЂR°RgS–, R° R№ RI SѓR·SѓSЂRїR°S†S–S— RIR»R°RgRё RISѓR·SЊRyeRёRј RyeRѕR»RѕRј RIRёS‰RѕS— S€R»SЏS…S‚Rё.

RќR° RїSЂRѕS‚RёRIR°RiSѓ S—Rј "RЅRѕRIS– RyeRѕRIRїR°RyeRё" R№S€R»Rё RЅR° RIRёR±RѕSЂRё R· RIRёRјRѕRiRѕSЋ RIRёR·RЅR°RЅRЅSЏ SЂS–RIRЅRёS… RїSЂR°RI SѓSЃS–S… S€RIRµRgSЃSЊRyeRёS… RїS–RgRgR°RЅRёS…, S‰Rѕ RјR°SЋS‚SЊ RIR»R°SЃRЅS–SЃS‚SЊ RЅRµR·R°R»RµR¶RЅRѕ RIS–Rg S—S…RЅSЊRѕRiRѕ RїRѕS…RѕRgR¶RµRЅRЅSЏ. R† S†Rµ R·R°R±RµR·RїRµS‡RёR»Rѕ S—Rј SЏRyeRЅR°R№S€RёSЂS€Sѓ RїS–RgS‚SЂRёRјRyeSѓ RIRёR±RѕSЂS†S–RI. Rђ RIR¶Rµ RI SЃR°RјRѕRјSѓ SЂRёRyeSЃRgR°R·S– RђR»RµRyeSЃR°RЅRgSЂ RљRµRїR»RµSЂ R·R°RїSЂRѕRїRѕRЅSѓRIR°RI RїRѕS€RёSЂRёS‚Rё RїSЂR°RIR° R№ RЅR° S‚RёS…, S…S‚Rѕ RЅRµ RјR°S” RIR»R°SЃRЅRѕSЃS‚S– R°R±Rѕ RїSЂR°S†SЋS” RI RЅR°R№RјR°S….

R”RµRyeRѕRiRѕ S‚R°RyeS– RIRёRјRѕRiRё RЅR°R»SЏRyeR°R»Rё. R”RµS…S‚Rѕ RIS‚RѕRјRёRISЃSЏ RIS–Rg RїRѕSЃS‚S–R№RЅRѕS— RјS–R¶RїR°SЂS‚S–R№RЅRѕS— R±RѕSЂRѕS‚SЊR±Rё. RЇRye R±Rё S‚R°Rј RЅRµ R±SѓR»Rѕ, R°R»Rµ RЅRѕRIRёR№ RyeRѕSЂRѕR»SЊ R“SѓSЃS‚R°RI III RIRёSЂS–S€RёRI, S‰Rѕ S‡R°SЃ R±SЂR°S‚Rё RIS–RgRїRѕRIS–RgR°R»SЊRЅS–SЃS‚SЊ RЅR° SЃRµR±Rµ.

R’ SЃRµSЂRїRЅS– 1772 RIS–Rg R·RgS–R№SЃRЅRёRI RgRµSЂR¶R°RIRЅRёR№ RїRµSЂRµRIRѕSЂRѕS‚, RѕSЃRѕR±RёSЃS‚Rѕ R·R°R°SЂRµS€S‚SѓRIR°RI RyeRµSЂS–RIRЅRёRyeR° SѓSЂSЏRgSѓ "RЅRѕRIRёS… RyeRѕRIRїR°RyeS–RI" RўSѓSЂRµ R SѓRgR±RµRyeR°, SЂRѕR·RїSѓSЃS‚RёRI SЂRёRyeSЃRgR°Ri S– RїRѕRIRµSЂRЅSѓRI SЃRѕR±S– RїRѕRIRЅRѕS‚Sѓ RyeRѕSЂRѕR»S–RISЃSЊRyeRѕS— RIR»R°RgRё.

R“SѓSЃS‚R°RI III RѕRiRѕR»RѕS€SѓS” RїSЂRѕ RgRµSЂR¶R°RIRЅRёR№ RїRµSЂRµRIRѕSЂRѕS‚
R“SѓSЃS‚R°RI III RѕRiRѕR»RѕS€SѓS” RїSЂRѕ RgRµSЂR¶R°RIRЅRёR№ RїRµSЂRµRIRѕSЂRѕS‚

"R”RѕR±R° SЃRIRѕR±RѕRgRё" S– RїRѕRISЏR·R°RЅRёR№ R· RЅRµSЋ RµRyeSЃRїRµSЂRёRјRµRЅS‚ S–R· RїR°SЂR»R°RјRµRЅS‚SЃSЊRyeRёRј RїSЂR°RIR»S–RЅRЅSЏRј R±SѓRI S‚R°RyeRёRј S‡RёRЅRѕRј RїRµSЂRµSЂRIR°RЅRёR№. R† RїRµSЂRµSЂRIR°RЅRёR№ SЃRёR»RѕSЋ. RџSЂRѕS‚Rµ RїRѕRIRЅS–SЃS‚SЋ RїRѕS…RѕRIR°S‚Rё R·RgRѕR±SѓS‚RyeRё SЂRµRIRѕR»SЋS†S–S— S– RIS–RgRЅRѕRIRёS‚Rё "RyeR°SЂRѕR»S–RЅSЃSЊRyeRёR№" R°R±SЃRѕR»SЋS‚RёR·Rј RЅR°RIS–S‚SЊ R“SѓSЃS‚R°RI III R·SЂRµS€S‚RѕSЋ RЅRµ RЅR°RIR°R¶RёRISЃSЏ.

R’S–RЅ S– SЃRїSЂR°RIRgS– RyeR°R·R°RI RїSЂRѕ RЅR°RјS–SЂRё SЂRµSЃS‚R°RISЂR°S†S–S— "SЃS‚R°SЂRѕRiRѕ R»R°RgSѓ" (RI S†SЊRѕRјSѓ S€RIRµRgSЃSЊRyeR° SЂRµSЃS‚R°RISЂR°S†S–SЏ RЅS–S‡RёRј RЅRµ RIS–RgSЂS–R·RЅSЏR»R°SЃSЏ RIS–Rg R°RЅRiR»S–R№SЃSЊRyeRѕS— S‚R° S„SЂR°RЅS†SѓR·SЊRyeRѕS— R RµSЃS‚R°RISЂR°S†S–R№ – Rћ.Rњ.), R°R»Rµ RїSЂRё S†SЊRѕRјSѓ R·R°RIR±R°S‡R»RёRIRѕ R·RiR°RgSѓRIR°RI R»RёS€Rµ R“SѓSЃS‚R°RIR° II R’R°R·Sѓ, R° RЅRµ RљR°SЂR»R° XI S‡Rё RљR°SЂR»R° XII.

RЎRyeR°SЃSѓRIR°RIS€Rё "S„RѕSЂRјSѓ RїSЂR°RIR»S–RЅRЅSЏ" 1719 SЂRѕRyeSѓ S– R·R°R±RѕSЂRѕRЅRёRIS€Rё RI RїRѕRgR°R»SЊS€RѕRјSѓ RЅR°RIS–S‚SЊ R·RiR°RgSѓRIR°S‚Rё RїSЂRѕ "RyeRѕRIRїR°RyeS–RI" S– "RyeR°RїRµR»SЋS…S–RI", R“SѓSЃS‚R°RI III S‚RёRј RЅRµ RјRµRЅS€Rµ RїSЂRѕRgRёRyeS‚SѓRIR°RI RIR»R°SЃRЅSѓ RyeRѕRЅSЃS‚RёS‚SѓS†S–SЋ. R† R·R° RЅRµSЋ RЁRIRµS†S–SЏ R±SѓR»R° RїRµSЂRµS‚RIRѕSЂRµRЅR° RЅR° RyeRѕRЅSЃS‚RёS‚SѓS†S–R№RЅSѓ – RїSЂRёRЅR°R№RјRЅS– S„RѕSЂRјR°R»SЊRЅRѕ – RјRѕRЅR°SЂS…S–SЋ.

R§RёRЅRЅRёRјRё R·R°R»RёS€RёR»RёSЃSЏ R±S–R»SЊS€S–SЃS‚SЊ RїRѕSЃS‚R°RЅRѕRI SЂRµRIRѕR»SЋS†S–R№RЅRёS… RїR°SЂR»R°RјRµRЅS‚S–RI, R·RѕRyeSЂRµRјR° R¦RёRIS–R»SЊRЅRёR№ RyeRѕRgRµRyeSЃ S– RђRyeS‚ RїSЂRѕ SЃRIRѕR±RѕRgSѓ RgSЂSѓRyeSѓ.

"R RµRIRѕR»SЋS†S–R№RЅR°" RјRµRgR°R»SЊ

R¦S–RyeR°RIRѕ, S‰Rѕ S‡RёRјR°R»Rѕ SЃSѓS‡R°SЃRЅRёRyeS–RI S– SЃR°Rј RїRµSЂRµRIRѕSЂRѕS‚ 1772 SЂRѕRyeSѓ S–RјRµRЅSѓRIR°R»Rё SЂRµRIRѕR»SЋS†S–S”SЋ, R° RјRµRgR°R»SЊ, SЏRyeRѕSЋ R“SѓSЃS‚R°RI III RЅR°RiRѕSЂRѕRgRёRI R№RѕRiRѕ SѓS‡R°SЃRЅRёRyeS–RI, R·R°R»RёS€RёR»R°SЃSЏ RI S–SЃS‚RѕSЂS–S— SЏRye "SЂRµRIRѕR»SЋS†S–R№RЅR°". R’RѕS‡RµRIRёRgSЊ, RI XVIII SЃS‚RѕSЂS–S‡S‡S– S†Rµ SЃR»RѕRIRѕ S– SЃRїSЂR°RIRgS– SЂRѕR·SѓRјS–R»Rё R·RѕRISЃS–Rј S–RЅR°RyeS€Rµ, R°RЅS–R¶ SЃSЊRѕRiRѕRgRЅS–.

R§RµSЃR°RЅS–RI. RњS–SЃS‚Rѕ RЅR° RїRѕR»SЊSЃSЊRyeRѕ-SѓRyeSЂR°S—RЅSЃSЊRyeRѕRјSѓ RїSЂRёRyeRѕSЂRgRѕRЅRЅS–

R”RѕR»SЏ RјS–SЃS‚R° RyeRѕR»RёRIR°R»R°SЃSЊ RјS–R¶ RgRIRѕRјR° S‚RѕS‚R°R»S–S‚R°SЂRЅRёRјRё SЂRµR¶RёRјR°RјRё. 22 RIRµSЂRµSЃRЅSЏ 1939 RgRѕ RјS–SЃS‚RµS‡RyeR° SѓRIS–R№S€R»Rё RЅS–RјRµS†SЊRyeS– S‚R°RЅRyeRѕRIS– RIS–R№SЃSЊRyeR°. R—RiS–RgRЅRѕ R· RїRѕRїRµSЂRµRgRЅS–RјRё RgRѕRјRѕRIR»RµRЅRѕSЃS‚SЏRјRё, RјS–SЃS‚Rѕ RIRёSЂS–S€RёR»Rё RїRµSЂRµRgR°S‚Rё R R°RgSЏRЅSЃSЊRyeRѕRјSѓ RЎRѕSЋR·Sѓ. 28 RIRµSЂRµSЃRЅSЏ SЂR°RgSЏRЅSЃSЊRyeR° 24-S‚R° S‚R°RЅRyeRѕRIR° R±SЂRёRiR°RgR° RgRѕSЃSЏRiR»R° R§RµSЃR°RЅRѕRIR°. RџSЂRѕS‚Rµ, R·RiS–RgRЅRѕ R· RѕSЃS‚R°S‚RѕS‡RЅRёRј RgRѕRiRѕRIRѕSЂRѕRј RїSЂRѕ RyeRѕSЂRgRѕRЅRё RјS–R¶ RЎR RЎR  S– RўSЂRµS‚S–Rј R RµR№S…RѕRј, R§RµSЃR°RЅS–RI Sѓ R¶RѕRIS‚RЅS– 1939 SЂRѕRyeSѓ RIS–RgS–R№S€RѕRI RgRѕ RѕSЃS‚R°RЅRЅSЊRѕRiRѕ.

RџSЂRѕS„RµSЃRѕSЂ RGS–SЂRѕR°RyeS– RљSѓSЂRѕRјS–SЏ: R”RѕRЅR±R°SЃ RЅR°SЂRѕRgRёRI RgRµRјRѕRyeSЂR°S‚RёS‡RЅRёR№ SѓRyeSЂR°S—RЅSЃSЊRyeRёR№ RЅR°S†S–RѕRЅR°R»S–R·Rј

R”RѕRЅR±R°SЃ RїSЂRµRgSЃS‚R°RIR»SЏS” RЈRyeSЂR°S—RЅSѓ RI RyeRѕRЅS†RµRЅS‚SЂRѕRIR°RЅS–R№ S„RѕSЂRјS–. R‘R°RiR°S‚Rѕ RјRѕRI, R±R°RiR°S‚Rѕ RЅR°S†S–RѕRЅR°R»SЊRЅRѕSЃS‚RµR№, R±R°RiR°S‚Rѕ S–RgRµR№, RїSЂRѕSЃS‚Rѕ RIR°R¶RyeRѕ SѓRїSЂR°RIR»SЏS‚Rё RISЃS–Rј S†RёRј. R’ S‚R°RyeRѕRјSѓ SЃRµRЅSЃS– R”RѕRЅR±R°SЃ S” S†RµRЅS‚SЂRѕRј S‚RµRїRµSЂS–S€RЅSЊRѕS— RЈRyeSЂR°S—RЅRё. R† SЏRyeS‰Rѕ RIRё R·RјRѕR¶RµS‚Rµ RI S†SЊRѕRјSѓ RїR»R°RЅS– SѓRїSЂR°RIR»SЏS‚Rё R”RѕRЅR±R°SЃRѕRј, S‚Rѕ SѓRїSЂR°RIR»SЏS‚Rё RЈRyeSЂR°S—RЅRѕSЋ R±SѓRgRµ RЅR°R±R°RiR°S‚Rѕ R»RµRiS€Rµ. R’ S‚R°RyeRѕRјSѓ SЃRµRЅSЃS–, SЏ RgSѓRјR°SЋ, R”RѕRЅR±R°SЃ RgSѓR¶Rµ RIR°R¶R»RёRIRёR№ RЈRyeSЂR°S—RЅS–. RЇ RgSѓRјR°SЋ, S‰Rѕ RљRёS—RI S– SѓRyeSЂR°S—RЅSЃSЊRyeRёR№ RЅR°SЂRѕRg R·RјRѕR¶SѓS‚SЊ RIRїRѕSЂR°S‚RёSЃSЏ R· S†RёRјRё R·R°RIRgR°RЅRЅSЏRјRё.

RќRµRїRѕRјS–S‡RµRЅR° SЂRµRIRѕR»SЋS†S–SЏ. R§Rё R·SЂRѕR±RёR»R° RџRѕR»S‚R°RIR° RЁRIRµS†S–SЋ RIS–R»SЊRЅRѕSЋ

RџSЂRѕ RїSЂR°RIR° S– SЃRIRѕR±RѕRgRё SЃS‚R°RЅS–RI RЅR° SЃRIRѕS—R№ R±R°S‚SЊRyeS–RIS‰RёRЅS– RљR°SЂR» RGR†R† S– S‡SѓS‚Rё RЅRµ S…RѕS‚S–RI. R RѕR·RiSЂRѕRј RїS–Rg RџRѕR»S‚R°RIRѕSЋ RЅRµ R»RёS€Rµ RЅRµ R·SЂRѕR±RёRI R№RѕRiRѕ RїRѕSЃS‚SѓRїR»RёRIS–S€RёRј RI S†SЊRѕRјSѓ RїRёS‚R°RЅRЅS–. RќR°RIRїR°RyeRё RIS–RЅ RїSЂR°RiRЅSѓRI S‰Rµ R±S–R»SЊS€RѕS— RyeRѕRЅS†RµRЅS‚SЂR°S†S–S— RIR»R°RgRё. RЇRyeS‰Rѕ RџRѕR»S‚R°RIR° S– SЃRїSЂR°RIRgS– S‰RѕSЃSЊ R·RјS–RЅRёR»R° Sѓ RЁRIRµS†S–S—, S‚R°Rye S†Rµ RЅR°SЃS‚SЂRѕS— SЃR°RјRёS… SЃS‚R°RЅS–RI. RџSЂRѕ RЅRµRѕR±S…S–RgRЅS–SЃS‚SЊ RѕR±RјRµR¶RµRЅRЅSЏ RyeRѕSЂRѕR»S–RISЃSЊRyeRѕS— SЃRIR°RIRѕR»S– RЅR° RѕRgRЅS–R№ R· RїR°SЂR»R°RјRµRЅS‚SЃSЊRyeRёS… RyeRѕRјS–SЃS–R№ R·R°RiRѕRIRѕSЂRёR»Rё RIR¶Rµ RI 1710 SЂRѕS†S–.

RџR°SЃRyeSѓRgR°. RќR°R№RјRѕR»RѕRgS€RёR№ RїSЂRµRјS”SЂ RI S–SЃS‚RѕSЂS–S— RЈRyeSЂR°S—RЅRё

RќR°R№RјRѕR»RѕRgS€RёR№ RI S–SЃS‚RѕSЂS–S— SѓRyeSЂR°S—RЅSЃSЊRyeRёR№ RїSЂRµRјKјS”SЂ SЃS‚R°RI RiRѕR»RѕRIRѕSЋ SѓSЂSЏRgSѓ RЅRµR·R°RgRѕRIRiRѕ RgRѕ SЃRIRѕRiRѕ 33-SЂS–S‡S‡SЏ. RљRѕR»RµRiRё-RїRѕR»S–S‚RёRyeRё RїSЂRѕ RЅSЊRѕRiRѕ RIS–RgRiSѓRyeSѓRIR°R»RёSЃSЏ RЅRµ RЅR°R№RyeSЂR°S‰RёRјRё SЃR»RѕRIR°RјRё. RџR°SЃRyeSѓRgR° - R·RIRёS‡RЅRµ SЃR»RѕRIRѕ RЅR° R°RgSЂRµSЃSѓ SѓRyeSЂR°S—RЅSЃSЊRyeRѕRiRѕ RїSЂRµRјKјS”SЂ-RјS–RЅS–SЃS‚SЂR° Sѓ 1918 SЂRѕS†S–.