RњR°RЅRgSЂS–RIRyeR° RgRѕ RџRµSЂRµRјRёS€R»SЏ S– RѕRyeRѕR»RёS†SЊ. R•RyeSЃRyeSѓSЂSЃS–SЏ RIRёS…S–RgRЅRѕRiRѕ RgRЅSЏ. R¤RћRўRћ

R†Rџ RїSЂRѕRїRѕRЅSѓS” S‡RёS‚R°S‡R°Rј RIS–RgRyeSЂRёS‚Rё S‚SѓSЂRёSЃS‚RёS‡RЅRёR№ SЃRµR·RѕRЅ. RќRµ RѕR±RѕRISЏR·RyeRѕRIRѕ S—S…R°S‚Rё RgR°R»RµRyeRѕ S– RЅR°RgRѕRIRiRѕ - R±SѓR»R° R±Rё S€RµRЅRiRµRЅSЃSЊRyeR° RIS–R·R° S– 2-3 RgRЅS– RIS–R»SЊRЅRѕRiRѕ S‡R°SЃSѓ. RќR°SЃ S‡RµRyeR°S” SЃS…S–Rg RџS–RgRyeR°SЂRїR°S‚SЃSЊRyeRѕRiRѕ RIRѕS”RIRѕRgSЃS‚RIR° - RїSЂRёRyeRѕSЂRgRѕRЅRЅS– R·RµRјR»S–, RgRµ SЃRїR»RµR»R°SЃSЏ SЃRїR°RgS‰RёRЅR° SѓRyeSЂR°S—RЅSЃSЊRyeRѕRiRѕ S– RїRѕR»SЊSЃSЊRyeRѕRiRѕ RЅR°SЂRѕRgS–RI.

R•RyeSЃRyeSѓSЂSЃS–SЏ RїRѕS‡RёRЅR°S”S‚SЊSЃSЏ RѕRgSЂR°R·Sѓ R¶ R·R° RyeRѕSЂRgRѕRЅRѕRј, RyeS–R»SЊRyeR° RyeS–R»RѕRјRµS‚SЂS–RI RIS–Rg RїRѕR»SЊSЃSЊRyeRѕRiRѕ RїRµSЂRµS…RѕRgSѓ. RЇRyeS‰Rѕ RIRё, SЃRyeR°R¶S–RјRѕ, RIRѕR·RёS‚Rµ RЅR° RїSЂRѕRgR°R¶ SЃRёRiR°SЂRµS‚Rё S– RјRѕR¶RµS‚Rµ RgRѕR·RIRѕR»RёS‚Rё SЃRѕR±S– S‚SЂRёRiRѕRgRёRЅRЅSѓ RїR°SѓR·Sѓ, RїRѕR±R°S‡RёS‚Rµ S‚Rµ, S‰Rѕ RЅRµ R±R°S‡R°S‚SЊ S‚SѓSЂRёSЃS‚Rё.

RќR° RїS–RIRgRѕSЂRѕR·S– RјS–R¶ RњRµRgRёRyeRѕSЋ S– RџRµSЂRµRјRёS€R»RµRј S” RїRѕRIRѕSЂRѕS‚ R»S–RIRѕSЂSѓS‡, RЅR° SЃRµR»Rѕ RЎS”RgR»S–SЃRyeR°. R’S–Rg RЅSЊRѕRiRѕ - S‰Rµ RїR°SЂSѓ RyeS–R»RѕRјRµS‚SЂS–RI S–, RЅRµ RgRѕS…RѕRgSЏS‡Rё SЃRµR»R°, R·RЅRѕRISѓ RЅR°R»S–RIRѕ. RџS–RIRiRѕRgRёRЅRё R№S‚Rё RїS–S€RyeRё, 10 S…RIRёR»RёRЅ RЅR° RјR°S€RёRЅS–.

R¦Rµ - RѕRgRёRЅ S–R· RiRѕR»RѕRIRЅRёS… R°SЂS‚RёR»RµSЂS–R№SЃSЊRyeRёS… S„RѕSЂS‚S–RI R·RѕRIRЅS–S€RЅSЊRѕRiRѕ RyeS–R»SЊS†SЏ R°RISЃS‚SЂS–R№SЃSЊRyeRѕS— S„RѕSЂS‚RµS†S– "RџRµSЂRµRјRёS€R»SЊ". R—R°RiR°R»RѕRј S†RёS… S„RѕSЂS‚S–RI R±SѓR»Rѕ 15, RЅR°S€ RЅR°R·RёRIR°S”S‚SЊSЃSЏ "R‘RѕSЂRµRye" S– S” RѕSЃS‚R°RЅRЅS–Rј Sѓ RїRµSЂRµR»S–RyeSѓ S„RѕSЂS‚S–RI.

RќR°RїSЂRёRyeS–RЅS†S– XVIII SЃS‚RѕSЂS–S‡S‡SЏ SЂRµSЃRїSѓR±R»S–RyeR° S€R»SЏS…RµS‚SЃSЊRyeRѕS— RgRµRјRѕRyeSЂR°S‚S–S— R S–S‡ RџRѕSЃRїRѕR»RёS‚R° RїSЂRёRїRёRЅRёR»R° SЃRIRѕS” S–SЃRЅSѓRIR°RЅRЅSЏ - RїRѕR»SЊSЃSЊRyeS–, SЂSѓSЃSЊRyeS– (SѓRyeSЂR°S—RЅSЃSЊRyeS– S‚R° R±S–R»RѕSЂSѓSЃSЊRyeS–), RїSЂSѓSЃSЊRyeS– R·RµRјR»S– R±SѓR»Rё RїRѕRgS–R»RµRЅS– R±S–R»SЊS€ SѓSЃRїS–S€RЅRёRјRё S–RјRїRµSЂS–SЏRјRё. R“R°R»RёS‡RёRЅR°, R‘SѓRyeRѕRIRёRЅR° S– RљSЂR°RyeS–RI RgS–SЃS‚R°R»RёSЃSЏ R’S–RgRЅSЋ, R’R°SЂS€R°RIR°, R’RѕR»RёRЅSЊ S– RџRѕRgS–R»R»SЏ - RЎR°RЅRyeS‚-RџRµS‚RµSЂR±SѓSЂRiSѓ.

RџS–SЃR»SЏ RљSЂRёRјSЃSЊRyeRѕS— RIS–R№RЅRё SЃS‚RѕSЃSѓRЅRyeRё RјS–R¶ R’S–RgRЅRµRј S– RЎR°RЅRyeS‚-RџRµS‚RµSЂR±SѓSЂRiRѕRј RїRѕRiS–SЂS€RёR»RёSЃSЏ, S– RђRISЃS‚SЂS–SЏ, SЏRyeR° RЅR° S‚RѕR№ S‡R°SЃ SѓR¶Rµ SЃS‚R°R»R° RђRISЃS‚SЂRѕ-RЈRiRѕSЂS‰RёRЅRѕSЋ, RIRёSЂS–S€RёR»R° R·R°S…RёSЃS‚RёS‚RёSЃSЏ R· RїS–RIRЅRѕS‡S–. RџRµSЂRµRјRёS€R»SЊ R±SѓRI SЂRѕR·S‚R°S€RѕRIR°RЅRёR№ Sѓ SЃS‚SЂR°S‚RµRiS–S‡RЅRѕRјSѓ RјS–SЃS†S– - RЅR° SЃS‚R°SЂRѕRIRёRЅRЅRѕRјSѓ S€R»SЏS…Sѓ R· R‘R°R»S‚S–R№SЃSЊRyeRѕRiRѕ RјRѕSЂSЏ S‡RµSЂRµR· RЎR»RѕRIR°S‡S‡RёRЅSѓ RI RЈRiRѕSЂS‰RёRЅSѓ, RIS–RЅ RїSЂRёRyeSЂRёRIR°RI RїS–RgS…RѕRgRё RgRѕ R»RµRјRyeS–RISЃSЊRyeRёS… RїRµSЂRµRIR°R»S–RI, RЅR°R№RЅRёR¶S‡RёS… Sѓ RљR°SЂRїR°S‚SЃSЊRyeRѕRјSѓ S…SЂRµR±S‚S–.

R’RѕRgRЅRѕS‡R°SЃ RџRµSЂRµRјRёS€R»SЊ R±SѓRI RISѓR·R»RѕRIRѕSЋ R·R°R»S–R·RЅRёS‡RЅRѕSЋ SЃS‚R°RЅS†S–S”SЋ RђRISЃS‚SЂRѕ-RЈRiRѕSЂS‰RёRЅRё, S‚SѓS‚ RgRѕ R»S–RЅS–S— "RљSЂR°RyeS–RI-R›SЊRIS–RI" RїSЂRёS”RgRЅSѓS”S‚SЊSЃSЏ R»S–RЅS–SЏ RЅR° R‘SѓRgR°RїRµS€S‚, SЏRyeSЂR°R· S‡RµSЂRµR· R·RiR°RgR°RЅS– RIRёS‰Rµ RїRµSЂRµRIR°R»Rё.

 R§R°SЃS‚RёRЅR° R·R°R»S–R·RЅRёS†S– RџRµSЂRµRјRёS€R»SЊ-R‘SѓRgR°RїRµS€S‚ (SЂRѕR¶RµRIRёRј RїSѓRЅRyeS‚RёSЂRѕRј), SЏRyeR° R·R°R»RёS€RёR»R°SЃSЏ RЅR° S‚RµSЂRёS‚RѕSЂS–S— RЈRyeSЂR°S—RЅRё. R†R»SЋSЃS‚SЂR°S†S–SЏ: uk.wikipedia

R“RѕSЂR±RёSЃS‚R° RјS–SЃS†RµRIS–SЃS‚SЊ RyeR°SЂRїR°S‚SЃSЊRyeRѕRiRѕ RїRµSЂRµRgRiS–SЂSЏ SЂRѕR±RёR»R° RџRµSЂRµRјRёS€R»SЊ S–RgRµR°R»SЊRЅRёRј RјS–SЃS†RµRј RgR»SЏ SЃRїRѕSЂSѓRgR¶RµRЅRЅSЏ S‚RѕRiRѕS‡R°SЃRЅRѕRiRѕ SЃS‚R°RЅRgR°SЂS‚Sѓ SѓRyeSЂS–RїR»RµRЅSЊ - SЃRёSЃS‚RµRјR° SѓRyeSЂS–RїR»RµRЅRёS… S„RѕSЂS‚S–RI, SЏRyeS– RїSЂRёRyeSЂRёRIR°R»Rё RѕRgRёRЅ RѕRgRЅRѕRiRѕ R°SЂS‚RёR»RµSЂS–R№SЃSЊRyeRёRј RIRѕRiRЅRµRј RЅR° RIS–RgSЃS‚R°RЅS– 1-5 RyeRј.

RџRѕRgS–R±RЅRѕ RgRѕ R›RёSЃRѕRiS–SЂSЃSЊRyeRѕRiRѕ S„RѕSЂS‚Sѓ RљRёS—RISЃSЊRyeRѕS— S„RѕSЂS‚RµS†S–, S‚S–R»SЊRyeRё S‚R°RyeRёS… S„RѕSЂS‚S–RI R·RЅR°S‡RЅRѕ R±S–R»SЊS€Rµ S– RIRѕRЅRё, RyeSЂS–Rј R·RµRјRµR»SЊRЅRёS… RЅR°SЃRёRїS–RI, R·R°S…RёS‰RµRЅS– R±RµS‚RѕRЅRѕRј S– R±SЂRѕRЅRµSЋ.

 R¤RѕSЂS‚RµS†SЏ RџRµSЂRµRјRёS€R»SЊ. R”R¶RµSЂRµR»Rѕ: pl.wikpedia. R¤RѕSЂS‚ "R‘RѕSЂRµRye" - RїSЂR°RIRѕSЂSѓS‡

RџRµSЂRµRјRёS€R»SЊ R±SѓRI S‚SЂRµS‚SЊRѕSЋ RI R„RISЂRѕRїS– S„RѕSЂS‚RµS†RµSЋ S‚R°RyeRѕRiRѕ RyeR»R°SЃSѓ, RїS–SЃR»SЏ RђRЅS‚RIRµSЂRїRµRЅR° S– R’RµSЂRgRµRЅR°. RљS–R»SЊRyeR°RgRµSЃSЏS‚ R°SЂS‚RёR»RµSЂS–R№SЃSЊRyeRёS… S„RѕSЂS‚S–RI, R±SЂRѕRЅSЊRѕRIR°RЅRёS… R±R°S‚R°SЂRµR№, RgRѕRїRѕRјS–R¶RЅRёS… S„RѕSЂS‚S–RI, RyeR°R·R°SЂRј S‚RѕS‰Rѕ. R’RЅSѓS‚SЂS–S€RЅS” S– R·RѕRIRЅS–S€RЅS” RyeS–R»SЊS†Rµ RѕR±RѕSЂRѕRЅRё, 45 RyeS–R»RѕRјRµS‚SЂS–RI RI RgS–R°RјRµS‚SЂS–. 128-S‚RёSЃSЏS‡RЅRёR№ RiR°SЂRЅS–R·RѕRЅ. R¤RѕSЂS‚RµS†SЏ SЃS‚R°R»R° "RјS–SЃS‚RѕSѓS‚RIRѕSЂSЋSЋS‡RёRј RїS–RgRїSЂRёS”RјSЃS‚RIRѕRј" RџRµSЂRµRјRёS€R»SЏ.

RќR° RIS–RgRјS–RЅSѓ R±R°RiR°S‚SЊRѕS… S–RЅS€RёS… (S‚S–S”S— R¶ RљRёS—RISЃSЊRyeRѕS—) S”RISЂRѕRїRµR№SЃSЊRyeRёS… S„RѕSЂS‚RµS†SЊ, RџRµSЂRµRјRёS€R»SЊ Sѓ 1914-15 SЂSЂ. SЃS‚R°RI RјS–SЃS†RµRј R°RyeS‚RёRIRЅRёS… RIS–R№SЃSЊRyeRѕRIRёS… RgS–R№ S– RїRµSЂRµR¶RёRI RЅR°R№RgRѕRIS€Sѓ R±R»RѕRyeR°RgSѓ Sѓ RIS–RgSЂRёRIS– RIS–Rg RiRѕR»RѕRIRЅRёS… SЃRёR».

R—R°S…RѕRgRёRјRѕ Sѓ S„RѕSЂS‚ S‡RµSЂRµR· RIR°R»:

 R’R°R» S–R· RїSЂRѕS…RѕRgRѕRј, R·R° RЅRёRј RIRёRgRЅRѕ S„RѕSЂS‚RµS‡RЅSѓ RyeR°R·R°SЂRјSѓ. R’SЃS– S„RѕS‚Rѕ: RџR°RIR»Rѕ RЎRћR›RћR”R¬RљRћ

R— RїRѕS‡R°S‚RyeRѕRј RџRµSЂS€RѕS— SЃRIS–S‚RѕRIRѕS— - SЃRyeRѕSЂRѕ SЋRIS–R»RµR№! - S„RѕSЂS‚RµS†SЏ SЃS‚R°R»R° RЅR° S€R»SЏS…Sѓ RЅR°SЃS‚SѓRїSѓ R RѕSЃS–R№SЃSЊRyeRѕS— S–RјRїRµSЂR°S‚RѕSЂSЃSЊRyeRѕS— R°SЂRјS–S— (R R†Rђ). RђRISЃS‚SЂRѕ-SѓRiRѕSЂSЃSЊRyeS– RIS–R№SЃSЊRyeR° R±SѓR»Rё R·RјSѓS€RµRЅS– RIS–RgS–R№S‚Rё R·R° RЎSЏRЅ, R°R»Rµ S„RѕSЂS‚RµS†SЏ SѓSЃRїS–S€RЅRѕ R±RѕSЂRѕRЅRёR»R°SЃSЏ.

RЈ R¶RѕRIS‚RЅS– 1914-RiRѕ RIS–RgR±SѓR»RѕSЃSЏ RyeS–R»SЊRyeR° SЃRїSЂRѕR± R R†Rђ RїSЂRѕSЂRIR°S‚RёSЃSЏ RyeSЂS–R·SЊ R»S–RЅS–SЋ S„RѕSЂS‚S–RI - R±RµR·SѓSЃRїS–S€RЅS–. R¤RѕSЂS‚ "R‘RѕSЂRµRye" R±SѓRI RЅR° R»S–RЅS–S— RїSЂRѕSЂRёRISѓ.

RћSЃSЊ S‚R°Rye S„RѕSЂS‚ RIRёRiR»SЏRgR°S” R·RiRѕSЂRё:

 RџRѕSЃRµSЂRµRgRёRЅS– - R·R°SЃRёRїR°RЅR° R·RµRјR»RµSЋ R±RµS‚RѕRЅRѕRIR°RЅR° RyeR°R·R°SЂRјR°, Sѓ SЏRyeS–R№ RјRµS€RyeR°RI RiR°SЂRЅS–R·RѕRЅ. RџSЂR°RIRѕSЂSѓS‡, RЅR° RIR°R»Sѓ, R±S–R»S–SЋS‚SЊ S„SѓRЅRgR°RјRµRЅS‚Rё R±SЂRѕRЅSЊRѕRIR°RЅRѕS— R°SЂS‚RёR»RµSЂS–R№SЃSЊRyeRѕS— RїRѕR·RёS†S–S—. R¤RѕS‚Rѕ: fort8.cba.pl

R¤RѕSЂS‚RµS‡RЅS– RIR°R»Rё R· RyeR°R·R°SЂRјRѕSЋ RїRѕSЃRµSЂRµRgRёRЅS–. RљR°R·R°SЂRјRё R±RµS‚RѕRЅRѕRIR°RЅS–, R· R±SЂRѕRЅSЊRѕRIR°RЅRёRјRё RgRIRµSЂRёRјR°, R·RIRµSЂS…Sѓ R·R°SЃRёRїR°RЅS– R·RµRјR»RµSЋ. R’S–RgRyeSЂRёS‚RѕSЋ R·R°R»RёS€R°S”S‚SЊSЃSЏ RїSЂRѕS‚RёR»RµR¶RЅR° RїSЂRѕS‚RёRIRЅRёRyeSѓ SЃS‚RѕSЂRѕRЅR° RyeR°R·R°SЂRјRё, RIRѕRЅR° RѕR±RµSЂRЅRµRЅR° Sѓ RIRЅSѓS‚SЂS–S€RЅSЋ SЃS‚RѕSЂRѕRЅSѓ RyeS–R»SЊS†SЏ S„RѕSЂS‚S–RI:

 R—RIRёS‡R°R№RЅRѕ R¶, Sѓ 1914 SЂRѕS†S– RISЃS– R»S–SЃRё RgRѕRIRyeRѕR»R° S„RѕSЂS‚S–RI R±SѓR»Rё SЂRµS‚RµR»SЊRЅRѕ RIRёSЂSѓR±R°RЅS–, S‰RѕR± RїRѕR»RµRiS€RёS‚Rё R°SЂS‚RёR»RµSЂS–R№SЃSЊRyeRёR№ RIRѕRiRѕRЅSЊ

R— SЂRѕSЃS–R№SЃSЊRyeRёRј RЅR°SЃS‚SѓRїRѕRј 1914 SЂRѕRyeSѓ RїRѕRISЏR·R°RЅR° RgSЂR°RјR°S‚RёS‡RЅR° RїRѕRgS–SЏ - R°S‚R°RyeSѓSЋS‡RёRј SѓRgR°R»RѕSЃSЏ RїSЂRѕSЂRIR°S‚RёSЃSЏ R·R° RIR°R»Rё RѕRgRЅRѕRiRѕ R· RgRѕRїRѕRјS–R¶RЅRёS… S„RѕSЂS‚S–RI "R›RёSЃRёS‡RyeR°" (R·R°SЂR°R· RЅR° S‚RµSЂRёS‚RѕSЂS–S— RЈRyeSЂR°S—RЅRё).

 R§RѕSЂRЅR° R»S–RЅS–SЏ RїSЂR°RIRѕSЂSѓS‡ S„RѕSЂS‚Sѓ "R‘RѕSЂRµRye" - RїRѕR»SЊSЃSЊRyeRѕ-SѓRyeSЂR°S—RЅSЃSЊRyeRёR№ RyeRѕSЂRgRѕRЅ. R RѕR¶RµRIS– RyeRѕR»R° - S–RЅS€S– RiRѕR»RѕRIRЅS– S– RgRѕRїRѕRјS–R¶RЅS– SЃRїRѕSЂSѓRgRё R·RѕRIRЅS–S€RЅSЊRѕRiRѕ RyeS–R»SЊS†SЏ RѕR±RѕSЂRѕRЅRё S„RѕSЂS‚RµS†S– "RџRµSЂRµRјRёS€R»SЊ"

R§R°SЃS‚RёRЅR° R·R°RiRѕRЅSѓ RЅS–R±RёS‚Rѕ R·R°S‡RёRЅRёR»R°SЃSЏ RISЃRµSЂRµRgRёRЅS– S„RѕSЂS‚Sѓ S– RїRѕRїSЂRѕSЃRёR»R° (S‡RµSЂRµR· SЂR°RgS–RѕR·RISЏR·RѕRye) SЃSѓSЃS–RgRЅS– S„RѕSЂS‚Rё RIRgR°SЂRёS‚Rё RїRѕ RgRIRѕSЂSѓ "R›RёSЃRёS‡RyeRё" RyeR°SЂS‚RµS‡S‡SЋ, S…RѕS‡R° RЅR° RїRѕRgRIS–SЂS— S–S‰Rµ R№S€RѕRI R±S–R№.

RљR°R·R°SЂRјR° S„RѕSЂS‚Sѓ:

 R—RIRµSЂS…Sѓ R·R°SЃRёRїR°RЅS– R·RµRјR»RµSЋ, R±RµS‚RѕRЅRѕRIR°RЅS– S– R· R±SЂRѕRЅSЊRѕRIR°RЅRёRјRё RgRIRµSЂRёRјR° R№ RIS–RyeRѕRЅRЅRёS†SЏRјRё, S†S– S„RѕSЂS‚Rё R±SѓR»Rё RЅRµRїSЂRёSЃS‚SѓRїRЅRёRјRё RgR»SЏ R±S–R»SЊS€RѕSЃS‚S– R°SЂS‚RёR»RµSЂS–S— S‚RѕRiRѕ S‡R°SЃSѓ

RџS–SЃR»SЏ RyeS–R»SЊRyeRѕS… SЃRїSЂRѕR± S€S‚SѓSЂRјSѓ, R·R°R·RЅR°RIS€Rё RyeSЂRёRIR°RIRёS… SѓS‚SЂR°S‚, R R†Rђ RIS–RgSЃS‚SѓRїRёR»R°. RќR° RїRѕR»S– R±RѕSЋ R·R°R»RёS€RёR»RѕSЃSЏ 10-20 S‚RёSЃSЏS‡ SЃRѕR»RgR°S‚S–RI R R†Rђ, R±SѓR»Rѕ R±R°RiR°S‚Rѕ RїRѕRyeR°R»S–S‡RµRЅRёS…, RїSЂRѕ S†S– R±RѕS— SЃRyeR»R°RgRµRЅR° RIS–RgRѕRјR° RїS–SЃRЅSЏ:

R—R° RјS–SЃSЏS†SЊ, Sѓ R»RёSЃS‚RѕRїR°RgS– 1914-RiRѕ R R†Rђ RїRѕRIRµSЂRЅSѓR»R°SЃSЏ - S‚RµRїRµSЂ RgR»SЏ RgRѕRIRiRѕS— RѕR±R»RѕRiRё R·R°RјS–SЃS‚SЊ S€S‚SѓSЂRјSѓ. R—R°S…RёSЃRЅRёRyeRё RIRёS‚SЂRёRјR°R»Rё 173 RgRЅS– - RЅR°R№RgRѕRIS€R° RѕR±R»RѕRiR° S„RѕSЂS‚RµS†S– S‡R°SЃS–RI RџRµSЂS€RѕS— SЃRIS–S‚RѕRIRѕS—.

 RђRISЃS‚SЂRѕ-SѓRiRѕSЂSЃSЊRyeR° R°RiS–S‚RyeR° (RїRѕR»SЊSЃSЊRyeRѕSЋ): "R—S– R·R±SЂRѕS”SЋ RI SЂSѓS†S– SЃRїS–S€Rё RЅR° RIRѕSЂRѕRiR°, RGR°R№ R·R°R±SЂRёRЅRёS‚SЊ SЃRїS–RI R· SѓSЃS‚ S– SЃRµSЂS†SЏ. R’S–RgRgR°RјRѕ R· RѕS…RѕS‚RѕSЋ R·R° R¦S–SЃR°SЂSЏ S– R·R° R’S–S‚S‡RёR·RЅSѓ RјR°R№RЅRѕ S– RyeSЂRѕRI".

RђRiS–S‚RyeR° RIS–SЂS€RѕRIR°RЅR°, RѕRgSЂR°R·Sѓ R·RiR°RgSѓSЋS‚SЊSЃSЏ RїSЂRёRiRѕRgRё RЁRIRµR№RyeR° S– R№RѕRiRѕ R°SЂRјS–R№SЃSЊRyeRёS… RgSЂSѓR·S–RI

RђSЂS‚RёR»RµSЂS–SЏ R R†Rђ RIR»SѓS‡RЅRѕ SЃS‚SЂS–R»SЏR»R° Sѓ S„RѕSЂS‚Rё, R°R»Rµ RѕSЃRѕR±R»RёRIRѕS— S€RyeRѕRgRё RЅRµ R·R°RIRgR°RIR°R»R°. RџR»R°RЅ SѓRyeSЂS–RїR»RµRЅSЊ R·RgRѕR±SѓRI RѕS„S–S†RµSЂ RљRёS—RISЃSЊRyeRѕRiRѕ RIS–R№SЃSЊRyeRѕRIRѕRiRѕ RѕRyeSЂSѓRiSѓ (70-S‚R° RїS–S…RѕS‚RЅR° RgRёRIS–R·S–SЏ), RyeR°RїS–S‚R°RЅ R’RѕR»RѕRgRёRјRёSЂ RЎR°R»SЊSЃSЊRyeRёR№, R·R° S‰Rѕ RѕS‚SЂRёRјR°RI RїS–RgRIRёS‰RµRЅRЅSЏ RgRѕ RїRѕR»RyeRѕRIRЅRёRyeR°.

R§RµSЂRµR· RїSЏS‚SЊ SЂRѕRyeS–RI RЎR°R»SЊSЃSЊRyeRёR№ SЃS‚R°RЅRµ RiRµRЅRµSЂR°R»RѕRј RђSЂRјS–S— RЈRќR , RyeRѕRјR°RЅRgRёSЂRѕRј "S‡RѕSЂRЅRёS… R·R°RїRѕSЂRѕR¶S†S–RI". RЈ SЃRµSЂRїRЅS– 1919 SЃR°RјRµ RIS–RЅ SЃRїSЂRѕRIRѕRyeSѓS” - R·S–SЂRIR°RIS€Rё SЂRѕSЃS–R№SЃSЊRyeRёR№ S‚SЂRёRyeRѕR»RѕSЂ RЅR° RњR°R№RgR°RЅS– - RyeRѕRЅS„R»S–RyeS‚ RјS–R¶ R“R°R»RёS†SЊRyeRёRј RyeRѕSЂRїSѓSЃRѕRј RЈRќR  S– RgRµRЅS–RyeS–RЅS†SЏRјRё RїS–Rg S‡R°SЃ RIRёR·RIRѕR»RµRЅRЅSЏ RљRёS”RIR° RIS–Rg R±S–R»SЊS€RѕRIRёRyeS–RI.

R—R°S…RѕRgRёRјRѕ RISЃRµSЂRµRgRёRЅSѓ RyeR°R·R°SЂRјRё. R¦RµRiR»R°, R·R°R»S–R·RЅS– R±R°R»RyeRё, R±SЂRѕRЅSЊRѕRIR°RЅS– RgRIRµSЂS– S– RIS–RyeRѕRЅRЅRёS†S–. R’ S‡R°SЃRё SЃRѕS†S–R°R»S–SЃS‚RёS‡RЅRѕS— RџRѕR»SЊS‰S– "S–RјRїRµSЂS–R°R»S–SЃS‚RёS‡RЅS–" SѓRyeSЂS–RїR»RµRЅRЅSЏ RЅRµ RIRIR°R¶R°R»RёSЃSЏ RїR°RјSЏS‚RyeR°RјRё, S‚RѕR¶ RїS–RgR»RѕRiR° RgSЂSѓRiRѕRiRѕ RїRѕRIRµSЂS…Sѓ RISЃS‚RёRiR»R° RїSЂRѕRIR°R»RёS‚RёSЃSЏ.

 RќR° SЃS‚RµSЂR¶RЅSЏS…, SЏRyeS– SЃS‚RёSЂS‡R°S‚SЊ R·S– SЃS‚S–RЅ, SЂR°RЅS–S€Rµ R±SѓR»Rё SЂRѕR·S‚R°S€RѕRIR°RЅS– RЅR°SЂRё RgR»SЏ RѕSЃRѕR±RѕRIRѕRiRѕ SЃRyeR»R°RgSѓ S„RѕSЂS‚Sѓ

RЎS‚S–RЅRё SЂRѕR·RјR°R»SЊRѕRIR°RЅS– R»SЋR±RѕRIRЅRёRјRё R·S–R·RЅR°RЅRЅSЏRјRё RјS–SЃS†RµRIRёS… RїS–RgR»S–S‚RyeS–RI, RЅR°RIS–S‚SЊ Sѓ RyeR°R·R°SЂRјRµRЅRЅRѕRјSѓ RyeR»RѕR·RµS‚S–:

 "RљRѕS…R°SЋ RљS€RёSЃSЏ RЅR°R·R°RIR¶RgRё"

RџSЂRѕS…RѕRgRёRјRѕ RI RyeS–RЅRµS†SЊ S„RѕSЂS‚Sѓ, Sѓ R№RѕRiRѕ RЅR°R№R±S–R»SЊS€ R·R°S…RёS‰RµRЅSѓ S‡R°SЃS‚RёRЅSѓ, RѕR±RµSЂRЅRµRЅSѓ RgRѕ RIRѕSЂRѕRiR°. R’RёRgRЅRѕ RїS–RgR№RѕRј RgRѕ RѕRiR»SЏRgRѕRIRѕS— R±SЂRѕRЅRµR±R°S€S‚Rё:

 R R°RЅS–S€Rµ S‚SѓS‚ R±SѓR»Rё SЃS…RѕRgRё RgRѕ RѕRiR»SЏRgRѕRIRѕS— R±SЂRѕRЅRµR±R°S€S‚Rё. R‡S— RIRёRgRЅRѕ SѓRiRѕSЂS–, S‚R°Rј, RgRµ S‰S–R»RёRЅR°

RЈRyeSЂS–RїR»RµRЅRЅSЏ R±SѓR»Rѕ RЅR°SЃS‚S–R»SЊRyeRё RїRѕS‚SѓR¶RЅRёRј, S‰Rѕ SЃRїRѕSЃS‚RµSЂS–RiR°S‡ RјS–Ri SЃRёRgS–S‚Rё Sѓ R±R°S€S‚RѕS‡S†S– RїSЂSЏRјRѕ RїS–Rg S‡R°SЃ RѕR±SЃS‚SЂS–R»Sѓ, SЃS‚RµR¶RёS‚Rё S‡RµSЂRµR· S‰S–R»RёRЅSѓ R·R° RЅR°SЃS‚SѓRїRѕRј RїSЂRѕS‚RёRIRЅRёRyeR° S– RyeRѕSЂRёRiSѓRIR°S‚Rё RIRѕRiRѕRЅSЊ R°SЂS‚RёR»RµSЂS–S— S‚R° RyeSѓR»RµRјRµS‚S–RI.

RћSЃSЊ S‚R°Rye S†SЏ RѕRiR»SЏRgRѕRIR° R±SЂRѕRЅRµR±R°S€S‚R° RIRёRiR»SЏRgR°S” R·RѕRIRЅS–:

 

RџS–SЃR»SЏ RїS–RISЂRѕRyeSѓ SЂRѕSЃS–R№SЃSЊRyeRѕS— RѕR±R»RѕRiRё, Sѓ R±RµSЂRµR·RЅS– 1915 SЂRѕRyeSѓ SЃRѕR»RgR°S‚Rё R°RISЃS‚SЂRѕ-SѓRiRѕSЂSЃSЊRyeRѕS— R°SЂRјS–S—, R·S—RIS€Rё SѓSЃS–S… RyeRѕRЅRµR№ S– SЃS‚SЂR°R¶RgR°SЋS‡Rё RIS–Rg RiRѕR»RѕRgSѓ SЂR°R·RѕRј S–R· S†RёRIS–R»SЊRЅRёRј RЅR°SЃRµR»RµRЅRЅSЏRј, RyeR°RїS–S‚SѓR»SЋRIR°R»Rё.

RџRµSЂRµRg R·RgR°S‡RµSЋ RIRѕRЅRё RїS–RgS–SЂRIR°R»Rё R±RѕR№RѕRIS– R±R°S€S‚Rё S„RѕSЂS‚RµS†S–. RђR»Rµ S†SЏ RѕRiR»SЏRgRѕRIR° R±R°S€S‚RѕS‡RyeR° R·R±RµSЂRµRiR»R°SЃSЏ RЅR° SЃRIRѕS”RјSѓ RјS–SЃS†S–:

 "RЁRyeRѕRgR°", RџR»SЊR·RµRЅSЊ, 1897

RџRѕR·RёS†S–SЏ R°SЂS‚RёR»RµSЂS–R№SЃSЊRyeRѕS— R±R°S‚R°SЂRµS— RЅR°Rg RyeR°R·R°SЂRјRѕSЋ S„RѕSЂS‚Sѓ. R RѕR·RyeRѕR»RѕS‚S– RјRµS‚R°R»RµRIS– S‡R°SЃS‚RёRЅRё RїRѕRIRѕSЂRѕS‚RЅRёS… RјRµS…R°RЅS–R·RјS–RI, S€RјR°S‚RyeRё R±RµS‚RѕRЅSѓ RIR°R»SЏSЋS‚SЊSЃSЏ RgRѕRIRyeRѕR»R°, RїRѕSЂRѕSЃR»S– S‚SЂR°RIRѕSЋ. R‘SЂRѕRЅRµR±R°S€S‚ RЅRµ RIRёRgRЅRѕ.

 RђSЂS‚RёR»RµSЂS–R№SЃSЊRyeR° R±R°S‚R°SЂRµSЏ - RїRѕR·RёS†S–S— RЅR° RgRIS– RiR°SЂRјR°S‚Rё

RЎRѕR»RgR°S‚Rё R R†Rђ RЅR° RѕRgRЅRѕRјSѓ R· RїS–RgS–SЂRIR°RЅRёS… S„RѕSЂS‚S–RI. R’RёRgRЅRѕ RїRѕRIRѕSЂRѕS‚RЅS– RyeSЂSѓRiRё S– RїRµSЂRµRIRµSЂRЅSѓS‚S– R±SЂRѕRЅRµR±R°S€S‚Rё R°SЂS‚RёR»RµSЂS–R№SЃSЊRyeRёS… RїRѕR·RёS†S–R№.

 RўR°Rye SЃR°RјRѕ RyeRѕR»RёSЃSЊ RIRёRiR»SЏRgR°RI S– S„RѕSЂS‚ "R‘RѕSЂRµRye"

RћRgRёRЅ S–R· S„RѕSЂS‚S–RI S„RѕSЂS‚RµS†S– "RџRµSЂRµRјRёS€R»SЊ" RїS–SЃR»SЏ S‚RёR¶RЅS–RI R±RѕRјR±R°SЂRgSѓRIR°RЅRЅSЏ R°SЂS‚RёR»RµSЂS–S”SЋ R R†Rђ. RђRµSЂRѕS„RѕS‚RѕR·R№RѕRјRyeR° RџRµSЂS€RѕS— SЃRIS–S‚RѕRIRѕS— RIS–R№RЅRё:

 

R’RёRiR»SЏRg R· R°SЂS‚RёR»RµSЂS–R№SЃSЊRyeRѕS— RїRѕR·RёS†S–S— RЅR° SѓRyeSЂR°S—RЅSЃSЊRyeRѕ-RїRѕR»SЊSЃSЊRyeRёR№ RyeRѕSЂRgRѕRЅ:

RGR°S‚Rё RїRѕ S†RµRЅS‚SЂSѓ S„RѕS‚Rѕ - RњRµRgRёRyeR° S– RїRµSЂRµS…S–Rg SѓRyeSЂR°S—RЅSЃSЊRyeRѕ-RїRѕR»SЊSЃSЊRyeRѕRiRѕ RyeRѕSЂRgRѕRЅSѓ. RЈ R»S–SЃS– RїSЂR°RIRѕSЂSѓS‡ - RgRѕRїRѕRјS–R¶RЅS– S„RѕSЂS‚Rё RЅR° S‚RµSЂRёS‚RѕSЂS–S— RЈRyeSЂR°S—RЅRё

RџRѕRIRµSЂS‚R°S”RјRѕSЃSЏ RЅR° S‚SЂR°SЃSѓ S– S—RgRµRјRѕ RgR°R»S– (SЏRyeS‰Rѕ RЅRµRјR° SЃRIRѕRiRѕ S‚SЂR°RЅSЃRїRѕSЂS‚Sѓ, SЂRµRiSѓR»SЏSЂRЅRѕ S…RѕRgSЏS‚SЊ RјR°SЂS€SЂSѓS‚RyeRё) - RgRѕ RyeRѕSЂRgRѕRЅSѓ R°R±Rѕ RI RџRµSЂRµRјRёS€R»SЊ (RџS€RµRјRёSЃR»SЊ).

RњR°SЂS€SЂSѓS‚RyeR° RїSЂRёR±SѓRIR°S” RgRѕ R·R°R»S–R·RЅRёS‡RЅRѕRiRѕ RIRѕRyeR·R°R»Sѓ, S‚S–R»SЊRyeRё R· RїSЂRѕS‚RёR»RµR¶RЅRѕRiRѕ RIS–Rg RyeRѕR»S–R№ R±RѕRyeSѓ. RџSЂRѕS…RѕRgRёRјRѕ S‡RµSЂRµR· S‚SѓRЅRµR»SЊ S– RѕRїRёRЅSЏS”RјRѕSЃSЏ RЅR° RIRѕRyeR·R°R»S– RџRµSЂRµRјRёS€R»SЏ, SЏRyeRёR№ RїS–SЃR»SЏ SЂRµSЃS‚R°RISЂR°S†S–S— RIRIR°R¶R°S”S‚SЊSЃSЏ RЅR°R№RiR°SЂRЅS–S€RёRј RIRѕRyeR·R°R»RѕRј RїRѕR»SЊSЃSЊRyeRёS… R·R°R»S–R·RЅRёS†SЊ.

 R’RѕRyeR·R°R» RџRµSЂRµRјRёS€R»SЏ - RЅRµRѕR±R°SЂRѕRyeRѕRIR° SЃRїRѕSЂSѓRgR° RyeS–RЅS†SЏ XIX SЃS‚.

R’RёS…RѕRgRёRјRѕ R· RIRѕRyeR·R°R»Sѓ - S– RјRё Sѓ S†RµRЅS‚SЂS–. RўSѓS‚ S– RїSЂRёRїR°SЂRyeSѓRIR°S‚RёSЃSЏ RјRѕR¶RЅR°, RgRѕ SЂRµS‡S–.

 

RџRµSЂRµRјRёS€R»SЊ R·RiR°RgSѓS”S‚SЊSЃSЏ Sѓ "RџRѕRIS–SЃS‚S– RISЂRµRјSЏRЅRёS… R»S–S‚" RїS–Rg 981 SЂRѕRyeRѕRј, RyeRѕR»Rё RyeRёS—RISЃSЊRyeRёR№ RyeRЅSЏR·SЊ R’RѕR»RѕRgRёRјRёSЂ (S‚RѕRgS– S‰Rµ RIS–RЅ RЅRµ R±SѓRI RGSЂRµSЃS‚RёS‚RµR»RµRј) "S…RѕRgRёRI RЅR° R»SЏS…Rё" S– R·R°R№RЅSЏRI S‡RµSЂRIRµRЅSЃSЊRyeS– RiRѕSЂRѕRgRё".

R SѓSЃSЊRyeRµ RјS–SЃS‚Rѕ R±SѓR»Rѕ SЃS‚RѕR»RёS†RµSЋ RџRµSЂRµRјRёS€R»SЊSЃSЊRyeRѕRiRѕ RyeRЅSЏR·S–RISЃS‚RIR°, RїRѕS‚S–Rј RIS…RѕRgRёR»Rѕ RgRѕ R“R°R»RёS†SЊRyeRѕ-R’RѕR»RёRЅSЃSЊRyeRѕS— RgRµSЂR¶R°RIRё. R— XIV SЃS‚RѕSЂS–S‡S‡SЏ RIS…RѕRgRёS‚SЊ RgRѕ SЃRyeR»R°RgSѓ RїRѕR»SЊSЃSЊRyeRѕS— RyeRѕSЂRѕRЅRё, R SѓSЃSЊRyeRѕRiRѕ RIRѕS”RIRѕRgSЃS‚RIR°.

R’RѕS—RЅSЃSЊRyeRёR№ RїS–RgSЂRѕR·RgS–R» RџRµSЂRµRјRёS€R»SЊSЃSЊRyeRѕS— R·RµRјR»S–, RїS–Rg RgRIRѕRiRѕR»RѕRIRёRј R¶RѕRIS‚RёRј RѕSЂR»RѕRј RЅR° R±R»R°RyeRёS‚RЅRѕRјSѓ S‚R»S–, R·RiR°RgSѓS”S‚SЊSЃSЏ SЃRµSЂRµRg SѓS‡R°SЃRЅRёRyeS–RI R“SЂSЋRЅRIR°R»SЊRgSЃSЊRyeRѕS— R±RёS‚RIRё.

 RџRѕSЃRµSЂRµRgRёRЅS– R· RgRIRѕRјR° RIRµR¶R°RјRё - RiSЂRµRyeRѕ-RyeR°S‚RѕR»RёS†SЊRyeR° RyeR°S„RµRgSЂR°, R»S–RIRѕSЂSѓS‡ - RiSЂRµRyeRѕ-RyeR°S‚RѕR»RёS†SЊRyeR° RyeR°S„RµRgSЂR° RgRѕ 1946 SЂRѕRyeSѓ, RїSЂR°RIRѕSЂSѓS‡ - RyeR°S‚RѕR»RёS†SЊRyeR° RyeR°S„RµRgSЂR° S– RgR·RIS–RЅRёS†SЏ. R¤RѕS‚Rѕ: Malgorzata Bednarek

R’ 1498 RјS–SЃS‚Rѕ R±SѓR»Rѕ RїRѕRIRЅS–SЃS‚SЋ SЃRїR°R»RµRЅRµ RјRѕR»RgRѕRIR°RЅR°RјRё, Sѓ 1618 R·RЅRёS‰RµRЅRµ S‚R°S‚R°SЂR°RјRё, S‚RѕR¶ SЃRµSЂRµRgRЅSЊRѕRIS–S‡RЅRѕS— R·R°R±SѓRgRѕRIRё Sѓ S†RµRЅS‚SЂS– RјR°R№R¶Rµ RЅRµ R·R°R»RёS€RёR»R°SЃSЏ, RїRµSЂRµRIR°R¶RЅRѕ SЂR°RЅRЅSЊRѕRјRѕRgRµSЂRЅR° S– R°RISЃS‚SЂS–R№SЃSЊRyeR°.

 

R’ S†RµRЅS‚SЂS–, RЅR°Rg RїR»RѕS‰RµSЋ R RёRЅRѕRye RIRёSЃRѕS‡RёS‚SЊ RyeR°S‚RѕR»RёS†SЊRyeR° RyeR°S„RµRgSЂR°R»SЊRЅR° S†RµSЂRyeRIR°. R”Rѕ 1412 SЂRѕRyeSѓ S‚SѓS‚ R±SѓR»R° RyeR°RјSЏRЅR° RїSЂR°RIRѕSЃR»R°RIRЅR° S†RµSЂRyeRIR°, RїRѕS‚S–Rј S…SЂR°Rј RIS–RgRgR°R»Rё RyeR°S‚RѕR»RёRyeR°Rј, SЏRyeS– R· XV SЃS‚RѕSЂS–S‡S‡SЏ R±SѓRgSѓRIR°R»Rё SЃRIS–R№ R°SЂS…RёRyeR°S„RµRgSЂR°R»SЊRЅRёR№ RyeRѕSЃS‚RµR» - RЅR°R№RgR°RIRЅS–S€Sѓ S†RµSЂRyeRISѓ SЃSЊRѕRiRѕRgRЅS–S€RЅSЊRѕRiRѕ RџRµSЂRµRјRёS€R»SЏ.

 R”R·RIS–RЅRёS†SЏ R°SЂS…RёRyeR°S„RµRgSЂR°R»SЊRЅRѕRiRѕ SЃRѕR±RѕSЂSѓ R· RїR»RѕS‰S– R RёRЅRѕRye

R‘SѓRgS–RIRЅRёS†S‚RIRѕ RyeRѕSЃS‚RµR»Sѓ Sѓ 1462-RјSѓ S„SѓRЅRgSѓRIR°RI RyeRѕSЂRѕR»SЊ RЇRiR°R№R»Rѕ, RyeRѕR»Rё Sѓ RIS–S†S– 72 SЂRѕRyeRё RЅR°SЂRµS€S‚S– RgRѕS‡RµRyeR°RISЃSЏ SЃRёRЅR°. RџSЂRѕ S†Rµ RIS–RЅ RgS–R·RЅR°RISЃSЏ SЏRyeSЂR°R· RїS–Rg S‡R°SЃ RїRµSЂRµR±SѓRIR°RЅRЅSЏ RI RџRµSЂRµRјRёS€R»S–.

R’SЃRµSЂRµRgRёRЅS– S…SЂR°RјSѓ

RђR»RµR±R°SЃS‚SЂRѕRIR° S„S–RiSѓSЂRyeR° R‘RѕRiRѕSЂRѕRgRёS†S– RЅR° S‡SѓRiSѓRЅRЅRѕRјSѓ S‚SЂRѕRЅS– - RiRѕS‚RёRyeR° XIII-XIV SЃS‚RѕSЂS–S‡S‡SЏ. R—R° R»RµRiRµRЅRgRѕSЋ, Sѓ 1200-S… SЂRѕRyeR°S… RїRµSЂRµR±SѓRIR°R»R° Sѓ RљRёS”RIS–, Sѓ RgRѕRјS–RЅS–RyeR°RЅSЃSЊRyeRѕRјSѓ RјRѕRЅR°SЃS‚RёSЂS–.

R’ S‡R°SЃRё RЅR°RїR°RgSѓ R‘R°S‚RёSЏ R‘RѕRiRѕSЂRѕRgRёS†SЏ RЅS–R±RёS‚Rѕ R·RIRµSЂRЅSѓR»R°SЃSЏ RgRѕ SЋRЅR°RyeR°, SЏRyeRёR№ R·R°R±S–Ri Sѓ S†RµSЂRyeRISѓ R· RїSЂRѕS…R°RЅRЅSЏRј RIRёRЅRµSЃS‚Rё S—S—: "RЇ RЅRµ R±SѓRgSѓ RgR»SЏ S‚RµR±Rµ S‚SЏR¶RyeRѕSЋ". R† S‚R°Rye RїRѕS‚SЂR°RїRёR»R° RgRѕ RџRµSЂRµRјRёS€R»SЏ.

 

R¤S–RiSѓSЂRyeR° SЃS‚R°R»R° RyeSѓR»SЊS‚RѕRIRёRј RѕR±S”RyeS‚RѕRј Sѓ RyeR°S‚RѕR»RёRyeS–RI - S—R№ RgRѕSЃS– RїSЂRёRЅRѕSЃSЏS‚SЊ RgR°SЂRё S– RyeRIS–S‚Rё, RyeRѕR»Rё RїSЂRѕS…R°SЋS‚SЊ RїSЂRѕ RgRѕRїRѕRјRѕRiSѓ.

 RќR°RјRёSЃS‚R° S‚R° S–RЅS€S– RgR°SЂRё

RџS–RgRЅS–RјR°S”RјRѕSЃSЏ RЅR° RgR·RIS–RЅRёS†SЋ RїRѕSЂSѓS‡ S–R· S…SЂR°RјRѕRј. RљSЂS–R·SЊ S†RёS„RµSЂR±R»R°S‚ RIRµR»RёS‡RµR·RЅRѕRiRѕ RiRѕRgRёRЅRЅRёRyeR° RЅR° RIRµR¶S– RIRёRgRЅRѕ RISЃRµ RјS–SЃS‚Rѕ:

 RњS–SЃSЊRyeRёR№ RјR°RiS–SЃS‚SЂR°S‚ RЅR° RїR»RѕS‰S– R RёRЅRѕRye R· RIRµR¶S–

R’RёRiR»SЏRg RЅR° S†RµRЅS‚SЂ S– RѕSЃRїS–RIR°RЅSѓ RI RЅR°S†S–RѕRЅR°R»SЊRЅRѕRјSѓ RiS–RјRЅS– SЂS–S‡RyeSѓ RЎSЏRЅ S–R· RgRIRѕRјR° RјRѕSЃS‚R°RјRё. RЈ 1939-41 SЂRѕRyeR°S… S†RµR№ R±RµSЂRµRi SЂR°R·RѕRј S–R· S†RµRЅS‚SЂRѕRј RџRµSЂRµRјRёS€R»SЏ RЅR°R»RµR¶R°RI RЈRyeSЂR°S—RЅSЃSЊRyeS–R№ R RЎR , R° RїSЂRѕS‚RёR»RµR¶RЅRёR№ - RўSЂRµS‚SЊRѕRјSѓ SЂRµR№S…Sѓ.

 RџRµSЂRµRјRёS€R»SЊ, RџS€RµRјRёSЃR»SЊ, RџSЂSЊRѕRјR·RµR»SЊ

RњRµS…R°RЅS–R·Rј RiRѕRgRёRЅRЅRёRyeR° R· S…RёS‚SЂRѕRјSѓRgSЂRёRјRё RїRµSЂRµRgR°S‡R°RјRё RЅR°RiRѕSЂSѓ, RgRѕ S†RёS„RµSЂR±R»R°S‚Sѓ:

 

RљRѕSЂRѕR»S–RISЃSЊRyeRёR№ R·R°RјRѕRye S‡R°SЃS–RI SЃRµSЂRµRgRЅSЊRѕRIS–S‡S‡SЏ:

 R¤RѕS‚Rѕ: rydno.pttk.pl

R”R·RIS–RЅ RyeR°S‚RѕR»RёS†SЊRyeRѕS— R°SЂS…RёRyeR°S„RµRgSЂRё:

 

RЈ SЃRµSЂRµRgRЅSЊRѕRIS–S‡RЅS– S– SЂR°RЅRЅSЊRѕRјRѕRgRµSЂRЅS– S‡R°SЃRё RџRµSЂRµRјRёS€R»SЊ R±SѓRI RIRµR»RёRyeRёRј RїSЂR°RIRѕSЃR»R°RIRЅRёRј RјS–SЃS‚RѕRј - S†RµRЅS‚SЂRѕRј RџRµSЂRµRјRёS€R»SЊSЃSЊRyeRѕS— S”RїR°SЂS…S–S—. RљRѕR»Rё R±SѓR»Rѕ RїSЂRѕRiRѕR»RѕS€RµRЅRѕ R‘RµSЂRµSЃS‚RµR№SЃSЊRyeSѓ SѓRЅS–SЋ (1596), S‚S–R»SЊRyeRё RїRµSЂRµRјRёSЃSЊRyeRёR№ S– R»SЊRIS–RISЃSЊRyeRёR№ S”RїRёSЃRyeRѕRїRё R·-RїRѕRјS–R¶ S–RЅS€RёS… S–S”SЂR°SЂS…S–RI RљRёS—RISЃSЊRyeRѕS— RјRёS‚SЂRѕRїRѕR»S–S— RљRѕRЅSЃS‚R°RЅS‚RёRЅRѕRїRѕR»SЊSЃSЊRyeRѕRiRѕ RїR°S‚SЂS–R°SЂS…R°S‚Sѓ RIS–RgRјRѕRIRёR»RёSЃSЏ RїRµSЂRµR№S‚Rё Sѓ RїS–RgRїRѕSЂSЏRgRyeSѓRIR°RЅRЅSЏ RїR°RїRё.

R§RµSЂRµR· 25 SЂRѕRyeS–RI RїS–SЃR»SЏ S†SЊRѕRiRѕ RIRёS…RѕRgRµS†SЊ S–R· R“R°R»RёS‡RёRЅRё RiRµS‚SЊRјR°RЅ RЎR°RiR°R№RgR°S‡RЅRёR№ RѕSЂRiR°RЅS–R·SѓRIR°RI S‚R°S”RјRЅRµ RIRёSЃRISЏS‡RµRЅRЅSЏ RЅRѕRIRѕS— RїSЂR°RIRѕSЃR»R°RIRЅRѕS— S–S”SЂR°SЂS…S–S—. RўR°Rye RiR°R»RёS‡R°RЅRё R·R±RµSЂRµRiR»Rё RgR»SЏ RЈRyeSЂR°S—RЅRё RїSЂR°RIRѕSЃR»R°RISЏ.

R—R°SЂR°S… S…SЂRёSЃS‚RёSЏRЅSЃS‚RIRѕ SЃS…S–RgRЅRѕRiRѕ RѕR±SЂSЏRgSѓ RI RџRµSЂRµRјRёS€R»S– RїSЂRµRgSЃS‚R°RIR»SЏSЋS‚SЊ RїRµSЂRµRIR°R¶RЅRѕ RiSЂRµRyeRѕ-RyeR°S‚RѕR»RёRyeRё. R— RgR·RIS–RЅRёS†S– RgRѕR±SЂRµ RIRёRgRЅRѕ SѓRyeSЂR°S—RЅSЃSЊRyeS– S†RµSЂRyeRIRё RgRѕRIRyeRѕR»R°:

 R›S–RIRѕSЂSѓS‡ - RyeR°S„RµRgSЂR°R»SЊRЅR° S†RµSЂRyeRIR° RiSЂRµRyeRѕ-RyeR°S‚RѕR»RёRyeS–RI. RџSЂR°RIRѕSЂSѓS‡ - SЃS‚R°SЂR° RyeR°S„RµRgSЂR°R»SЊRЅR° S†RµSЂRyeRIR° RiSЂRµRyeRѕ-RyeR°S‚RѕR»RёRyeS–RI

RћSЃRyeS–R»SЊRyeRё RџRµSЂRµRјRёS€R»SЊ R±SѓRI SЂRµRiS–RѕRЅRѕRј, RgRµ RїRѕSЃS‚S–R№RЅRѕ R·RјR°RiR°R»RёSЃSЏ RџRѕR»SЊS‰R° S– R SѓSЃSЊ (RЈRyeSЂR°S—RЅR°), RyeRѕSЂRѕR»S–RISЃSЊRyeR° RIR»R°RgR° RїRѕSЃS‚S–R№RЅRѕ R±SѓRgSѓRIR°R»R° RyeRѕSЃS‚RµR»Rё, S‰RѕR± R·RIRµR»RёS‡RёS‚Rё RyeR°S‚RѕR»RёS†SЊRyeSѓ RIS–SЂSѓ. RЈ SЃSЊRѕRiRѕRgRЅS–S€RЅSЊRѕRјSѓ RјS–SЃS‚S– - 27 RyeRѕSЃS‚RµR»S–RI, 2 S…SЂR°RјRё RЈR“RљR¦ S– 2 RїSЂR°RIRѕSЃR»R°RIRЅRёS…. R¦Rµ RЅR° 70 S‚RёSЃSЏS‡ RјRµS€RyeR°RЅS†S–RI.

R’S–RgSЃRѕS‚RyeRѕRIRѕ RyeRѕSЃS‚RµR»S–RI RЅR° RgSѓS€Sѓ RЅR°SЃRµR»RµRЅRЅSЏ R±S–R»SЊS€Rµ S…S–R±R° S‰Rѕ Sѓ R’R°S‚RёRyeR°RЅS–, R·R° S‰Rѕ RџRµSЂRµRјRёS€R»SЊ S– RѕS‚SЂRёRјR°RI S‚RёS‚SѓR» "RgSЂSѓRiRѕRiRѕ R’R°S‚RёRyeR°RЅSѓ".

R’RёRiR»SЏRg S–R· RIS…RѕRgSѓ RgRѕ RiSЂRµRyeRѕ-RyeR°S‚RѕR»RёS†SЊRyeRѕS— RyeR°S„RµRgSЂRё RЅR° RyeR°S‚RѕR»RёS†SЊRyeRёR№ S…SЂR°Rј, RgRµ RјRё S‰RѕR№RЅRѕ R±SѓR»Rё. R’RёRgRЅRѕ RiRѕS‚RёS‡RЅSѓ RѕSЃRЅRѕRISѓ S†RµSЂRyeRIRё:

RЎRISЏS‚RёR№ R»S–RIRѕSЂSѓS‡ S‚SЂRёRјR°S” RyeRёSЂRёR»RёS‡RЅSѓ R°R±RµS‚RyeSѓ

RќR° RїR»RѕS‰S– R RёRЅRѕRye SЃRёRgRёS‚SЊ SЃRѕR»RgR°S‚ RђRISЃS‚SЂRѕ-SѓRiRѕSЂSЃSЊRyeRѕS— R°SЂRјS–S— R™RѕR¶RµS„ RЁRIRµR№Rye. RўR°RyeS– RїR°RјSЏS‚RЅRёRyeRё S” S‰Rµ Sѓ R›SЊRIRѕRIS–, R¤RµR»SЊS€S‚RёRЅS–, RЎRѕRyeR°R»S– S‚R° R“SѓRјRµRЅRЅRѕRјSѓ - S‚R°Rј, RgRµ RїSЂRѕR»SЏRiR°RI R±RѕR№RѕRIRёR№ S€R»SЏS… RiRµSЂRѕSЏ RЇSЂRѕSЃR»R°RIR° R“R°S€RµRyeR°:

 R RµS–RЅRyeR°SЂRЅR°S†S–SЏ RЁRIRµR№RyeR° R·R°RIR¶RgRё RiRѕS‚RѕRIR° SЂRѕR·RїRѕRIS–SЃS‚Rё RїSЂRѕ RџRµSЂS€Sѓ SЃRIS–S‚RѕRISѓ S– S„RѕSЂS‚RµS†SЋ "RџRµSЂRµRјRёS€R»SЊ"

RЈ RјR°RiS–SЃS‚SЂR°S‚S– RIRёSЃRёS‚SЊ R·R±S–R»SЊS€RµRЅR° RyeR°SЂS‚R° RјS–SЃS‚R° SЂR°RЅRЅSЊRѕRјRѕRgRµSЂRЅRёS… S‡R°SЃS–RI. R”Rѕ SЂRµS‡S–, RџRµSЂRµRјRёS€R»SЊ - RїRѕR±SЂR°S‚RёRј RљR°RјSЏRЅS†SЏ-RџRѕRgS–R»SЊSЃSЊRyeRѕRiRѕ.

 "RџRµSЂRµRјRёS€R»SЊ - RIS–R»SЊRЅRµ RyeRѕSЂRѕR»S–RISЃSЊRyeRµ RјS–SЃS‚Rѕ"

RќRµRїRѕRgR°R»S– RIS–Rg RїR»RѕS‰S– R RёRЅRѕRye Sѓ SЃS‚R°SЂRѕRјSѓ R±SѓRgRёRЅSѓ RµRЅS‚SѓR·S–R°SЃS‚Rё R·SЂRѕR±RёR»Rё RїSЂRёRIR°S‚RЅRёR№ RјSѓR·RµR№ S„RѕSЂS‚RµS†S– "RџRµSЂRµRјRёS€R»SЊ":

 R—RIRѕSЂSѓS€SѓSЋS‚SЊ RyeRѕRIRgSЂRё S– RїRѕRgSѓS€RyeRё Sѓ RIS–RyeRЅS– RIRiRѕSЂS–

RђRISЃS‚SЂS–R№SЃSЊRyeS– S‚R° SЂRѕSЃS–R№SЃSЊRyeS– S–RјRїRµSЂSЃSЊRyeS– RIS–RgR·RЅR°RyeRё:

 

RђRISЃS‚SЂS–R№SЃSЊRyeS–, SЂRѕSЃS–R№SЃSЊRyeS– S‚R° RЅS–RјRµS†SЊRyeS– RgRµS‚RѕRЅR°S‚RѕSЂRё:

 

RЇRyeR±Rё RЁRIRµR№Rye R·RЅR°RI RїRѕR»SЊSЃSЊRyeSѓ, RIS–RЅ RјS–Ri R±Rё RїSЂRѕS‡RёS‚R°S‚Rё RїSЂRѕ RїRѕRgS–S— RgRѕRIRyeRѕR»R° SЃRµR±Rµ S‚R°RyeRµ:

 R‘RѕS— R· RјRѕSЃRyeR°R»SЏRјRё. R‘RѕS— RI RљR°SЂRїR°S‚R°S… S– RЅR° R‘SѓRyeRѕRIRёRЅS–. R§RµSЂRЅS–RIS†S– R·RIS–R»SЊRЅRµRЅRѕ. R‘RѕS— RI RЎRµSЂR±S–S—. R”RѕRЅRµSЃRµRЅRЅSЏ R‘SЋSЂRѕ R RµR№S‚RµSЂ RїSЂRѕ R°RЅRiR»S–R№SЃSЊRyeS– RIS‚SЂR°S‚Rё

R”R°R»S– R№RgRµRјRѕ RЅR° R RёR±RЅSѓ RїR»RѕS‰Sѓ, S†Rµ S‚RµR¶ Sѓ S†RµRЅS‚SЂS– - RїRµSЂRµRIS–SЂRёS‚Rё RњSѓR·RµR№ RџRµSЂRµRјRёS€R»SЊSЃSЊRyeRѕRiRѕ RyeSЂR°SЋ, RїRµSЂRµRЅRµSЃRµRЅRёR№ Sѓ R·R±SѓRgRѕRIR°RЅRµ SЃRїRµS†S–R°R»SЊRЅRѕ RgR»SЏ RјSѓR·RµSЋ RїSЂRёRјS–S‰RµRЅRЅSЏ:

 

R†RЅSЃS‚R°R»SЏS†S–SЏ RЅR° S‚RµRјSѓ RџRµSЂS€RѕS— SЃRIS–S‚RѕRIRѕS— S– S„RѕSЂS‚RµS†S– "RџRµSЂRµRјRёS€R»SЊ":

 R‘R»S–RЅRgR°R¶

RџS–SЃS‚RѕR»RµS‚Rё:

 

R†RiSЂR°S€RyeRё XX SЃS‚RѕSЂS–S‡S‡SЏ. R”S–RIS‡R°S‡S–...

 

...S– S…R»RѕRїS‡R°S‡S–:

 RЎS‚R°RЅS†S–SЏ "RџRёRѕRЅRµSЂSЃRyeR°SЏ"

R¦S– RјRµR±R»S– RЅR°R»RµR¶R°R»Rё RњRёS…R°R№R»Sѓ R§R°R№RyeRѕRISЃSЊRyeRѕRјSѓ - S€R»SЏS…S‚RёS‡Sѓ S– R°RIR°RЅS‚SЋSЂRёSЃS‚Sѓ, SЏRyeRёR№ Sѓ XIX SЃS‚RѕSЂS–S‡S‡S– RјSЂS–SЏRI RIS–RgSЂRѕRgRёS‚Rё R—R°RїRѕSЂS–R·SЊRyeSѓ RЎS–S‡:

 

RЎSЂS–R±RЅRёR№ SЃRµSЂRIS–R· RgR»SЏ SЂRёR±Rё, RyeS–RЅRµS†SЊ XIX-RїRѕS‡R°S‚RѕRye XX SЃS‚.:

 

RЈ RIS–RgRgS–R»S– SЃR°RyeSЂR°R»SЊRЅRѕRiRѕ RјRёSЃS‚RµS†S‚RIR° - S†S–RyeR°RIRµ RyeRѕR»SЊRѕSЂRѕRIRµ RIRёSЂS–S€RµRЅRЅSЏ. RљR°S‚RѕR»RёS†SЊRyeS– R°SЂS‚RµS„R°RyeS‚Rё RїSЂRµRgSЃS‚R°RIR»RµRЅS– RЅR° S‡RµSЂRIRѕRЅRѕRјSѓ S‚R»S–, SЃS…S–RgRЅRёR№ RѕR±SЂSЏRg - RЅR° SЃRёRЅSЊRѕRјSѓ:

 

R”RµS‚R°R»SЊ S–RyeRѕRЅRё R· RјSѓR·RµSЋ. RќR°S€S– RїSЂR°RIRѕSЃR»R°RIRЅS– RїSЂRµRgRyeRё RIRIR°R¶R°R»Rё, S‰Rѕ RЅS–RјS†S–, RїRѕR»SЏRyeRё S– S‚R°S‚R°SЂRё RїRѕS‚SЂR°RїR»SЏSЋS‚SЊ Sѓ RїRµRyeR»Rѕ R°RIS‚RѕRјR°S‚RѕRј:

 "R›SЏS…RѕRIRё, RЅS–RјS†S–, S‚SѓSЂS†S–, S‚R°S‚R°SЂRё..." - RЅR°RјR°R»SЊRѕRIR°RЅS– RI RїRµRyeR»S–

RџRµSЂRµRyeSѓSЃRёRIS€Rё S– RIS–RgRїRѕS‡RёRIS€Rё RI RѕRgRЅRѕRјSѓ R· RgRµSЃSЏS‚RyeS–RI R·R°RyeR»R°RgS–RI Sѓ S†RµRЅS‚SЂS–, RјRѕR¶RЅR° RїS–RgRЅSЏS‚RёSЃSЏ RЅR° RїR°RiRѕSЂR± RЅR°Rg RјS–SЃS‚RѕRј. RџRѕ RgRѕSЂRѕR·S– RјRё RјRёRЅR°S”RјRѕ SЂS–R·RЅS– RЅR°S†S–RѕRЅR°R»SЊRЅS– S†RIRёRЅS‚R°SЂS– - RїRѕR»SЊSЃSЊRyeRёR№, R°RISЃS‚SЂS–R№SЃSЊRyeRёR№, RЅS–RјRµS†SЊRyeRёR№ RџRµSЂS€RѕS— SЃRIS–S‚RѕRIRѕS—, RЅS–RјRµS†SЊRyeRёR№ R”SЂSѓRiRѕS— SЃRIS–S‚RѕRIRѕS—. R„ R№ SѓRyeSЂR°S—RЅSЃSЊRyeRёR№ S†RIRёRЅS‚R°SЂ:

 RњRµRјRѕSЂS–R°R» SѓS‡R°SЃRЅRёRyeR°Rј RЈRyeSЂR°S—RЅSЃSЊRyeRѕS— R RµRIRѕR»SЋS†S–S— 1917-1921 SЂSЂ.

RџRѕSЂSѓS‡ RїRѕS…RѕRIR°RЅS– SЃRѕR»RgR°S‚Rё RЈRџRђ:

R¤RѕS‚Rѕ: eksploratorzy.com.pl

RњRѕR¶RЅR° S‚R°RyeRѕR¶ R·S—R·RgRёS‚Rё Sѓ SЃRµR»Rѕ RџRѕSЃR°RgR° R RѕR±RѕS‚RёS†SЊRyeR° RїS–Rg RџRµSЂRµRјRёS€R»RµRј - S‚SѓS‚ SЂRѕR·S‚R°S€RѕRIR°RЅR° S†RµSЂRyeRIR° SЃRISЏS‚RѕRiRѕ RћRЅSѓS„SЂS–SЏ, SЏRyeR° RIRIR°R¶R°S”S‚SЊSЃSЏ RЅR°R№SЃS‚R°SЂS–S€RёRј RїSЂR°RIRѕSЃR»R°RIRЅRёRј S…SЂR°RјRѕRј RЅR° S‚RµSЂRёS‚RѕSЂS–S— RџRѕR»SЊS‰S–

R¦RµSЂRyeRIR° SЃRISЏS‚RѕRiRѕ RћRЅSѓS„SЂS–SЏ - RјSѓSЂRѕRIR°RЅRёR№ RѕR±RѕSЂRѕRЅRЅRёR№ S…SЂR°Rј, R·R±SѓRgRѕRIR°RЅRёR№ RЅR° RјS–SЃS†S– S–SЃRЅSѓSЋS‡RѕRiRѕ R· S‡R°SЃS–RI RљRёS—RISЃSЊRyeRѕS— R SѓSЃS– RїSЂR°RIRѕSЃR»R°RIRЅRѕRiRѕ RјRѕRЅR°SЃS‚RёSЂSЏ Sѓ XV SЃS‚RѕSЂS–S‡S‡S–

R©Rµ R· RgRµSЃSЏS‚RѕRye RyeS–R»RѕRјRµS‚SЂS–RI RЅR° R—R°S…S–Rg SѓR·RgRѕRIR¶ RЎSЏRЅSѓ - S– RјRё RїRѕS‚SЂR°RїR»SЏS”RјRѕ Sѓ RјS–SЃS‚RµS‡RyeRѕ RљSЂR°SЃRёS‡RёRЅ. RўSѓS‚ S” R»RµRiRµRЅRgR°SЂRЅRёR№ RљSЂR°SЃRёS‡RёRЅSЃSЊRyeRёR№ R·R°RјRѕRye, RїRµSЂRµR±SѓRgRѕRIR°RЅRёR№ Sѓ SЃS‚RёR»S– SЂRµRЅRµSЃR°RЅSЃSѓ Sѓ R±R»R°RiRѕSЃR»RѕRIRµRЅRЅRµ XVII SЃS‚RѕSЂS–S‡S‡SЏ.

RџRѕ RyeSѓS‚R°Rј R·R°RјRyeSѓ - S‡RѕS‚RёSЂS– RIRµR¶S–, SЏRyeS– SЃRёRјRIRѕR»S–R·SѓSЋS‚SЊ R‘RѕRiR°, R¦RµSЂRyeRISѓ, RљRѕSЂRѕR»SЏ S– RЁR»SЏS…S‚Sѓ. RќR° S„RѕS‚Rѕ RЅRёR¶S‡Rµ: R»S–RIRѕSЂSѓS‡ - RџR°RїSЃSЊRyeR°, RїSЂR°RIRѕSЂSѓS‡ - R‘RѕR¶R° (RI RЅS–R№ S‚R°RyeRѕR¶ SЂRѕR·S‚R°S€RѕRIR°RЅRѕ S†RµSЂRyeRISѓ).

  R¤RѕS‚Rѕ: ostarbeiter.vn.ua

R’SЃRµSЂRµRgRёRЅS– RgRIRѕSЂSѓ:

 

"R¤S–S€RyeR°" RyeSЂR°SЃRёS‡RёRЅSЃSЊRyeRѕRiRѕ R·R°RјRyeSѓ - SЂRѕR·RїRёSЃRё SЃS‚S–RЅ Sѓ S‚SЂR°RgRёS†S–R№RЅRѕRјSѓ SЃS‚RёR»S– "SЃT‘SЂR°S„S„S–S‚Rѕ".

 R¦Rµ RЅRµ RЅR°RјR°R»SЊRѕRIR°RЅRѕ, R° RIRёRyeR»R°RgRµRЅRѕ RiSЂR°S„S–S‚RѕRј

R”RµS‚R°R»SЊ RiSЂR°S„S–S‚RѕRIRѕRiRѕ "RјR°R»SЋRЅRyeSѓ". RџSЂR°RIRѕSЂSѓS‡, R· RјR°R»RµRЅSЊRyeRёRјRё R±R°S€S‚RѕS‡RyeR°RјRё - RљRѕSЂRѕR»S–RISЃSЊRyeR° RIRµR¶R° RљSЂR°SЃRёS‡RёRЅSЃSЊRyeRѕRiRѕ R·R°RјRyeSѓ:

 

R¤RѕS‚Rѕ R·RiRѕSЂRё:

 

RЈ S‡R°SЃRё RЈRyeSЂR°S—RЅSЃSЊRyeRѕS— R RЎR  (1939-41 SЂSЂ.) RI R·R°RјRyeSѓ SЂRѕR·RјS–S‰SѓRIR°RISЃSЏ RiR°SЂRЅS–R·RѕRЅ R§RµSЂRIRѕRЅRѕS— R°SЂRјS–S—. RЎRѕR»RgR°S‚Rё R·RЅRёS‰RёR»Rё RјRµR±R»S– S– SЃRyeR»RµRї S–R· RѕSЃS‚R°RЅRyeR°RјRё RIR»R°SЃRЅRёRyeS–RI R·R°RјRyeSѓ. R’RёR·RЅR°RЅRѕ, S‰Rѕ RIS–RgRЅRѕRIR»RµRЅRЅSЋ S†Rµ RЅRµ RїS–RgR»SЏRiR°S”.

RЎRyeR»RµRїS–RЅRЅSЏ S†RµSЂRyeRIRё, RIRѕRЅR° R¶ R‘RѕR¶R° RIRµR¶R°:

 

RЇRyeS‰Rѕ RIS–SЂRёS‚Rё RµRyeSЃRyeSѓSЂSЃRѕRIRѕRgSѓ, RIS–RЅS‡R°RЅRЅSЏ RїS–Rg S†RёRј RѕR»S‚R°SЂRµRј RgR°RIR°R»Rѕ RiR°SЂR°RЅS‚S–SЋ RЅR° S€R»SЋR±. R”Rѕ RgRIRµSЂRµR№ :)

 

RћRgRЅRµ R·S– SЃT‘SЂR°S„S„S–S‚Rѕ - RiR°R»RµSЂRµSЏ RyeRѕSЂRѕR»S–RI RџRѕR»SЊS‰S–. RќRёR¶S‡Rµ - S‚SЂRё RЅR°R№RIS–RgRѕRјS–S€RёS… R· S–SЃS‚RѕSЂS–S— RЈRyeSЂR°S—RЅRё. RЎS‚RµS„R°RЅ R‘R°S‚RѕSЂS–R№, SЏRyeRёR№ R»RµRiR°R»S–R·SѓRIR°RI RyeRѕR·R°S†S‚RIRѕ; RЎRёRiRёR·RјSѓRЅRg R†R†R†, R· SЏRyeRёRј RIS–RI SЂRµR»S–RiS–R№RЅS– S–RЅS‚SЂRёRiRё RџRµS‚SЂRѕ RЎR°RiR°R№RgR°S‡RЅRёR№; R’R»R°RgRёSЃR»R°RI IV, SЏRyeRёR№ R»SЋR±RёRI RyeRѕR·R°RyeS–RI S– S…RѕRgRёRI R· RЅRёRјRё RЅR° RњRѕSЃRyeRISѓ, R° RїRѕS‚S–Rј SѓRјRµSЂ Sѓ RїRµSЂS€S– RgRЅS– RїRѕRISЃS‚R°RЅRЅSЏ RGRјRµR»SЊRЅRёS†SЊRyeRѕRiRѕ:

RЎS‚RµS„R°RЅ RI SѓRiRѕSЂSЃSЊRyeRѕRјSѓ RѕRgSЏR·S–, RЎRёRiS–R·RјSѓRЅRg - RI R»R°S‚R°S…, R’R»R°RgRёSЃR»R°RI - R·R° S„SЂR°RЅS†SѓR·SЊRyeRѕSЋ RјRѕRgRѕSЋ

R—R°RјRѕRye Sѓ RљSЂR°SЃRёS‡RёRЅS– RїSЂRµS‚RµRЅRgSѓS” RЅR° RIRЅRµSЃRµRЅRЅSЏ RgRѕ RЎRїRёSЃRyeSѓ SЃRIS–S‚RѕRIRѕS— SЃRїR°RgS‰RёRЅRё R®RќR•RЎRљRћ.

  R’RµR¶R° RљRѕSЂRѕR»S–RISЃSЊRyeR°. R¤RѕS‚Rѕ: ostarbeiter.vn.ua

RќR° S†SЊRѕRјSѓ RјRё RїSЂRѕS‰R°S”RјRѕSЃSЏ R· RљSЂR°SЃRёS‡RёRЅRѕRј S– S—RgRµRјRѕ RgR°R»S– RЅR° RїS–RIRЅS–S‡ S– R·R°S…S–Rg - Sѓ RЇSЂRѕSЃR»R°RI, RџS€RµRIRѕSЂSЃSЊRye S– R›R°RЅSЊS†SѓS‚. R”Rѕ SЃRµSЂRµRgRЅSЊRѕRIS–S‡RЅRёS… SЃS‚S–RЅ S– RїS–RgRIR°R»S–RI, RgRѕ SЂRёS†R°SЂSЃSЊRyeRёS… S…SЂR°RјS–RI S– RјRѕRgRµSЂRЅRёS… RїR°R»R°S†S–RI. RњRѕR¶RЅR° S—S…R°S‚Rё SЃS‚RѕRїRѕRј, RјRѕR¶RЅR° - RїRѕS—R·RgRѕRј.

 RљR°SЂS‚R° S€R»SЏS…Sѓ

RђR»Rµ RїSЂRѕ S†Rµ - Sѓ RgSЂSѓRiS–R№ S‡R°SЃS‚RёRЅS– RјR°S‚RµSЂS–R°R»Sѓ.

RџRѕS—R·RgRyeR° R·RgS–R№SЃRЅRµRЅR° R·R° SЃRїSЂRёSЏRЅRЅSЏ RїSЂRµRgSЃS‚R°RIRЅRёS†S‚RIR° RџRѕR»SЊSЃSЊRyeRѕS— S‚SѓSЂRёSЃS‚RёS‡RЅRѕS— RѕSЂRiR°RЅS–R·R°S†S–S— RI RЈRyeSЂR°S—RЅS–

R”RёRIS–S‚SЊSЃSЏ S‚R°RyeRѕR¶ S–RЅS€S– RјR°S‚RµSЂS–R°R»Rё R·R° S‚RµRјRѕSЋ "RўSѓSЂRёR·Rј"

100 RyeRЅRёRi RќRµR·R°R»RµR¶RЅRѕSЃS‚S–. "R†SЃS‚RѕSЂRёS‡RЅR° RїSЂR°RIRgR°" SЂRµRyeRѕRјRµRЅRgSѓS”

RџRµSЂRµR»S–Rye RIRёRgR°RЅSЊ, SЏRyeS– RIRёR№S€R»Rё R·R° S‡R°SЃS–RI RЅRµR·R°R»RµR¶RЅRѕSЃS‚S– S– SЏRyeS– RgR°SЋS‚SЊ RјRѕR¶R»RёRIS–SЃS‚SЊ RїS–R·RЅR°S‚Rё S–SЃS‚RѕSЂS–SЋ RЈRyeSЂR°S—RЅRё, R„RISЂRѕRїRё, RЅR°S€RёS… SЃSѓSЃS–RgS–RI, RѕRyeSЂRµRјRёS… R»SЋRgRµR№ S– SЏRIRёS‰. R† SЏRyeS– SЂRѕR±R»SЏS‚SЊ S†Rµ R· SЂS–R·RЅRёS… RїRµSЂSЃRїRµRyeS‚RёRI. RџRµRIRЅS–, S‰Rѕ S‡R°SЃ, RIRёS‚SЂR°S‡RµRЅRёR№ RЅR° S‡RёS‚R°RЅRЅSЏ RЅRµ R±SѓRgRµ RIS‚SЂR°S‡RµRЅRёRј.

RЈRyeSЂR°S—RЅS†S–. RќR°R№RЅRµS‰R°SЃR»RёRIS–S€R° RЅR°S†S–SЏ S‡RѕS‚RёSЂSЊRѕS… RyeRѕRЅS‚RёRЅRµRЅS‚S–RI

RЈRyeSЂR°S—RЅS†S– vЂ” RЅR°R№RЅRµS‰R°SЃR»RёRIS–S€R° RЅR°S†S–SЏ R„RISЂRѕRїRё, RѕR±RѕS… RђRјRµSЂRёRye S‚R° RђRISЃS‚SЂR°R»S–S—. RўR°RyeRёRј S” RїS–RgSЃSѓRјRѕRye RЅR°S€RѕRiRѕ SЂRѕR·RIRёS‚RyeSѓ RЅR°RїRµSЂRµRgRѕRgRЅS– 28-S— SЂS–S‡RЅRёS†S– RќRµR·R°R»RµR¶RЅRѕSЃS‚Rё. RЇRye SѓRyeSЂR°S—RЅS†S– R·RјS–RЅSЋRIR°R»RёSЃSЏ RїSЂRѕS‚SЏRiRѕRј SЂRѕRyeS–RI RќRµR·R°R»RµR¶RЅRѕSЃS‚S–? R§RѕRјSѓ RјRё RIRїSЂRёS‚SѓR» RЅRµ RїRѕRјS–S‡R°S”RјRѕ, S‰Rѕ RЅR°SЃRїSЂR°RIRgS– RЈRyeSЂR°S—RЅR° vЂ” RЅRµ RЈRiR°RЅRgR°!?

RЈRyeSЂR°S—RЅSЃSЊRyeRёR№ RїR°SЂR°Rg Sѓ SЃS‚RѕR»RёS†S– R RѕSЃS–S—

RњSЂS–SЏ? RќS– vЂ“ S†Rµ RIR¶Rµ R±SѓR»Rѕ. R† RЅRµ RѕRgRёRЅ SЂR°R·. RџRѕR±SѓS‚SѓS” RgSѓRјRyeR°, S‰Rѕ RI RЅR°S€S–R№ S–SЃS‚RѕSЂS–S— RјR°R»Rѕ SЃRIS–S‚R»RёS… SЃS‚RѕSЂS–RЅRѕRye S– RїRµSЂRµRјRѕRi. R“SЂR°RЅRgS–RѕR·RЅRёR№ SѓRyeSЂR°S—RЅSЃSЊRyeRёR№ RIS–R№SЃSЊRyeRѕRIRёR№ RїR°SЂR°Rg RI SЃS‚RѕR»RёS†S– R RѕSЃS–S—: SЏRye S†Rµ R±SѓR»Rѕ?

RћRјRµR»SЏRЅ RљRѕRIS‡ vЂ” SЃRISЏS‰RµRЅRёRye, RїR°S‚SЂS–RѕS‚ S‚R° RїSЂR°RIRµRgRЅRёRye

"RљRѕRIS‡, SЏRyeRёR№ RgRѕSЃRyeRѕRЅR°R»Rѕ R·RЅR°RI RЅS–RјRµS†SЊRyeSѓ RјRѕRISѓ, RyeSЂRёRyeRЅSѓRI RgRѕ RЅS–RјRµS†SЊRyeRёS… SЃRѕR»RgR°S‚S–RI, S‰RѕR± RgRѕRїSѓSЃS‚RёR»Rё R№RѕRiRѕ RgRѕ SЃRёRЅR°RiRѕRiRё. RћSЃS‚R°RЅRЅS– RѕRЅS–RјS–R»Rё RIS–Rg R·RgRёRISѓRIR°RЅRЅSЏ S– RїSѓSЃS‚RёR»Rё R№RѕRiRѕ, R° RѕS‚RµS†SЊ RyeRёRЅSѓRISЃSЏ RIRёRЅRѕSЃRёS‚Rё R»SЋRgRµR№ S–R· RїR°R»R°SЋS‡RѕS— SЃRёRЅR°RiRѕRiRё. RЎRµSЂRµRg S–RЅS€RёS…, SЏRyeRёS… RISЂSЏS‚SѓRIR°RI Rѕ. RљRѕRIS‡, R±SѓRI SЂR°R±RёRЅ Rј. R‘RµR»R· RђR°SЂRѕRЅ R RѕRyeRµR°S…".